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THIS Volume was designed by the late Mr. George Smith, the 
proprietor and publisher of the 'Dictionary of National Biography,' 
in consultation with the present Editor, when the great work was 
near ing completion. It is intended to form a summary guide to the 
vast and varied contents of the Dictionary and its Supplement. Every 
name, about which substantive biographic information is given in 
the sixty-three volumes of the Dictionary or in the three Supple- 
mentary Volumes, finds mention here in due alphabetical order. 
An Epitome is given of the leading facts and dates that have been 
already recorded at length in the pages of the original work, and there 
is added a precise reference to the volume and page where the full 
article appears. 

Generally speaking, each entry in the Index and Epitome consists 
of one-fourteenth of the number of words that appear in the text 
of the original memoir. At times this proportion varies to a small 
extent. Condensation of a very brief article on the estimated 
scale became hardly possible if any intelligible fragment of it were 
to be preserved. In such instances the Epitome bears to the original 
article a higher proportion than one-fourteenth. On the other 
hand, in the case of the longer articles, it has often been found 
possible to reduce them to a smaller space than the stipulated 
proportion required. But the aggregate divergence from the projected 
ratio of one-fourteenth proves to be very slight. 

The exclusive aim of the Index and Epitome is to make bare 
facts and dates as ready of rapid reference as possible. The condensa- 
tion has been attempted with the sole object of serving the practical 



purposes of utility. No endeavour has been made to satisfy the 
requirements of literary form. With a view to economising space, 
and in harmony with the simple objects of the Index, the lists of 
authorities which are appended to each article of the Dictionary, and 
form one of its most distinctive features, have been ignored. The 
plan of the Epitome has compelled, too, the systematic suppression 
of other particulars which are invariably accorded a place in the 
articles of the Dictionary. Years of birth and death are alone 
admitted to the Index; the day of the month is suffered to pass 
unnoticed. Precise details of parentage are only introduced in cases 
where the parents form the subjects of separate entries and it has 
been found desirable to define the relationship subsisting between one 
entry and another. Places of birth or death are omitted unless they 
belong to a foreign country ; in such instances it is usually essential 
to the intelligibility of the memoir to state where the career described 
in it began or ended. On the other hand, room has been found 
for all memorable achievements with the dates of their accomplishment, 
for titles of an author's chief books with dates of publication, for 
notices of scientific inventions, for dates of institution to offices, and 
for detailed particulars of education. 

A few errors of fact and date which figure in the original work 
have been corrected in the Index. But, with that reservation, the 
Index literally reflects in brief and bald outline the results embodied 
in the Dictionary and Supplement. 

The labour involved in condensing so massive a work as the 
' Dictionary of National Biography ' and Supplement has been great. 
No one without practical experience of similar undertakings is likely to 
realise the vast amount of time and trouble which the preparation 
of this Volume has entailed on all engaged in its production. The 
separate articles which it supplies amount to 30,378 ; the cross- 
references number 3,474. The risks of error in handling the million 
facts and dates which are embodied in the* book are obvious, but 
the Editor feels justified in assuring those into whose hands this 
Volume comes that his assistants and himself have done all in 


their power to reduce the chances of error to the lowest possible 

The Editor tenders his best thanks to those who have co-operated 
with him in the laborious undertaking. The work of epitomising 
the Dictionary and Supplement has been distributed thus: 


Volumes I. VI Mr. C. E. HUGHES. 





XXXVI . Mr. P. C. YOBKE, M.A. 

XXXVII. XLI. , . .-. . Mr. A. R POLLABD, M.A. 

XLII. . . . ,, . . . . Mr. G. LE GBYS NORGATE, BA. 


XLIX.-LI. ...... Mr. C. E. HUGHES. 




LV. LVII. . ... Mr. P. C. YOBKE, M.A. 



Volumes I. III. .*..... Mr. C. E. HUGHES. 

In revising both the manuscripts and the proofs of the Index 
and Epitome, which have been very voluminous, the Editor has had 
the advantage of the assistance of Mr. RICHARD GREENTREE, B.A., 
formerly scholar of Balliol College, Oxford, and Craven Scholar 
of the University. 

January '21, 1903. 





ABBADIE, JACQUES (or JAMES) (1654 ?-1727), 
dean of Killaloc ; educated at Puylaurens, Saumur, and 
Sedan, where he graduated D.D. ; appointed minister of 
the French church at Berlin by Frederick William, 
elector of Brandenburg, e. 1680 : accompanied Marshal 
Schomberg to Holland, England, and Ireland, 1688-9 ; 
after battle of the Boyne proceeded to London, and 
became minister of the French church in the Savoy ; 
appointed dean of Killaloe, 1699; finally retired to 
Marylebone, London, where he died. He published 
several religious and political works, of which the most 
important are ' Trait6 de la Verit6 de la Religion chr6- 
tienne,' 1684 ; Traite de la Divinite de Notre Seigneur 
Jesus-Christ,' 1689 ; and 'L'Artdese connoltre soi-m&me,' 
1692, translated into English in 1694, 1719, and 1694 
respectively. [LI] 

ABBOT, CHARLES (A 1817), botanist; D.D., New 
College, Oxford, 1802 ; chaplain to Marquis of Tweeddale ; 
published Flora Bedfordiensis,' 1798. [L 3] 

1829), speaker of House of Commons ; educated at West- 
minster and Christ Church, Oxford, where he distin- 
guished himself in classics; studied at the Middle 
Temple, 1779 ; clerk of the rules in court of king's 
bench, 1794 ; M.P. for Helston, Cornwall, 1795 ; intro- 
duced first Census Act, 1800 ; chief secretary for Ireland, 
1801 ; speaker of House of Commons, 1802 ; retired as 
Lord Colchester, 1816 ; travelled in France and Italy, 
1819-22, and on his return again took an active part in 
politics. [i. 3] 

ABBOT, GEORGE (1562-1633), archbishop of Can- 
terbury ; born at Guildford, and educated at the free 
grammar school ; B. A., Balliol College, Oxford, 1582 ; pro- 
bationer-fellow, 1583 ; M.A., and took holy orders, 1585 ; 
during the eight succeeding years studied theology, did 
tutorial work, and as a vehement supporter of the 
puritans won great academical fame for his preaching ; 
appointed private chaplain to Thomas Sackville, lord 
Buckhurst, chancellor of the university, 1592 ; B.D., 
1593 ; D.D. and master of University College, 1597 ; dean 
of Winchester, 1600; vice-chancellor of the univer- 
sity, 1600, 1603, and 1605; came into conflict, in 1603, 
with Laud, then proctor of the university, who asserted 
the perpetual visibility of the church of Christ in the 
papacy before the Reformation ; began, 1604, with seven 
other Oxford graduates, revision of the four gospels, 
Acts, and Apocalypse, for Authorised Version ; became 
chaplain to the Earl of Dunbar and visited Scotland to 
aid in re-establishing episcopacy there, 1608; bishop 
of Coventry and Lichfield, 1609 ; translated to bishopric 
of London, 1610 ; archbishop of Canterbury, 1611 ; largely 
responsible for marriage of Princess Elizabeth with 
Elector Palatine of Germany, 1613 ; opposed the divorce 
of the Countess of Essex, 1613; introduced at court 
George Villiers, 1615 ; attacked the scheme for marriage 
between Prince Charles and the Infanta of Spain, 1617- 
1622; opposed the king's 'declaration of sports' per- 
mitting Sunday amusements, 1618 ; endowed a hospital 

erected at his expense at Guildford, 1619 ; accidentally 
shot a keeper while hunting in Bramsliill Park, Hamp- 
shire, and was formally pardoned by the king, 1621 ; 
reluctantly consented to the Spanish marriage, 1623 ; 
opposed Charles I's arbitrary government and was or- 
dered to withdraw to Canterbury, his archiepiscopal 
authority being given to a commission of five bishops, 
1627 ; restored to favour, 1628, but thenceforth lived 
chiefly in retirement ; died at Croydon. Wrote religious 
works, principally controversial. [i. 6] 

ABBOT, GEORGE (1603-1648), religious writer; 
fought on parliamentary side in civil war. Published 
religious works, including ' Book of Job Paraphrased ' 
1640. ' 

ABBOT, JOHN (/. 1623), poet ; educated at Sidney- 
Sussex College, Cambridge ; B.D. 1617; wrote poem en- 
titled Jesus Prefigured,' 1623. [i. 21 ] 

merchant ; brother of George Abbot, archbishop of Can- 
terbury [q. v.] ; educated at Guildford Grammar School ; 
one of the original directors of the East India Company, 
1600 ; governor, 1624 ; member of Levant Company be- 
fore 1607 ; on commissions for settlement of trade dis- 
putes with Holland, 1616, 1619, and 1620 ; M.P. for King- 
ston-upon-Hull, 1621 and 1624 ; member of council for 
establishing Virginia, 1624 ; knighted and returned M.P. 
for London, 1625 ; lord mayor" of London 1638, when 
Thomas Heywood wrote the description of the pageant. 

ABBOT, ROBERT (1560-1617), bishop of Salisbury, 
elder brother of George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury 
[q. v.] ; educated at Guildford free school ; fellow of Bal- 
liol College, Oxford, 1581 ; M.A., 1582 ; D.D., 1597 ; gained 
a reputation for preaching which was increased by the 
publication of several religious works ; presented to the 
living of Bingham, Nottinghamshire ; one of chaplains 
in ordinary to James 1, 1603 ; master of Balliol, 1609-15 ; 
fellow of Chelsea College, founded by King James, 1610 ; 
regius professor of divinity at Oxford, 1612; bishop of 
Salisbury, 1615. [i. 24] 

ABBOT, ROBERT (1588 ?-1662 ?), divine; M.A., 
Cambridge ; presented to living of Cranbrook by Arch- 
bishop Abbot, of whom he was no relation, 1616 ; vicar 
of Southwick, Hampshire, 1643, and, later, of St. Austin's, 
London. Published religious works. [i. 25] 

ABBOT, WILLIAM (1789-1843), actor and drama- - 
tist; first appeared at Bath, 1806; engaged at Covtn'-<, 
Garden, 1812 ; stage-manager to a company visiting Par&ch 
1827 ; unsuccessful in subsequent tour in the Fre^liet, 
provinces ; played Romeo to Miss Fanny Kemble's J'- 
1830 ; died in America in distressed circumstance* i. 26] 


ABBOTSHALL, LORD (16207-1688). [See/' 
SIR ANDREW.] ynajor-general 

ABBOTT, AUGUSTUS (1804-1867), Wbbot [q. v.] ; 
royal artillery, brother of Sir James / j| 



educated at Winchester College : second lieutenant Bengal 
artillery, 1819 ; captain, 1836 ; major, 1845 ; colonel, 1868 ; 
colonel commandant Bengal artillery, 1858 ; major-gene- 
ral, 1859 ; served in march to Kandahar 1839, at Jala- 
labad 1842, at Tutamdara, Jalgah and Parwaudara 1840, 
and in march to and occupation of Jalalabad 1841-2; 
O.B., 1842 ; inspector-general of ordnance, 1865. 

1832), lord chief justice ; educated at Canterbury Gram- 
mar School and Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1781 ; 
chancellor's medallist for Latin composition, 1784, and 
for English composition, 1786 ; B.A., and fellow, 1785 ; 
student at Middle Temple, 1787 ; practised several years 
as a special pleader under the bar ; called to bar and 
joined Oxford circuit, 1796 ; junior counsel to the trea- 
sury ; recorder of Oxford, 1801 ; published successful 
work on mercantile law, 1802 ; puisne judge in court 
of common pleas, 1816; moved to kings bench, 1816; 
chief justice, 1818 ; raised to peerage, 1827. [i. 26] 

BARON TENTERDKN (1834-1882), under-secretary .for 
foreign affairs; educated at Eton; entered Foreign 
Office, 1854 ; permanent uuder-secretary for foreign 
affairs, 1873 ; K.O.B., 1878. [L 30] 

ABBOTT, EDWIN (1808-1882), educational writer; 
head master of Philological SohooL Marylebone ; compiled 
Concordance to Pope's works, 1876. [i. 30] 

ABBOTT, SIR FREDERICK (1805-1892), major-gene- 
ral royal engineers ; brother of Sir James Abbott [q. v.] ; 
received commission in Bengal engineers, 1823 ; major, 
1843 ; colonel, 1854 ; major-generaL 1868 ; served in Bur- 
mese war, 1824-6 ; garrison-engineer at Calcutta, 1841 ; 
chief engineer at relief of Jalalabad, 1842 ; C.B., 1846 ; 
lieutenant-governor of Addiscombe College, 1851-61 ; 
knighted, 1854. [SuppL L 3] 

ABBOTT, SIR JAMES (1807-1896), general : brother of 
Sir Frederick Abbott [q. v.] ; educated at East India 
Company's College, Addiscombe ; second lieutenant Bengal 
artillery, 1823; first lieutenant, 1827; captain, 1841; 
colonel, 1861 ; major-general, 1866 ; lieutenant-general and 
colonel-commandant royal artillery, 1877 ; general, 1877 ; 
served in march to Kandahar, 1838-9 ; assistant to Major 
Elliott D'Arcy Todd [q. v.] in mission to Herat, 1839, and 
carried to Russian court Hazrat's offer to liberate Russian 
captives, 1839-40; commissioner of Hazara, 1845-53; 
served in second Sikh war, 1848 ; K.O.B., 1894 ; published 
poetical and other writings. [SuppL L 4] 

1893), premier of Canada ; son of Joseph Abbott [q. v.] ; 
educated at McGill University, Montreal ; B.O.L., 1847 ; 
dean in faculty of law ; hon. D.O.L. ; Q.C., 1862 ; solicitor 
for Canadian Pacific Railway Company, 1880, and director, 
1887 ; signed Annexation Manifesto, 1849 ; raised ' Ar- 
genteuil Rangers ' for government, 1861 ; M.P. for Argen- 
teuil, 1859-74 and 1881-7 ; solicitor-general east in (Sand- 
field) Maodonald-Sicotte government, 1862-3; joined 
conservatives, 1866; confidential adviser to Sir Hugh 
Allen at time of ' Pacific Scandal ' ; delegate to England 
in connection with dismissal of Letellier de St-Just ; 
Canadian privy councillor, 1887 ; premier of Canada, 
1891-2 ; K.C.M.G., 1892. [SuppL i. 6] 

ABBOTT, JOSEPH (1789-1863), missionary in Canada, 
1818; first Anglican incumbent of St. Andrew's. Pub- 
lished Philip Musgrave,' 1846. [SuppL i. 5] 

ABBOTT, KEITH EDWARD (d. 1873), consul-general 
successively at Tabriz and Odessa ; brother of Sir James 
c , Abbott (1807-1896) [q. v.] ; died at Odessa. [SuppL i. 1] 

ABBOTT, LEMUEL (d. 1776), poetical writer ; vicar 
pupLf Thornton, Leicestershire. 1773. [i. 80] 

^JSi ABBOTT, LEMUEL (1760-1803), portrait-painter; 
'of Frank Hayman; exhibited at Boyal Academy 
ABBO.ii 1788 and 1800; painted celebrated portraits of 
general ; btuid Cowper. [i. 30] 

11 l^A \T, 8AUNDERS ALEXIUS (<f. 1894), maior- 
of Sir James Abbott [q. v.] ; major- 
army; agent at Lahore for Bind, 
railway, 18S; subsequently home 
[SuppL L 1] 

ABBOTT, THOMAS EASTOE (1779-1854), poetical 
writer ; published poetical works, 1814-39. [i. 30] 

ABDY, EDWARD STRUTT (1791-1846), writer on 
America: fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge ; B. A., 1813; 
M A 1817 ; published work on United States of America, 
1835? [i. 30] 

ABDY, MARIA (d. 1867), poetess, niece of James and 
Horace Smith [q. v.] ; published poems, 1830-62. [i. 31] 

A BECKETT, GILBERT ABBOTT (1811-1856), comic 
writer ; educated at Westminster School ; called to bar 
at Gray's Inn ; first editor of Figaro in London ' ; on 
original staff of ' Punch ' ; for many years leader-writer 
for 'Times' and 'Morning Herald,' and contributor to 
4 Illustrated London News ' ; metropolitan police magis- 
trate, 1849; died at Boulogne-sur-Mer. He wrote over 
fifty plays and several humorous works. [i. 31] 

A BECKETT, GILBERT ARTHUR (1837-1891), comic 
writer ; son of Gilbert Abbott a Beckett [q. v.] ; entered 
Westminster School, 1849 : B.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 
1860 ; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1857 ; clerk in office of 
examiners of criminal law accounts, 1862 ; journalist aud 
author of plays and libretti ; regular member of staff of 
' Punch,' 1879. His dramatic work, includes, in collabora- 
tion with Mr. W. S. Gilbert, ' The Happy Land ' (1873). 

[Suppl. i. 7] 

A BECKETT, SIR WILLIAM (1806-1869), chief justice 
of Victoria ; brother of Gilbert Abbott a Beckett [q. v.] ; 
educated at Westminster School ; called to bar, 1829 r 
solicitor-general of New South Wales, 1841, and sub- 
sequently attorney-general ; judge, 1846 ; chief justice of 
Victoria and knighted, 1851 ; retired to England, 1863 ; 
wrote several biographical, poetical, and legal works. 

[i. 32] 

ABEL (d. 764), archbishop of Rheims ; aided Boniface 
in missionary work in Germany ; held office in abbey of 
Lobbes ; elected archbishop of Rheims, 744, but Pope 
Zacharias refused to confirm election, and he retired to 
Lobbes ; became abbot of the monastery, and died there ; 
left several works in manuscript. [i. 22] 

ABEL, CLARKE (1780-1826), botanist ; educated for 
medical profession ; naturalist to Lord Maaartney on his 
mission to China; published description of journey, 1818 ; 
afterwards physician to Lord Amheret, governor-general 
of India. [i. 32] 

ABEL, JOHN (1577-1674), architect of timber houses ; 
built old town-halls of Hereford and Leominster ; at the 
siege of Hereford, 1645, he constructed corn-mills for the 
use of the besieged. [i. 33] 

ABEL, KARL FRIEDRIOH (1725-1787), player on 
the viol-di-gamba ; member of Dresden court band, 1748- 
1758 ; journeyed to England and became one of queen's 
chamber musicians, 1759 ; joined John Christian Bach in 
giving concerts in England, 1765; toured on continent; 
died in London. His portrait was twice painted by Gains- 
borough, [i. 33] 

ABELL, JOHN (1660 ?-l 718 ?), lutenist and singer; 
' gentleman of his majesty's chapel,' 1679 : sent by 
Charles II to cultivate his voice in Italy, 1681-82 ; at the 
Revolution went to continent and performed before king 
of Poland ; intendant at Cassel r performed in England, 
1700; published two collections of songs, 1701. [i. 34] 

ABELL, THOMAS (a. 1540), Roman catholic martyr ; 
M.A. Oxford, 1516 ; chaplain, c. 1528, to Catherine of Arra- 
gon, who entrusted him with secret commission to Em- 
peror Charles V respecting divorce from Henry VIII ; rec- 
tor of Bradwell-by-the-Sea, Essex, 1530 ; imprisoned in the 
Tower for opposition to the divorce, 1532 ; included in 
act of attainder against Catherine's accomplices, 1534; 
beheaded, 1640. [i. 34] 

ABELL, WILLIAM (fl. 1640), alderman of London, 
1636; sheriff of London and master of the Vintners' 
Company, 1637 ; licenser of tavern-keepers, 1639 ; gained 
great unpopularity by his efforts to induce vintners to 
agree to Charles I's demand of tax on wine, and was 
imprisoned by order of Commons, 1640-2 ; under super- 
veillance at Hatfield for debt and treasonable utterances, 
1662 ; given a passport to Holland, 1656. His actions were 
severely condemned in many broadsides and pamphlets. 

ABERCORy, first DUKE OF (1811-1885). [See UAMU<- 


EARL, d. 1617 ; HAMILTON, JAMKS, sixth EARL, 1656- 
1734; HAMILTON, JAMES, seventh EARL, d. 1744 ; HAMIL- 
TON JAMKS, eiphth EARL, 1712-1789.] 

ABERCROMBIE, JOHN (1726-1806), writer on 
horticulture : employed in Kew Gardens ; market gar- 
dener at Hackney, and later at Tottenham; published 
'Every Man his own Gardener,' 1767 (said to have been 
submitted to Goldsmith for revision and returned without 
alteration), and other works on gardening. [i. 36] 

ABEROROMBEE, JOHN (1780-1844), physician; 
educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen ; M.D. Edin- 
burgh, 1803; studied at St. George's Hospital, London; 
practised in Edinburgh, where he did much for the poor ; 
LR C.P., 1823, P.R.C.P., and physician in ordinary to the 
king in Scotland, 1824; M.D. Oxford, 1835; lord- 
rector of Marischal College, 1836 ; published pathological 
works. [i. 37] 

(1745-1795), judge and essayist; studied at Edinburgh; 
sheriff-depute of Clackmannanshire, 4 766-80 ; sat on court 
sion bench as Lord Abercromby, 1792 ; one of the 
lords-commissioners of justiciary ; contributed to the 
Mirror ' (1779) and % Lounger ' (1785-6). [i. 38] 

ABERCROMBY, ALEXANDER (1784-1853), colonel, 
son of Sir Ralph Abercromby [q. v.] ; entered the army 
as volunteer, 1799 ; aide-de-camp to Sir John Moore in 
Sicily, 1806 ; lieu tenant-colonel 28th regiment, 1808 ; after 
1809 served in Peninsular and Waterloo campaigns ; M.P. 
for Clackmannanshire, 1817. [i. 39] 

ABERCROMBY, DAVID (d. 1701-2?), Scottish 
physician : educated as a Roman catholic ; lived for 
eighteen years with Jesuit order in France, and gained re- 
putation as scholar; returned to Scotland, aud wrote 
against M. Menzies, a protestaut divine of Aberdeen ; 
after two years, renounced Romanism and went to Lou- 
don, whence he retired to Amsterdam, and practised as 
physician ; published medical and metaphysical works. 


LIXK. (1776-1858), son of Sir Ralph Abercromby [q.v.] ; 
called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1801 ; M.P. for Midhurst, 
Ihur, Calue, 1812-30, and Edinburgh, 1832; judge-advo- 
cate-general, 1827 ; master of the mint, 1834 ; speaker of 
House of Commons, 1835-9 ; raised to the peerage on re- 
tirement, 1839. [i. 40] 

ABERCROMBY, JOHN (d. 1561?), Scottish Bene- 
dictine ; executed for opposing the Reformation, [i. 41] 

ABERCROMBY, SIR JOHN (1772-1817), general; 
on of Sir Ralph Abercromby [q. v.] ; ensign, 75th regi- 
ment, 1786 ; captain, 1792 ; aide-de-camp to his father in 
Flanders, 1793 and 1794 ; major, 94th regiment, 1794 ; 
lieutenant-colonel, 112th regiment, 1794 ; military secre- 
tary to his father, 1796-9 ; colonel, 1800 ; distinguished 
himself under General Hutchlnson in Egypt ; major-gene- 
ral, 1805 ; colonel, 53rd regiment, 1807 ; captured Mauri- 
tius, 1809 ; lieutenant-general, and temporary governor of 
Madras, 1812 ; G.C.B., 1816 ; died at Marseilles, [i. 41] 

ABERCROMBY, PATRICK (1656-1716?), antiquary 
and historian ; graduated at St. A ndrews University, 
1685 ; practised as physician in Edinburgh ; physician 
to James II, 1685. Published pamphlets opposing the 
Scottish union, 1707, * Martial Achievements of the Scots 
Nation ' (1711-16), and other writings. [i. 42] 

ABERCROMBY, SIR RALPH (1734-1801), general ; 
educated at Rugby ; studied law; at Edinburgh and Leip- 
zig ; cornet, 3rd dragoon guards, 1756 ; aide-de-camp to 
General Sir William Pitt in Germany, 1758 ; captain, 
1762 ; major, 1770 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1773 ; for a short 
time M.P. for Clackmannanshire ; returned to the army 
and distinguished himself as major-general in Flanders ; 
K.B., 1795 ; commanded expedition against the French in 
West Indies, 1795-6, and reduced St. Lucia and Trinidad ; 
took command of troops successively in Ireland and 
Scotland, 1797-9 ; co-operated with the British fleet in 
capturing the Dutch fleet, and assisting the Archduke 
Charles against France, 1799 ; commanded troops in 
Mediterranean, 1800 ; proceeded to Egypt and defeated 
French at Alexandria, where he died of wounds, [i. 43] 

ABERCROMBY, ROBERT (1534-1613), Scottish 
Jesuit, said, on insufficient evidence, to have converted 
Anne of Denmark to the Roman catholic faith, [i. 48] 


ABERCROMBY, SIR ROBERT (1740-1827), military 
commander ; brother of Sir Ralph Abercromby [q. v.] ; 
ensign, 1768, and lieutenant, 1759, 44th regiment ; captain, 
1761 ; major 62nd regiment, 1772 ; lieutenant-colonel 37th 
regiment, 1773 ; served throughout American war ; colonel 
and aide-de-camp to the king, 1781 ; colonel 75th regi- 
ment, 1787 ; in India, 1788 ; governor and commander-iu- 
chief at Bombay, 1790 ; reduced Tippoo Sultan, 1792 ; 
knighted and commander of the Indian forces; con- 
ducted the second Rohilla war; returned to England, 
1797 ; M.P. for Clackmannanshire, 1798 ; governor of 
Edinburgh Castle, 1801 ; general, 1802. [i. 47] 



EARL, 1637-1720 ; GORDON, GEORGB HAMILTON, fourth 
EARL, 1784-1860.] 

first BARON, d. 1476 ; NKVILLE, GBORGK, third BARON, 
1471 ?-1535.] 

ABERNETHY, JOHN (1680-1740), Irish dissenter ; 
M.A. Glasgow ; studied divinity at Edinburgh and 
Dublin, where his preaching was soon in great demand ; 
ordained, as presbyterian, at Antrim, 1703, where he re- 
mained for over nine years ; removed by synod to Dub- 
lin, 1717, but after three months returned to Antrim ; 
gave rise, by his opposition to the synod, to a division 
(ultimately permanent) of the presbyterians into two 
parties (subscribers and non-subscribers); accepted a 
' call ' to Dublin, 1730 ; strongly opposed the Test Act, 
1731 ; wrote several religious works. [i. 48] 

ABERNETHY, JOHN (1764-1831), surgeon ; studied 
at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, where he was assistant- 
surgeon 1787, and surgeon 1815-27 ; F.R.S. 1796 ; lecturer 
on anatomy and physiology at College of Surgeons, 1814 ; 
attracted a large class by his lectures on anatomy at hia 
house in Bartholomew Close ; gained distinction by ex- 
tending John Hunter's operation for the cure of aneurism, 
1797. Published medical works, but his reputation rests 
rather on his power of exposition than on his learning. 

MIAH or JERRY (1773?-! 796), highwayman ; for some 
years the terror of the roads between London, Kingston, 
and Wimbledon ; hanged on Keunington Common, [i.52] 

ABDfGDON, fourth EARL OF (1740-1799). [See 



ABINGTON, FRANCES (1737-1815), actress; in 
girlhood successively a flower-seller, street-singer, do- 
mestic servant, and cook-maid (under Robert Baddeley 
[q. v.]) ; appeared first at the Haymarket as Miranda in 
'The Busybody,' 1755; acted at Bath, Richmond, and 
Drury Lane with small success ; went to Dublin and drew 
crowded houses as Lady Townley; returned to Drury 
Lane on Garrick's invitation, 1764 ; transferred her ser- 
vices to Covent Garden, 1782 ; absent from the stage, 
1790-7 ; last appeared, 1799 ; her Shakespearean roles in- 
clude Portia, Beatrice, Desdemona, Olivia, and Ophelia ; 
original representative of Lady Teazle, 1777. [i. 52] 

ABNEY, SIR THOMAS (1640-1722), lord mayor of 
London ; alderman of Vintry ward 1692, and of Bridge 
Without, 1716 ; sheriff of London and Middlesex, 1693- 
1694, when he was one of the original promoters and 
directors of the bank of England ; knighted by William 
III ; president and benefactor of St. Thomas's Hospital ; 
lord mayor, 1700-1 ; M.P. for the city of London, 1702. 

p. 54] 

ABNEY, SIR THOMAS (d. 1750), justice of the com- 
mon pleas, 1743 ; died of gaol distemper at the 4 Black 

[i. 65] 


EARL, d. 1681 ; GORDON, CHARLES, second EARL, d. 1702.] 

ABOYHE, second VISCOUNT (rf. 1649). [See GORDON, 


V T J . T7 A T T A V 


*!*. ROBERT (im-lMO), architect; exe- 
M vorfa at A nuxM OMU* UM nrMfogut near the 
Ba/^art*. ! U WidaliHg BrtdtwJL [L M] 

* Surrey Institute, 1803 ; 
of p for UftaUnc; engineer to 
r.lSlO; librarian of UM RM| 

I I,-.:-. :..>. 
[i. 57] 

ACLAHD, JOHN (/. 1753-1796), poor law reformer ; 
rector of Broad Olyst, 1763 ; published a pamphlet, 'A 
Plan for rendering the Poor independent of Public Con- 
tributions,' 1V86. [i. 60] 

ACLAND, JOHN DYKE (<f. 1778), soldier and politi- 
cian : M.P. for Callington, Cornwall, 1774 ; opposed go- 
vernment's measures for peace ; served, as major, on 
General Burgoyne's expedition to America, 1776, accom- 
panied by wife. Lady Christian Henrietta Acland [q. v.] ; 
died from effects of exposure in a duel. [i. 61] \ 

ACLAND, SIR THOMAS DYKE (1787-1871), noli" 
tician and philanthropist ; educated at Harrow ; B A 
ChrUt Church, Oxford, 1808 ; M.A., 1814 ; hon. D.C.L*' 
1881 ; M.P. for county of Devon, 1812-18, 1820-30 and 
North Devon, 1837-57; much interested in religious 

[i. 62] 


? ri|oai ("-"), gomnor-in- 
; booormry MJU Ohrtat Oburch. Oxfonl 


- 1802 and 1806 
: icpmenUUve peer for Ire- 
and auto ntulorum of Ar- 
and captain of 
- Bri- 

, , 1836-8 ; 

adopted policy of con- 
Look Joaeph Papinenu 
by the leirixia 

ACLAND, SIR THOMAS DYKE (1809-1898) poli- 
tician ; son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland(1787-1871) [q.v 1 
M.A., Christ Church, Oxford, 1835 ; fellow of All Souls'* 
1831-9; M.P. for West Somerset, 1837-41; took leading 
part in establishing Oxford local examinations, 1857-8 
D.O.I*, Oxford, 1858 ; M.P. for North Devonshire, 1865-85* 
and for West Somerset, 1885-6 ; eleventh baronet. 1871 : 
privy councillor, 1883 ; published speeches and pamphlets' 
mainly on agriculture and education. [SnppL i. 12] ' 
soldier ; ensign 17th regiment, 1787 ; after successive pro- 
motions was colonel 1803, and brigadier-general under 
Sir Arthur Wellesley, afterwards Duke of Wellington 
MM; lieutenant-general and K.C.B., 1814; died of 
fcver - 

art pub 
aneeoer(r, and 
in London as 

ACONTniS, JACOBUS (1500P-1566?), philosopher 
i J u JjJJ 81 JJ55^ k * n the T y rol ; cam e to England 

De Methodo,' at Bale ; discovered many new mechanical 
contrivances and received a pension of 601. from Eliza- 
Jeth , attached himself to nonconformist Dutch church 
in Austin Friars, and took active part in controversies 
with conformists; undertook with some success to re- 
claim land inundated by the Thames, 1562-66 enjoyed 
patronage of the Earl of Leicester ; published' 'Strata 
Satanie ' (1565), and other works, principally theo- 

[i. 63] 

went i """"* (1797-1843), Unitarian divine* 


B.^S'o'rat'ynf? 1 ^ FBA ?? IS "DWARFS, 

PeMlnan" IvlSi'i,^; 0,'"'^ ' Na P les u "* r 

luring * ]Z v i forces . and minister of 
the French wars was alternatively in 



; took refuge in 
Sicily'on entry of French into Naples, 1806; died at 
Palermo. [i. 67] 

ACTON, RALPH (14th cent.), theologian ; probably 
graduated in philosophy and theology at Oxford ; wrote 
several scripture commentaries. [i. 68] 

ACWORTH, GEOKGE (d. 1578?), divine; M.A., 
Cambridge, 1555 ; public orator of Cambridge University, 
1559 ; advocate, 1562 ; LL.D., 1503 ; chancellor and vicar- 
general to bishop of Winchester; judge of prerogative 
court, Ireland, 1577 ; received patent to exercise ecclesias- 
tical jurisdiction in Ireland, 1578. [i. 69] 

ADAIR, JAMES (ft. 1775), historian of the American 
Indians ; traded among Indians of Georgia and the Caro- 
lina*, 1735-75; published 1775, 'History of American 
Indians, 1 arguing that the Indians are descended from the 
lost ten tribes. [Suppl. i. 13] 

AD AIR, JAMES (d. 1798), serjeant-at-law; M.A., 
Peter house, Cambridge, 1767 ; assisted Wilkes in liis 
quarrel with Home Tooke, 1770; counsel in trial of 
printers of ' Junius's Letters,' 1771 ; recorder of London, 
1779-89 ; whig M.P. for Cockermouth and, subsequently, 
Higham Ferrars, 1780 till death ; reputed author of some 
constitutional works. [i. 69] 

ADAIR, JAMES MAKTTTRICK (1728-1802), origi- 
nally JAMKS MAKITTRICK ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1766 ; prac- 
tised as physician in Antigua, and afterwards in Andover, 
Guildford, and Bath ; published medical writings. 

[i. 70] 

ADAIR, JOHN (d. 1722), surveyor and map-maker ; 
F.R.S., 1688 ; commissioned by the privy council to sur- 
vey the Scottish shires, 1683, and acts of tonnage to raise 
the funds for his work were passed 1686, 1695, and 1705 ; 
published charts of the Scottish coasts, 1703, but the 
work was not completed ; left, in print or manuscript, 
many maps and charts of Scotland. [i. 70] 

ADAIR PATRICK ( 1625 ?-1694), presbyteriau mini- 
ster ; studied divinity at Glasgow, 1644 ; ordained at 
Cairucastle, co. Antrim, 1B46 ; protested with ministers of 
Antrim and Down against execution of Charles I, 1649 ; 
forced to hide from parliamentary generals, but subse- 
quently took an active part in presbyterian church 
matters in Ireland ; headed a deputation to congratulate 
William III, 1689, and was appointed a trustee for dis- 
tributing the regium donum ; published work on history 
of presbyterianism in Ireland. [i. 72] 

ADAIR, SIR ROBERT (1763-1855), diplomatist; 
close friend of Charles James Fox ; after 1788, travelled 
to study effects of French Revolution ; M.P. for Appleby 
and Cainelford ; employed by Fox on diplomatic business 
in Vienna, 1806, and subsequently iu Constantinople and 
the Low Countries ; K.O.B., 1809. [i. 73] 

ADALBERT LEVITA or DIACONUS (/. 700), English 
saint ; said to have been the first archdeacon of Utrecht, 
and to have preached the gospel in Western Germany 
and in Kennemaria, 702, where he built a church at 
Egrnont, in North Holland. [i. 73] 

ADALBERT OF SPALDING (ft. 1160?), said to have 
been a Cluniac monk of the abbey of Spalding, Lincoln- 
shire, [i. 74] 

ADAM ANOLICUS, possibly identical with Adam 
Angligeua [q. v.], or with Adam Goddam [q. v.] ; 
wrote a commentary on the sentences of Peter Lom- 
bard, [i. 75] 

ADAM ANGLIGENA (d. 1181 ?), theologian ; possibly 
identical with Adam, bishop of St, Asaph, 1175, or with 
Adam de Parvo-Poute, canon of Paris, 1147 ; distin- 
guished teacher in Paris, c. 1150. [i. 75] 

ADAM OF BARKIXO (ft. 1217?), Benedictine monk 
of Sherborue Abbey, Dorset; wrote scriptural trea- 
tises, [i. 76] 

ADAM OF BUCKFIELD (ft. 1300?), commentator on 
Aristotle ; possibly a Franciscan. [i. 77] 

ADAM OF CAITHXKSS (d. 1222), Scottish bishop; 
prior and, 1207, abbot of the Cistercians at Melrose ; 
bishop of Caithness, 1213 ; murdered, 1222. [i. 77] 

ADAM TUK CARTHUSIAN {ft. 1340), doctor of theo- 
logy, [i. 77] 

ADAM OF DOMERHAM (d. after 1291), monk of Glas- 
tonbury ; cellarer and afterwards sacristan to the abbey 
i wrote a history of the abbey. [i. 77] 

ADAM OF EVESHAM (</. 1191), prior of Bermondsey. 
1157; abbot of Evesham, 1 16 1. [i. 78] 

ADAM GODDAMDS (d. 1358). [See GODDAM.] 

ADAM DB MARISCO (d. 1257?), Franciscan of Worces- 
ter ; educated at Oxford ; adviser and friend of Robert 
Grosseteste and Simon de Montfort. [i. 79] 

ADAM MURIMUTHENSIS (1275 ?-1347). [See Muui- 


ADAM OF ORLTON (d. 1345), bishop of Hereford 1317 
of Worcester 1327, and of Winchester 1333 ; employed on 
several embassies by Edward II ; took active part in the 
various risings against the king, 1321-2 ; charged before 
parliament with treason and deprived of lands and 
revenues, 1322 ; joined Queen Isabella's party on her 
landing, 1326 ; largely responsible for the king's resigna- 
tion, 1327 ; made treasurer and restored to possessions 
under Edward III ; entrusted frequently with diplomatic 
commissions. [i. 79] 

ADAM SCOTUS or ANGLICUS (/. 1180), theological 
writer ; Pnemonstratensian canon ; perhaps abbot and 
bishop of Casa Candida (Whithorn), Galloway ; renowned 
throughout Europe for his sermons and treatises, which 
were first published at Paris, 1518. [L 81] 

ADAMDE STRATTOX (ft. 1265-1290). [See STRATTOX.] 

ADAM OF USK (/. 1400), lawyer, and writer of a 
Latin chronicle of English history, 1377-1404 ; educated 
at Oxford and entered the church ; pleaded in the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury's court, 1390-7; joined Henry IV's 
party in the revolution, 1399; banished to Rome for 
criticism of Henry IV's government, 1402. [i. 83] 

ADAM, ALEXANDER (1741-1809), writer on Roman 
antiquities; educated at Edinburgh ; LL.D.,1780; head- 
master of Watson's Hospital, 1759; rector of Edinburgh 
High School, 1768 ; published educational works, [i. 84] 

ADAM, Sin CHARLES (1780-1853), admiral ; brother 
of Sir Frederick Adam [q. v.]; captain, 1799; served in 
French and Spanish wars, 1801-13; captain of the royal 
yacht ; K.C.B. 1835 ; M.P. for Clackmannan and Kin- 
ross, 1833-41 ; governor of Greenwich Hospital, 1847 ; 
admiral, 1848. [i. 85] 

ADAM, SIR FREDERICK(1781-1853),soldier,brother 
of Sir Charles Adam [q. v.] ; ensign 1795, and after 
rapid promotion purchased command of 21st regiment, 
1805 ; served in Sicily till 1813, when he went as colonel to 
r Spain ; distinguished himself in the Castalla campaign ; 
major-general, 1814 ; at Waterloo ; K.C.B., 1815 ; G.C.B., 
1840 ; general, 1846. [i. 85] 

ADAM, JAMES (d. 1794), for some years architect to 
George III ; associated with his brother Robert Adam 
[q.v.] [i.86] 

ADAM, JEAN (1710-1765), Scottish poetess ; published 
poems by subscription, 1734, and soon afterwards opened 
girls' school at Crawford Bridge ; met with pecuniary 
troubles and died in Glasgow poorhouse ; said, with small 
foundation, to have written the song 'There's nae luck 
aboot the house.' [L 86] 

ADAM, JOHN (1779-1825), Anglo-Indian statesman ; 
son of William Adam (1751-1839) [q. v.] ; educated at 
Charterhouse and Edinburgh University ; private and 
political secretary to Marquis of Hastings in India ; 
acting governor-general of India for seven months, 
1823. [i. 87] 

ADAM, ROBERT (1728-1792), architect; brother of 
John, James, and William Adam ; educated at Edinburgh 
University ; visited Italy and studied architecture, 1754 ; 
F.R.S. and F.S.A. ; architect to King George III, 1762-8 ; 
M.P. for Kinross-shire ; with his brothers built the Adelphi, 
London, 1769-71 ; with his brother James designed a 
number of important mansions in various parts of the 
country and much improved street architecture of 
London ; published works on architecture ; buried in 
Westminster Abbey. [i. 88] 

ADAM, THOMAS (1701-1784), divine; BJL, Hart 
Hall, Oxford ; held living of Wintringham, Lincolnshire, 



1724 till death ; wrote several religious works, including 
' Private Thoughts on Religion,' published posthumously. 

[i. 89] 

ADAM, WILLIAM (d. 1748), architect ; assisted his 
brother Robert Adam [q. v.] in building the Adelphi, 
London, 1769-1771. [i. 89] 

ADAM, WILLIAM (1751-1839), politician ; called to 
Scottish bar, 1773 ; M.P. for GatU.ii, Surrey ; supporter 
of Lord North, 1774, and successively M.P. for five Scottish 
constituencies; wounded Fox in a duel, after quarrel 
over a speech by Fox in the house, but later became his 
firm ally ; treasurer of ordnance, 1780; called to English 
bar, 1782 ; took a leading part in impeachment of Warren 
Hastings, 1788 ; K.O., 1796 ; attorney-general to Prince of 
Wales ; privy councillor, 1815 ; lord chief commissioner 
of Scottish jury court, 1816 ; intimate friend of Sir 
Walter Scott. [i. 90] 

ADAM, WILLIAM PATRICK (1823-1881), liberal 
whip, 1874-80 ; educated at Rugby and Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; called to bar, 1849 ; secretary to Lord Elphin- 
stone in India, 1853-8 ; M.P. for Clackmannan and Kin- 
ross, 1859-80 ; during different periods lord of the treasury 
and commissioner of public works; privy councillor, 
1873 ; governor of Madras, 1880. [i. 91] 

ADAMNAN or ADOMNAN (6257-704), abbot of 
lona, 679 ; advocated adoption of regulations of Romish 
church ; stated to have taken part in synods and conven- 
tions in Ireland. The biography of Columba is generally 
ascribed to him. [i. 92] 

ADAMS, ANDREW LEITH (d. 1882), zoologist, son 
of Francis Adams [q. v.] ; army surgeon, 1848-73 ; pro- 
fessor of zoology at Dublin, 1873-8, and of natural history 
at Cork, 1878-82. Published zoological writings and 
accounts of travels in India. [i. 94] 

ADAMS, CLEMENT (1519 7-1587), schoolmaster and 
author ; M.A., King's College, Cambridge, 1544 ; school- 
master to the royal henchmen at Greenwich from 1552 ; 
wrote in Latin an account of Hugh Willonghby and 
Richard Chancellor's voyage to Russia of 1553 (printed 
with an English translation in Hakluyt's Collections,' 
1589); engraved before 1584 the ' mappe-monde ' by 
Sebastian Cabot, but no copy of Adams's engraving is 
now known. [i. 94] 

ADAMS, FRANCIS (1796-1861), physician and classi- 
cal scholar ; M.A., Aberdeen ; M.C.S., London, 1815 ; 
practised medicine at Banchory Ternan ; expert in Greek 
philology ; hon. M.D., Aberdeen, 1856 ; translated and i 
edited the Greek medical writers Paulus ^Egiueta, 
1844-7. Hippocrates, 1849, and Aretams, 1856. [i. 95] 

1893), author ; son of Andrew Leith Adams [q.v.] ; went I 
to Australia and worked on staff of ' Sydney Bulletin ' ; 
died by his own hand at Alexandria ; chief works Lei- 
cester,' an autobiographical novel, 1884, and ' Tiberius,' a i 
powerful drama, 1894. [Suppl. i. 14] 

ADAMS, GEORGE (16987-17687), poet and trans- I 
lator ; fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge ; took holy I 
orders ; translated into English prose the tragedies of 
Sophocles, 1729; wrote 'Life of Socrates,' 1746, and 
theological works. [i. 96] 

ADAMS, GEORGE, the elder (d. 1773), mathematical 
instrument maker to George III ; obtained wide reputa- 
tion as maker of celestial and terrestrial globes, [i. 97] 

ADAMS, GEORGE, the younger (1750-1795), mathe- 
matical instrument maker to George III, son of George 
Adams the elder [q. v.] ; published scientific essays. 

[i. 97] 

ADAMS, JAMES (1737-1802), philologist ; professor 
of languages at Jesuit College of St. Omer ; settled after 
French revolution in Edinburgh ; published * Pronuncia- 
tion of the English Language,' 1799. [L 97] 

ADAMS, JOHN (fl. 1680), topographer ; barrister of 
Inner Temple ; published a map of England, 1677 (revised ! 
1693), and an index to English towns. [i. 97] 

ADAMS, JOHN (1662-1720), provost of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, 1712 ; graduated M.A. 1686 ; chaplain to 
William III and Anne. [i. 98] 

ADAMS, JOHN (17507-1814), compiler of books for 
young readers ; graduated at Aberdeen, and subsequently 
opened a school at Putney. [i. 98] 

1829), seaman ; took part in mutiny and, 1789, seizure 
of H.M.S. Bounty, in which he subsequently sailed to 
Pitcairn's Island, where he founded and successfully 
governed an Buglish-speaking settlement [i. 98] 

ADAMS, JOHN COUCH (1819-1892), discoverer of 
planet ' Neptune ' ; sizar, St. John's College, Cambridge, 
1839 ; senior wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, 1843 ; 
fellow (till 1852) and tutor ; fellow of Pembroke College, 
1853 till death ; made observations determining particulars 
of 'Neptune,' 1841-5, and deposited results at Royal 
Observatory, Greenwich, 1845, but the publication of his 
discovery was anticipated by Leverrier, July, 1846 ; re- 
fused knighthood 1847, and Adams prize was founded at 
Cambridge ; F.R.S., 1849 ; Copley medallist, 1848 ; professor 
of mathematics, St. Andrews, 1858-9 : Lowndean professor 
of astronomy and geometry, Cambridge, 1858 ; director of 
Cambridge observatory, 1861 ; president of Royal Astrono- 
mical Society, 1861-3, and 1874-6, and received gold medal, 
1866, for researches in connection with theory of secu- 
iar acceleration of the moon's mean motion. His ' Scien- 
{.ific Papers ' were published 1896-1901. [Suppl. i. 15] 

ADAMS, JOSEPH (1756-1818), originally an apothe- 
cary ; M.D. Aberdeen, 1796 ; practised in Madeira ; phy- 
sician to Small-pox Hospital, 1805; published medical 
treatises. [i. 99] 

ADAMS, RICHARD (1619-1661), collector of verse ; 
fellow-commoner of Catharine Hall, Cambridge, 1635 ; 
left a small manuscript volume of poems, of some of 
which he was probably author. [i. 100] 

ADAMS, RICHARD (1626 7-1698), ejected minister ; 
graduated at Cambridge and Oxford ; rector of St. Mil- 
dred's, Bread Street, 1655 ; retired as nonconformist, 
1662. [i. 100] 

ADAMS, ROBERT (d. 1595), architect ; author of a 
plan of Middleburgh, 1588, and other drawings, [i.100] 

ADAMS, ROBERT (1791-1875), surgeon ; M.D. Dub- 
lin, 1842 ; F.R.C.S., Ireland, 1818, and was three times 
president ; practised in Dublin and lectured on surgery 
at the hospitals ; surgeon to the queen in Ireland, 1861. 


ADAMS, SARAH FLOWER (1805-1848), poetess; 
wife of William Bridges Adams [q. v.] ; contributed to 
'Monthly Repository'; her principal work, 'Yivia 
Perpetua,' a dramatic poem, 1841 ; wrote several hymns, 
including ' Nearer to Thee.' [i. 101] 

ADAMS, THOMAS (d. 1620?), printer; freeman of 
Stationers' Company, 1590 ; liveryman, 1598 ; warden, 
1614. His books were of all classes, including music. 

ADAMS, THOMAS (/. 1612-1653), divine; 'the 
prose Shakespeare of puritan theologians ' ; preacher at 
Wellington, Bedfordshire, 1612 ; vicar of Wingrave, Bucks, 
1614-36 ; held preachership of St. Gregory's under St. 
Paul's Cathedral, 1618-23 ; chaplain to Sir Henry Mon- 
tague, lord chief justice ; published sermons and theo- 
logical treatises. [i. 102] 

ADAMS, SIR THOMAS (1586-1668), lord mayor of 
London, 1645 ; educated at Cambridge ; draper ; alderman, 
sheriff, and master of Drapers' Company, 1639 ; im- 
prisoned in Tower for loyalty; created baronet after 
Restoration ; founded Arabic lecture at Cambridge. 

[i. 102] 

ADAMS, THOMAS (1633 7-1670), divine ; B.A. and 
fellow, Brasenose College, Oxford, 1652 ; M.A. and lec- 
turer-dean, 1655 ; ejected from fellowship for noncon- 
formity, 1662 ; wrote religious works. [i. 103] 

ADAMS, THOMAS (1730 7-1764), soldier ; volunteered 
for service in Netherlands under Duke of Cumberland, 
1747; ensign, 37th foot, 1747; captain, 1756; major, 
84th foot ; as commander of crown and E.I.C. forces in 
Bengal conducted glorious campaign, including battles 
of Gheriah and Audwanala, 1762-3 ; brigadier-general, 
1764. [i. 103] 

ADAMS, WILLIAM (d. 1620), navigator; appren- 
ticed as sailor at age of twelve ; served Company of 
Barbary Merchants ; joined as pilot-major fleet of five 
ships from Rotterdam bound for India ; in spite of the 
ships being carried through the straits of Magellan and 
scattered, ultimately reached Japan, where, after some 
weeks' imprisonment, having found favour with lyeyasu, 


the ruler, he settled; obtained trading privileges for 
Dutch merchants, 1611. Later three English ships came 
to open trade with Japan ; a settlement was founded, of 
which Adams was second in command, 1613. He subse- 
quently engaged in trading voyages to Loochoo Islands, 
Siam, and Cochin China, 1613-18. lyeyasu died in 1616. 
and English and Dutch privileges being curtailed, the 
English venture failed, and war broke out between 
English and Dutch. Adams was buried on the hill over- 
looking harbour of Yokosuka, 1620. [i. 104] 

ADAMS, \VILLIAM (1706-1789), divine; master of 
Pembroke College, Oxford, from 1775 ; lifelong friend of 
Dr. Johnson, whose acquaintance he made when both 
were undergraduates ; D.D. Oxford, 1756. [i. 106] 

ADAMS, WILLIAM (/. 1790), potter ; pupil of Josiah 
Wedgwood, and subsequently in business at Tunstall as 
Adams <fc Co. [i. 107] 

ADAMS, SIR WILLIAM (1783-1827). [See RAWSOX.] 

ADAMS, WILLIAM (1814-1848), author of ' Sacred 
Allegories'; educated at Eton; postmaster at Merton 
College, Oxford; fellow and tutor, 1837; vicar of St. 
Peter's-iu-the-East, 1840 ; published ethical work?. 

[i. 107] 

ADAMS, WILLIAM (1772-1851), lawyer; fellow of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge ; LL.D. and member of College 
of Advocates, 1799 ; prepared, 1814, as one of three com- 
missioners, despatches relating to maritime law in negotia- 
tions for treaty with U.S.A. after capture of Washington ; 
one of three plenipotentiaries sent to conclude convention 
of commerce with U.S.A., 1815. [i. 108] 

ADAMS, WILLIAM BRIDGES (1797-1872), inven- 
tor of 'fish- joint' for uniting ends of rails, 1847 ; made 
numerous improvements in machinery; wrote scientific 
and technical works. [i. 108] 

1891), miscellaneous writer ; edited provincial newspaper 
in Isle of Wight ; founded ' Scottish Guardian,' 1870, and 
was editor, 1870-8; projected and edited 'Whitehall 
Library of Wit and Humour.' His works include 
4 Memorable Battles in English History,' 1862, and a Con- 
cordance to Shakespeare's plays, 1886. [Suppl. i. 17] 

ADAMSON, HENRY (d. 1639), poetical writer ; pub- 
lished 'The Muses Threnodie,' 1638. [i. 109] 

ADAMSON, JOHN (d. 1653), principal of Edinburgh 
University, 1625 till death ; professor of philosophy at St. 
Andrews; professor at Edinburgh, 1589-1604; vicar of 
North Berwick, and, later, of Libbertou ; published several 
theses and poems, and edited ' Muses Welcome ' and pro- 
bably the poems of Andrew Melville, his friend, [i. 109] 

ADAMSON, JOHN (1787-1855), antiquary and Portu- 
guese scholar ; in counting-house of his brother, a Lisbon 
merchant, 1803 ; left England and studied Portuguese at 
Lisbon, 1807 ; articled as solicitor in Newcastle ; uuder- 
cberiff of Newcastle, 1811 ; a founder of the Antiquarian 
Society of Newcastle, 1813; P.S.A.; published translations 
from Portuguese and original works in verse and prose, 
including ' Memoirs of Camoens,' 1820, and edited several 
books for the Typographical Society of Newcastle. 

[i. 110] 

ADAMSON, PATRICK (1537-1592), Scottish prelate; 
MA. St. Andrews, 1558 ; minister of Ceres in Fife, 1563 ; 
travelled in France, 1566 ; presented to living at Paisley, 
c. 1572 ; one of deputies chosen by general assembly to 
discuss jurisdiction of kirk, 1575 ; chaplain to regent ; 
archbishop of St. Andrews, 1576 ; repeatedly charged 
with offences against the church, 1577-9; escaped to 
St. Andrews Castle, where he fell dangerously ill ; cured 
by a ' wise woman,' who was ultimately burned for witch- 
craft ; James VI's ambassador to Elizabeth, 1583 ; earned 
unpopularity by his strong parliamentary measures 
against presbyterians ; charged with heresy and other 
offences and excommunicated by synod, 1686 ; his sen- 
tence remitted as illegal ; again assailed by the assembly 
and excommunicated, 1688 : said to have signed a ' Re- 
cantation' of the episcopal system which is probably 
spurious, 1590 ; wrote religious works in verse and 

ADAMSON, THOMAS (fl. 1680), master-gunner; 
published England's Defence, a Treatise concerning In- 
vasion,' 1680. [i. 116] 


ADDA (d. 565), king of Bernicia ; succeeded his 
father Ida, 559 ; reigned about eight years. [i. 115] 

ADDENBROOKE, JOHN (1680-1719), founder of 
hospital at Cambridge ; educated at Catharine Hall, Cam- 
bridge ; M.D., 1712; published an 'Essay on Freethink- 
ing,' 1714. [i. 115] 

ADDINGTON, first BARON (1806-1889). [See HUB- 

ADDINGTON, ANTHONY (1713-1790), physician; 
educated at Winchester and Trinity College, Oxford ; 
B.A., 1739 ; M.A., 1740 ; M.B., 1741 ; M.D., 1744 ; practised 
at Reading; F.O.P., 1756; censor, 1757; practised in 
London ; attended Lord Chatham in his severe illness, 
1767, and Prince of Wales, 1788. [i. 116] 

(1757-1844), son of Anthony Addington [q. v.] ; educated 
at Winchester ; admitted to Lincoln's Inn, 1771 ; com- 
moner of Brasenose College, Oxford, 1774 ; B.A., 1778 ; 
won chancellor's gold medal for English essay, 1779 ; in- 
timate with William Pitt from childhood; M.P. for 
Devizes, 1783 ; speaker of the House of Commons, 1789- 
1801 ; much occupied with the proceedings against Warren 
Hastings, 1795 ; first lord of the treasury and chancellor 
of exchequer, 1801 ; quarrelled with Pitt, 1803 ; his actions 
severely satirised by Canning; resigned, 1804; created 
Viscount Sidmouth and entered cabinet as president of 
council, 1805, but left it after a few months ; president of 
council in Perceval's ministry, and later home secretary, 
1812 ; dealt severely with the Luddites in the north ; 
sought to check liberty of press in hope of quieting dis- 
orders among labouring classes, 1817 ; Manchester mas- 
sacre, 1819, partly due to his coercive measures ; retired 
from office, 1821, and from cabinet, 1824 ; voted against 
the Reform Bill, 1832. [i. 117] 

ADDINGTON, HENRY UN WIN (1790-1870), permr 
neiit under-secretary for foreign affairs, 1842-54. [i. 121] * 

ADDINGTON, STEPHEN (1729-1796), independent 
minister at Spaldwick, Huntingdonshire; published 
educational works ; D.D. [i. 121] 

legal writer ; barrister, 1842 ; published legal and historical 
works. [i. 121] 

ADDISON, JOHN (/. 1538), divine: D.D. Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge, 1623 ; deprived of his spiritual 
promotions for concealment of revelations of Elizabeth 
Barton [q. v.] [i. 121] 

ADDISON, JOHN (1766 ?-1844), composer and per- 
former on double- bass ; composed and performed in 
operas given at Covent Garden and Lyceum. [i. 122] 

ADDISON, JOSEPH (1672-1719), essayist, poet, and 
statesman, sou of Lancelot Addisou [q. v.] ; educated 
at Charterhouse with Steele, and at Queen's College, 
Oxford ; obtained demyship at Magdalen, 1689 ; MA., 
1693 ; probationer-fellow, 1697 ; fellow, 1698-1711 ; dis- 
tinguished as a classical scholar ; his Latin poems 
favourably noticed by Dryden, 1693 ; granted pension 
300J. a year to qualify him for diplomatic service by 
foreign travel, 1697; travelled on the continent, 1699- 
1703 ; member of Kitcat Club : wrote on commission ' The 
Campaign,' a poem in honour of Blenheim, 1704 ; under- 
secretary of state, 1706 ; secretary to Wharton, when lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, 1709 ; formed close friendship with 
Swift, Steele, and other well-known writers ; M.P. for Lost- 
withiel, 1708, and for Malmesbury, 1709 till death ; de- 
fended whigs in the 'Whig Examiner' periodical, 1710; 
lost office on fall of whigs, 1711 ; contributed to Steele's 
'Tatler,' 1709-11, and produced with Steele 'Spectator,' 
1711-12; his 'Cato' acted with great success at Drury 
Lane, 1713; contributed to 'Guardian,' edited by Steele, 
1713, and to a revived ' Spectator,' 1714 ; produced un- 
successfully 'The Drummer,' a prose comedy, 1716; 
regained his old secretaryship and produced the 'Free- 
holder,' 1715-16; one of lords commissioners of trade; 
married Countess of Warwick, 1716 ; retired from office 
with pension of 1,5UO/. a year, 1718 ; several papers in the 
' Old Whig ' by Addison, and in ' The Plebeian ' by Steele, 
1719, deal with a quarrel between the two. [i. 122] 

ADDISON, LANCELOT (1632-1703), divine; B.A. 
Queen's College, Oxford, 1656 ; M.A., 1667 ; in capacity of 
Terra: films delivered an attack on puritanism, and, being 


compelled to retract, left Oxford, 1657 ; chaplain of Dun- 
Bton, 1660, and of Tangier, 1662 ; received the living of Mil- 
kirk, Wiltshire, 1671 ; B.D. and D.D., Oxford, 1675 ; dean 
of Lichfield, 1683 ; wrote theological and devotioiml works, 

[i. 131] 

ADDISON, LAURA (d. 1852), actress ; first appeared 
1843, at Worcester ; played Desdcmona to Macready's 
Othello c. 1843, and Juliet, Portia, Isabella, Imogen, 
Miranda, and Lady Macbeth under Phelps at Sadler's 
Wells, 1846 seq. ; with Kean at Haymarket, 1849. 

[i. 133] 

ADDISON. THOMAS (1793-1860), physician; M.D. 
Edinburgh, 1815; surgeon at Lock Hospital; assistant 
physician at Guy's Hospital, 1824 ; physician, 1837 ; dis- 
covered 'Addison's disease'; wrote medical works of 
some importance, [i. 133] 

ADDY, WILLIAM (/. 1685), author of a system of 
shorthand, in which the bible was printed, 1687. [i. 134] 


ADELA (1062?-! 137), mother of Stephen, king of 
England ; daughter of William the Conqueror and Matilda 
of Flanders ; married, 1080, Stephen, earl of Meaux and 
Brie, who succeeded to Blois and Chartres, 1090 ; ruled 
with great thoroughness during her husband's absence on 
the first crusade, 1095-9 ; regent on her husband's death, 
1101, till majority of her eldest son Theobald, 1109 ; took 
the veil; effected an alliance between Theobald and 
Henry I of England, 1118. [i. 134] 

ADELAIDE, QUEEN OF WILLIAM IV (1792-1849), eldest 
daughter of George, duke of Saxe-Coburg Meiningen ; 
married William, duke of Clarence, 1818 ; resided princi- 
pally at Bushey Park until accession of William, 1830 ; 
unpopular owing to her supposed interference with 
politics during the reform agitation. [i. 136] 

ADELARD OP BATH, or ^ETHELHARD (12th cent.), 
philosophical writer ; seems to have travelled largely in 
Europe, Asia, and Africa ; wrote a work on Arabic 
science, which was published after 1472, and one on 
Identity and Difference.' [L 137] 

ADELIZA (d. 1066 ?), daughter of William I ; possibly 
betrothed to Harold, 1062. [L 137] 

ADELIZA OP LOUVAIN (d. 1151), second queen of 
Henry I, daughter of Godfrey of Louvain, descendant of 
Charles the Great ; married Henry I, 1121 ; patronised 
literature ; on Henry's death retired probably to Arundel 
Castle ; afterwards married William de Albini. [i. 137] 

ADKINS, ROBERT (1626-1685), ejected minister; 
fellow of Wadham College, Oxford, where his preaching 
attracted much attention ; chaplain to Cromwell ; minister 
of Theydon (1653-7); removed successively to two 
churches at Exeter, whence he was ejected, 1660, 1662. 

ADLER, NATHAN MARCOS (1803-1890), chief rabbi ; 
educated in Germany ; ordained, 1828 ; Ph.D., Erlangen, 
1828 ; chief rabbi of Oldenburg, 1829, of Hanover, 1830, 
of London, 1844 ; took chief part in founding Jews' Col- 
lege, London, 1855 ; made proposal which resulted in 
United Synagogues bill, 1870 ; annotated Onkelos' para- 
phrase of the Pentateuch. [Suppl. i. 18] 

ADOLPH, JOSEPH ANTONY (1729-1762), painter ; 
in England, 1745-55 ; painted portrait of George III when 
Prince of Wales. [i. 139] 

(1774-1850), seventh son of George III; K.G., 1786; 
colonel in Hanoverian army, 1793 ; served as colonel and 
major-general in campaign of 1794-5 ; lieutenant-general 
in Hanoverian service, 1 798, and in British army, 1803 ; 
created Duke of Cambridge, 1801 : privy councillor, 1802 ; 
field marshal, 1813 ; viceroy of Hanover, 1816-37 ; clian- 
cellor of St. Andrews University, 1811-14 ; married Prin- 
cess Augusta, third daughter of Frederick of Hesse-Cassel, 
1818. [i. 139] 

ADOLPHTTS, JOHN (1768-1845), barrister and his- 
torical writer; admitted attorney 1790; published 
4 Biographical Memoirs of the French Revolution,' 1799, 
and ' History of England from 1760-1783,' 1802 ; called to 
the bar, 1807 ; defended Thistlewood and the Cato Street 
conspirators, 1820 ; wrote historical, biographical, and 
miscellaneous works. [i. 140] 

ADOLPHUS, JOHN LEYOESTER (1795-1862), bar- 
rister and author ; educated at Merchant Taylors' and St. 
John's College, Oxford ; published criticisms on ' Waver- 
ley Novels,' assigning their authorship to Scott, 1821; 
called to bar, 1822. [i. 142] 

ADRAIN, ROBERT (1775-1843), mathematician ; 
engaged in rebellion in Ireland, 1798, and fled to America; 
professor of mathematics at various colleges, including 
Columbia College, New York ; published mathematical 
works. [i. 142] 

ADRIAN IV (d. 1159), pope; whose name is said to 
have been NICHOLAS BREAKSPEAR ; of humble origin ; 
studied at Aries, and after serving in menial offices 
was admitted to, and subsequently became abbot of, the 
order of St. Rufus, near Valence; cardinal of Albano, 
1146 ; elected pope on death of Anastasius IV, 1154 ; 
his pontificate a period of constant struggles with the 
Emperor Frederick, who set forth imperial claims over 
North Italy, and in a lesser degree with William, the 
Norman king of Sicily. His object was to maintain the 
claims of the Roman church as defined by Gregory VII. 
He granted Ireland to Henry II. [i. 143] 

ADRIAN DE CASTELLO (1460?-1521?), statesman 
and reviver of learning; sent by pope Innocent VIII as 
nuncio to Scotland, 1488; collector of Peter's pence in 
England, 1489 ; prebendary of St. Paul's Cathedral, and 
rector of St. Duustan-in-the-East, 1492 ; English ambas- 
sador at Rome and clerk to the papal treasury, 1492 ; 
made, in liis absence, bishop of Hereford 1502, and of Bath 
and Wells 1504 ; left Rome on the death of pope Alex- 
ander VI, 1503 ; returned 1511, on accession of Leo X, and 
though implicated in the attempt to murder him, was 
dealt with leniently ; deprived of collectorship and of the 
bishopric of Bath, 1518 ; published classical and philoso- 
phical works. [i. 146] 

ADY, JOSEPH (1770-1852), notorious circular-letter 
impostor. [i- 147] 

ADYE, SIR JOHN MILLER (1819-1900), general; 
cadet at Woolwich, 1834 ; second lieutenant royal artillery, 
1836; captain, 1852 ; brigade ma jor of artillery in Turkey, 
1854; served at defence of Cawnpore, 1857 ; lieutenant- 
colonel, 1857; deputy adjutant-general of artillery in 
India, 1863-6 ; colonel, 1867 ; K.O.B. 1873 ; major-general, 
1875 ; governor of military academy, Woolwich, 1875 ; 
chief of staff under Lord Wolseley in Egypt, 1882 ; G.O.B., 
1882 ; governor of Gibraltar, 1882-6 ; colonel commandant, 
1881 ; general, 1884 ; opposed rectification of Afghan fron- 
tier ; published autobiographical and other writings. 

[Suppl. i. 18] 

ADYE, STEPHEN PA YNE (d. 1794), soldier; served 
as brigade-major of artillery in North America ; published 
a work on courts-martial. [i. 148] 

JELFGAR, EARL (d. 1062 ?), son of Leofrio of Mercia 
and Godgifu (Lady Godiva) ; supported King Eadward the 
Confessor against God wine at Gloucester, 1051 ; earl of 
East-Anglia ; outlawed for treason, 1055 ; invaded Here- 
fordshire, but was defeated by Harold ; made peace and 
was restored to his earldom ; earl of Mercia, 1057 ; out- 
lawed 1058 ; regained his earldom with help of North- 
men ; left two sons, Eadwiue and Morkere. [i. 148] 

2ELFGIFTT [Lat. ELOIVA] (Jl. 956), was the wife of 
King Eadwig, from whom she was parted by Archbishop 
Oda on account of kinship. She and her mother ^Ethel- 
giftt from their hostility to Dunstan, have been made the 
victims of monastic legend. Later legends confound her 
and her mother, and give an untrustworthy account of 
various cruelties perpetrated on her by Oda and the 
monks. [i. 149] 

JEIFGIFTJ (fl. 1030), 'of Northampton,' perhaps the 
mistress of Olaf, ' the Saint,' and certainly of Cnut, to 
whom she bore Harold and Swend. In 1030 Cnut sent 
her with Swend to rule over Norway. [i. 150] 

JELFHEAH, known as ST. AU-HEOK, and also called 
GODWINE (954-1012), archbishop of Canterbury ; monk 
at Deerhurst ; anchorite at Bath ; bishop of Winchester, 
984; archbishop of Canterbury, 1006; promoted council 
of Enham, which made enactments against heathenism 
and sale of slaves ; incurred hatred of Northmen by con- 
firming Olaf Tryggwesson in his Christianity, and obtain- 
ing from him promise, 994, not again toinvadi- Kii^liuul ; 
captured in invasion of Danes loll, and, on refusing to 


ransom himself, was put to death. Cnut translated his 
body to Canterbury, and Auselm in 1078 induced 
Lanfrauc to recognise his canonisation. [i. 150] 

JELFHERE (d. 983), ealdorman of the Mercians. 

[i. 162] 

ALFRED (849-901), king of the West-Saxons, the sou 
of Ethelwulf [q. v.] ; born at Wantage ; sent to Home, 
where Leo IV hallowed him to king, 853, returning to 
England in 856 ; no attempt was made to set him on the 
throne on his father's death, though he perhaps bore the 
title of secuudarius during his brothers' reigns ; assisted 
his brother, Ethelred I, against the Danes, and fought at 
JSscesdun, Basing, and Mertou (871); succeeded his 
brother, defeated the Danes at Wilton, and obtained a 
respite by concluding a treaty, 871 ; the legendary account 
of the liarshness of his early rule and of his three years' 
sojourn in hiding at Glastonbury untrustworthy in its 
particulars and largely mythical ; called to meet, accord- 
ing to authentic history, the second great invasion of the I 
Danes in December 878, headed by Guthrum, who overran ! 
Somerset without opposition ; gathered a small company, j 
with which he took post at Athelney ; seven weeks later j 
defeated the Danes at Ethandun (seemingly Edington i 
in Wiltshire), on which peace followed (Guthrum being j 
baptised and assigned a dominion in the north and east j 
of England roughly speaking, the part beyond Watling 
Street under the nominal overlordship of Alfred) ; war 
with Guthrum renewed in 884 by JElfred ; acquired Lon- 
don, which he fortified and about the same time received 
the submission of the Angles and Saxons throughout | 
Britain, as well as of several princes of Wales; assailed, ] 
after a few years of comparative quiet, by another great 
host of Northmen, who were joined by the Danes of East- 
Anglia in 894. War raged in all parts of England until 
897, when the invaders withdrew, and Alfred, by im- j 
proving liis ships, put an end to the ravagings of the 
smaller vikings. Alfred died on 28 Oct. 901, and was ! 
buried at New Minster (afterwards Hyde Abbey) at I 
Winchester. His wife Ealhswith survived him. Alfred \ 
not only saved Wessex from the perils of the Scandi- 
navian invasions, but made his kingdom a centre for 
the deliverance and union of the whole country. The 
stress of the times naturally strengthened the royal 
authority. Much of the fame of Alfred's institutions is 
legendary. His legislation consisted simply in selecting 
the best of the laws of the earlier kings, but the account 
of his division of England into hundreds and shires may 
have some basis in a reorganisation of southern Mercia. 
jElf red's promotion of learning is perhaps the most dis- 
tinctive feature of his rule. His foundation of schools at 
Oxford is fabulous, but he brought to Wessex the best 
scholars of the time, including Plegmund, Werfrith, 
Grimbold, John the Old-Saxon, Asser, and John Scotus 
Erigena. Men of eminence in any useful art, like the 
seafaring Othhere, were also encouraged. The time of I 
his own greatest literary activity lay between 886 and ; 
893. His chief writings were Ms translations of Boethius' 
'Consolation of Philosophy,' of the histories of Baeda and ! 
' Orosius,' and of the * Pastoral Care ' of Gregory the Great, j 
His Boethius was edited by Samuel Fox in 1864 ; his Bseda 
is printed in Smith's edition of 1 722 ; his Orosius was edited 
by Dr. Bosworth in 1851, and his Gregory's ' Pastoral' 
by Henry Sweet for the Early-English Text Society in 
1871-2. These works were not merely translations ; they 
were carefully recast in a thoroughly English spirit, so 
that they form a part of the country's earliest literature. 

[i. 153] 

.KLFRFJ) (d. 1036), eetheling ; younger son of Ethel- 
red II and Emma [q. v.] ; fled to Normandy with his 
brother Eadward on conquest of England by Sweyn, 1013 ; 
after death of Cnut (1035) landed at Dover, and was 
captured at Guildford by Godwin. While being conveyed 
to Ely he was blinded by his captors, and died there of 
his wounds. [i. 152] 

JELFRIC (d. 1005), archbishop of Canterbury, possibly 
seventh abbot of St. Albans, was bishop of Ramsbury and 
Wilton, and was elected to Canterbury In 996. His body 
was buried at Abingdon and translated to Canterbury in 
Cnut's reign. His will is extant. [i. 162] 

JELFRIC, called BATA (fl. 1005), a monk and a dis- 
ciple of -ffilfric (/. 1006) [q. v.] [i. 164] 

-ELFRIC, called GRAMMATICUS (fl. 1006), erroneously 
identified with -Sllfric (d. 1005) [q. v.] and ^Elfric (rf. 

1051) [q. v.]; pupil of Ethelwold [q. v.]; monk at 
Winchester : successively abbot of Cerne and Ensham : 
author of two books of 'Homilies,' translations from 
Latin writers. The Paschal homily against transubstan- 
tiation was published in 1666 under ecclesiastical patro- 
nage as ' A Testiraonie of Antiquitie,' and re-edited in 
1877. The Homilies ' were published in 1844-6. Ten 
other works of his survive. /Elfric is a most prominent 
figure in Anglo-Saxon literature, and his writings are 
important from their illustration of the belief and prac- 
tice of the early English church. [i. 164] 

.KLFRIC (fl. 950?-101G?), ealdorman of the Easfc- 
Mercians, son of jElfhere [q. v. j ; succeeded his father in 
983, and was banished in 986, but restored to favour 
before 991 ; attempted to betray an English fleet to the 
Danes, 992, and in 1003 would not fight against Swend ; 
perhaps identical with ealdorman jElfric who fell at 
Assandun in 1016. [i. 163] 

JELFRIC (fl. 1045), abbot of St. Albans, possibly 
eleventh abbot. Matthew Paris, whose account is full of 
errors, says that MUric was chancellor of King Ethelred 
before he became monk, that he composed and set to 
music a life of St. Alban, and that he died during a dis- 
pute with monks of Ely occasioned by his own duplicity. 

JELFRIC (fl. 1050), archbishop-elect of Canterbury ; 
rejected by Eadward for Robert of London. [i. 164] 

JELFRIC, called Porroc (d. 1051), archbishop of 
York, and provost of Winchester ; consecrated to York 
in 1023; held Worcester temporarily (1040-1), and was 
accused of persuading Harthacnut to lay waste the sliire 
because the men of Worcester would not receive him as 
bishop. [i. 166] 

JELFSIGE (d. 959), bishop of Winchester, 951; 
elected to Canterbury, 958, but died on his way to Rome 
to receive the pall. [i. 167] 

JELFTHRYTH [Lat. ELTRUDIS] (d. 929), daughter of 
King -331 f red ; wife of Baldwin II of Flanders ; ances- 
tress of Matilda, William the Conqueror's wife. 

[i. 167] 

.ELFTHRYTH [Lat. ELFKIDA] (945 ?-1000), daughter 
of Ordgar [q. v.] ; mother of Ethelred II ; slew her step- 
son Eadward. William of Malmesbury's romantic 
account of her life is mainly fabulous. [i. 167] 

JELFWEARD (d. 1044), bishop of London ; monk of 
Ramsey ; abbot of Evesham, 1014 ; bishop of London, 
1035. Smitten with leprosy at close of life, he retired to 
Ramsey, which he enriched with numerous relics. 

[L 168] 

2ELFWIG (d. 1066), abbot of New Minster (1063); 
uncle of Harold; fell at the battle of Hastings, [i. 168] 

(d. 1047), bishop of Winchester, 1032; 
chaplain of Cnut and (in legend and ballad) the lover 
of Cnut's widow, Emma ; bishop, 1032. [i. 169] 

JELLA (d. 514 ? ), Saxon ealdorman ; landed in Britain, 
477; captured Anderida, 491; became king of South- 
Saxons and ' first Bretwalda.' [L 169] 

JELLA (d. 588), first king of the Deirans, 559 ; son of 
Iff a and grandfather of Oswald [q. v.] ; threw off Ber- 
nician yoke. [i. 169] 

JELLA (d. 867), king of the Northumbrians ; slain by 
the Danes in a great battle near York. [i. 169] 

.ELNOTH (fl. 1085-1109), monkish biographer ; native 
of Canterbury; wrote a Latin life of St. Canute the 
Martyr (printed Copenhagen, 1602). [i. 170] 

JELSnrUS (10th cent.), a Winchester monk, illumina- 
tor and miniaturist. [L 170] 

JESC or OI8G [AsH] (d. 512 ?), king of Kent ; son 
of Hengist the Jute; landed at Ebbsfieet, 449; shared 
his father's victories at Crayford (457) and Wippedsfleet ; 
reigned in Kent, 488-512. [L 170] 


AFFLECK, SIR EDMUND (1783 ?-l 788), admiral: 
lieutenant, 1745 ; captain, 1757 ; Bailed with Rodney 
to relieve Gibraltar, 1779 ; served in N. Ajnerica, and 
distinguished himself in repulse of French at St. Christo- 
pher's, and leeward of Dominica, 1782. [i. 171] 




AFFLECK, PHILIP (1726-1799), admiral, brother of 
Sir Edmund Affleck [q. v.] ; lieutenant, 1755; distin- 
guished himself under Boscawen at Louisbourg, 1758 ; 
served under Rodney in West Indies, 1780; admiralty 
lord, 1793-9. [i. 171] 

AGARD or AGARDE. ARTHUR (1640-1615), anti- 
quary ; appointed 1570 deputy chamberlain of the ex- 
chequer ; drew up catalogues of state papers and records, 
and also a Latin treatise elucidating k Domesday Book ' : 
one of the earliest members of a society of antiquaries 
founded by Archbishop Parker, 1672. His essays for this 
society on the antiquity of shires, and of parliament, on 
old land measures, heralds, the Inns of Court, and similar 
topics, were printed by T. Hearne in his ' Collections ' 
(1720 and 1775). His scholarly acumen enabled him to 
fix the authorship of the 4 Dialogus de Scaccnrio ' [see 
FITZNEALE or FiTZNiGKL, RICHARD]. He was buried in 
Westminster Abbey cloisters. Many of his manuscripts 
are in the British Museum. [i. 172] 

AGAS. RA.DULPH or RALPH (1640 ?-1621), land 
surveyor and maker of maps ; practised as a surveyor in 
his native Suffolk, but is known for his three celebrated 
maps or rather bird's-eye views of Oxford (1678, Bodleian 
Libr.), Cambridge (1592, ft.), and London (1592 ?, Pepys- 
ian and Guildhall Libraries). His admirable view of 
London was reissued with spurious alterations by G. Ver- 
tue in 1737, and accurately by W. H. Overall in 1874 
Oivitas Londinum '). [i. 173] 

AGA88E, JAMES LAURENT (d. 1846?), artist; born 
at Geneva ; studied at Paris, and practised in England, 
1801-45, as a painter of horses and dogs. [i. 175] 


AGGAS, EDWARD <fl. 1564-1601), apprentice to 
H. Toy [q. v.], and afterwards bookseller and printer in 
St. Paul's Churchyard ; a number of his publications are 
translations, possibly his own. [i. 175] 

AGGAS or ANGUS, ROBERT (rf. 1679), scene-painter 
to Dorset Garden Theatre, temp. Charles II. [i. 176] 

AGLIO, AUGUSTINE (1777-1867), artist; born at 
Cremona ; studied at Milan ; decorated London interiors 
and theatre ceilings ; sent landscapes to Royal Academy, 
and executed much lithographic work. [i. 176] 

AGLIONBY, EDWARD (1520-1587?), recorder of 
Warwick, 1572, and M.P. for that town : made an oration 
to Elizabeth on her visit ther ; rendered from Latin the 
Epistle of Dr. Mathewe Gribalde,' 1550. [i. 176] 

AGLIONBY. JOHN (d. 1611), royal chaplain and 
principal of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford. [i. 177] 

AGNEW, SIR ANDREW, BAUT. (1687-1771), general, 
of Wigtonshire; fought at Ramillies, Oudenarde, and 
Malplaquet ; promoted lieutenant-colonel, 1740 : distin- 
guished himself at Dettiugen, and against Jacobites 
at Blair Castle (1746); as 'sheriff' of Tynemouth 
Castle was known to Walter Scott. [i. 177] 

AGNEW, SIR ANDREW, BART. (1793-1849), Sabba- 
tarian promoter ; took charge in 1832 of abortive parlia- 
mentary movement to 4 protect the Lord's Day.' [i. 178] 

1848), Indian official ; assistant to resident at Lahore, 
1848; despatched on administrative mission to Mul- 
tan ; was there murdered by natives (April), an out- 
rage which led to second Sikh war and annexation of 
Punjab. [i. 178] 

AGT/ILAR, GRACE (1816-1817), novelist ; of (Spanish) 
Jewish parentage ; after some girlish dramas and poems, 
produced in 1842 ' Spirit of Judaism ' and similar essays. 
Better known are her novels 'Home Influence, 1 1847, ' A 
Mother's Recompense,' 1860, and the pathetic fifteenth- 
century Spanish story, ' The Vale of Cedars,' 1850 (last 
two translated into German). [i. 179] 

AGUS or AGAS, BENJAMIN (fl. 1662), divine, of 
Wymondham, Norfolk ; published a ' Vindication of Non- 
conformity.' [i. 180] 

AGT/TTER, WILLIAM (1758-1835), preacher ; M.A. 
Magdalen College, Oxford, 1784; noted for his sermon?, 
especially one contrasting deathbeds of Dr. Johnson and 
David Hume (1786). [i. 180] 

AICKIN or AIKIH, FRANCIS (d. 1805), actor ; Dub- 
lin weaver's sou ; played at Smock Alley, Dublin ; ap- 
peared at Drury Lane as Dick in 'Confederacy,' 1766; 
hit i -r in tragic parts, and managed Liverpool and Edin- 
burgh theatres. [i. 181] 

AICKIN or AIKIN, JAMES (d. 1803), actor ; brother 
of Francis Aikin [q. v.] ; appeared at Oanongate, Edin- 
burgh, 1766, Drury Lane, 1767, in heavy parts ; fought 
duel with John Kemble over a theatre quarrel, 1792. 

[i. 181] 

AIDAN (d. 600), West Scottish king (of Dalriada). 

[i. 181] 

AIDAN, SAINT (d. 651), first bishop of Lindisfarue ; 
set outtfrom lona, 635, to evangelise Northumbria ; was 
befriended by King Oswald, whose people flocked to 
hear the monks of Liudisfarne; on Oswald's death 
worked chiefly in Deira, winning the heart of King 
Oswini, whose death at Bamborough (August 651) he 
survived but a few days ; buried at Lindisfarne. [i. 182] 

AIKENHEAD, MARY (1787-1858), founder of the 
Irish sisters of charity ; bred a protestaut ; opened the 
first (Roman catholic) convent of sisters of charity. 
Dublin, 1816. [i. 183] 

AIKENHEAD, THOMAS (1678 ?-1697), Edinburgh 
apothecary's sou ; hanged for ridiculing the bible. 

{i. 183] 
AIKIN, ANNA LETITIA (1743-1825). [See BAR- 


AIKIN, ARTHUR (1773-1854), chemist ; son of John 
Aikin [q. v.]; educated by Barbauld at Palgrave ; a 
pioneer of Geological Society, 1807 ; a fellow of Linnean 
Society ; secretary of Society of Arts ; treasurer of 
Chemical Society, 1841 ; published manuals of mineralogy 
and chemistry, a ' Dictionary ' of these sciences (1807-14), 
and translated Denon's ' Travels ' (1801). [i. 184] 

doctor; M.R.O.S. ; wrote on 'Cowpox ' (1800), and colla- 
borated in the ' Chemical Dictionary ' of his elder brother, 
Arthur Aikin [q. v.] [i. 184] 

AIKIN, EDMUND (1780-1820), architect: brother 
of Arthur and Charles Aikin [q. v. ] ; contributed archi- 
tectural articles to Rees's ' Encyclopaedia.' [i. 185] 

AIKIN, JOHN (1713-1780), scholar and theological 
tutor ; born in Scotland ; studied at Aberdeen with dis- 
tinction ; became divinity tutor at (dissenting) Warring- 
ton Academy (1761-78) ; D.D. Aberdeen. [i. 186] 

AIKIN, JOHN (1747-1822), author ; son of preceding ; 
studied at Edinburgh, London, and Leyden (M.D.): 
practised at Yarmouth ; removed to Stoke Newington, 
1798 ; his house a resort of liberal thinkers, Priestley, 
Darwin, Howard, and others; compiled 'Memoirs of 
Medicine in Great Britain,' the lion's share of the ten-vol. 
' General Biography,' and wrote biographical and* critical 
essays and prefaces. [i. 185] 

AIKIN, LUCY (1781-1864), daughter of preceding; 
lived chiefly at Hampstead, where she compiled her 
'historical memoirs' of the courts of Elizabeth (1818), 
of James I (1822), of Charles I (1833), her lives of Addison 
and Mrs. Barbauld (her aunt), and minor pieces. Her 
correspondence with Channing (1826-1842) is a valuable 
illustration of the Unitarian circle to which the Aikins 
belonged. [i. 186] 

AIKMAN, WILLIAM (1682-1731), portraitist ; studied 
under Sir J. Medina : practised at Edinburgh ; painted 
portraits of Allan Ramsay and Thomson (whom he 
assisted), Gay, Somervile, and Argyll ; modelled his 
style on Kneller. [i. 187] 

EARL, d. 1685; BRUCE, THOMAS, second EARL, 1655?- 

AILMER (d. 1137). [See ETHKLSMSR.] 

AILBED OF RIEVAOLX (1109 ?-1166). [See ETHEL- 

AINGER, THOMAS (1799-1863), honorary pre- 
bendary of St. Paul's. [i. 188] 

AINSLIE, GEORGE ROBERT (1776-1839), general ; 
ensign 19th regiment, 1793, captain, 1794, major, 1799 ; 
lieutenant-colonel in a fencible regiment, 1800; lieu- 




tenant-colonel 25th regiment, 1807 ; brevet-colonel, 1810 ; 
governor of Eustatius, 1812, of Dominica, 1813-14 ; major- 
general, 1814 ; collector of Anglo-Norman coins ; author 
of Anglo-French Coinage,' 1830. [i. 188] 

AINSLIE, HENRY (1760-1834), senior wrangler, 
second Smith's prizeman, and fellow of Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge, 1781 ; physician to Addenbrook's Hospital, 
1787 ; M.D. 1793, F.R.C.P. 1795 ; physician to St. Thomas's 
Hospital, 1795-1800 ; Harveian orator, 1802.'. [i. 188] 

AINSLIE, HEW (1792-1878), amanuensis to Dugald 
Stewart ; attracted to Robert Owen's settlement at New 
Harmony, Indiana, 1822; afterwards a brewer; his 
collected songs and ballads, published New York, 
1866. [i. 188] 

AINSLIE, SIR ROBERT (1730 ?-1812), ambassador 
and numismatist ; knighted 1775 ; ambassador to Con- 
stantinople, 1776-92 ; pensioned, 1796; M.P. for Milborne 
Port, Somerset, 1796-1802 ; created baronet, 1804 ; 
formed collection of ancient Eastern and north African 
coins, descriptions of which were published by 1'Abbate 
Domenico Sestini in eleven volumes, 1789-1806 ; also of 
illustrations of Eastern life, drawings of which by Luigi 
Mayer were engraved by Thomas Milton and published 
in three volumes 1801-4. [i 189] 

AINSLIE, ROBERT (1766-1838), writer to the signet, 
1789 ; brother of Sir Whitelaw [q.v.] ; correspondent of 
Burns, and author of two small religious works, [i. 190] 

AINSLIE, SIR WHITELAW (1767-1837), surgeon in 
East India Company's service, 1788-1815; published 
' Materia Medica of Hindoostau ' (1813) and similar works. 

[i. 190] 

AINSWORTH, HENRY (1571-1623?), leader of 
the separatist congregation at Amsterdam ; scholar of 
Cains College, Cambridge, 1587-91 ; became a Brownist and 
bookseller's porter atAmsterdam in 1593, and then' teacher' 
at Francis Johnson's church ; with Johnson founded an 
independent congregation there; sole or part author of 
Confession of Faith of the People called Browuists,' 1596 ; 
finally separated from Johnson in 1610 ; died at Amster- 
dam. In rabbinical and oriental scholarship he was equalled 
by few in Europe, writing numerous controversial and exe- 
getical works, many of them now rare. [i. 191] 

AINSWORTH, ROBERT (1660-1743), lexicographer ; 
was educated at Boltou, and kept schools there and, after 
1698, at Bethnal Green, Hackney, and other places near 
London ; collected coins, and was elected F.S.A. in 1724 ; 
wrote an important treatise on education, 1698, and 
compiled a Latin-English dictionary, 1 736. [i. 194] 

geologist ; cousin of William Harrison Aiusworth [q. v.] ; 
L.R.O.S., Edinburgh, 1827 ; studied geology in London, 
Paris, and Brussels ; founded, 1830, ' Edinburgh Journal of 
Natural and Geographical Science ' (1830-1) ; surgeon and 
geologist to expedition to Euphrates, under Francis Raw- 
don Chesney [q. v.], 1835 ; took charge of expedition to 
Christians of Chaldea, 1838-40; published accounts of 
both expeditions ; editor of ' New Monthly Magazine,' 1871 ; 
original fellow of Royal Geographical Society, 1830 ; F.S.A. 
1830. His works include ' Travels in the Tra< 

Thousand Greeks,' 1844. 

ivels in the Track of the Ten 
[Suppl. i. 20] 

novelist ; educated at Manchester Grammar School, and 
articled to a solicitor there in 1821 ; went to London 
to finish his legal education in 1824, and was in business 
as a publisher, 1826-8, Scott writing 'Bonnets of 
Bonnie Dundee ' for one of his annuals ; his first novel, 
'Rookwood,' published 1834, immediately successful; 
edited Bentley's Miscellany,' 1840-2, and ' Ainsworth's 
Magazine,' 1842-53, when he acquired 'New Monthly 
Magazine ' ; lived at Kensal Green, where Dickens, 
Thackeray, Landseer, Clarkson Stanfield, Talfourd, Jer- 
rold, and Cruikshank were among his guests. He wrote 
thirty-nine novels, chiefly historical, of which the best 
known are ' Jack Sheppard,' 1839, ' Tower of London,' 
1840, Old St. Paul's,' 1841, 'The Miser's Daughter,' 1842, 
and ' Windsor Castle,' 1843. [L 197] 

AIO (d. 974), historian ; a fabulous monk of Croyland 
Abbey, whose supposititious work is quoted in Ingulfs 
forged ' Chronicle.' [i. 199] 

AIRAY, CHRISTOPHER (1601-1670), pioneer in 
English logic; fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, 

1627, and subsequently incumbent of Milford, Hamp- 
shire; published 'Fasciculus Praeceptorum Logicorum' 

1628. [i. 199] 

AIRAY, HENRY (1560 ?-1616), puritan divine ; fellow 
of Queen's College, Oxford, 1586 ; provost, 1598 ; as vice, 
chancellor in 1606 he came into conflict with Laud ; 
rector of Bletchingdon, 1616 ; an evangelical Calvinist, he 
preached fierce sermons against Rome. [i. 199] 

AIRD, THOMAS (1802-1876), Scottish poet ; educated 
at Edinburgh, where he became acquainted with Gar- 
lyle, James Hogg, and De Quincey ; published his first 
work, ' Martzoufle,' 1826; contributed to 'Blackwood's 
Magazine' ; edited ' Dumfriesshire and Galloway Herald,' 
1835-63 ; published collected poems, 1848. [i. 201] 

AIKEY, SIR GEORGE (1761-1833), general ; ensign, 
71st regiment, 1779 ; accompanied 48th regiment to West, 
Indies as lieutenant, 1781 ; captain 1788 ; assisted Sir 
Charles Grey in reducing French West India Islands, 
1793 ; lieutenant-colonel 8th regiment, 1798; held offices 
in Minorca, Ireland, Sicily, and the Ionian Islands ; lieu- 
tenant-general, 1821 ; received command of 39th regiment, 
1823 ; K.O.H. [i. 201] 

AIREY, SIR JAMES TALBOT (1812-1898), general ; 
son of Sir George Airey [q. v.] ; ensign, 1830 ; extra aide- 
de-camp to Major-general Elphinstoue, 1841 ; served at 
Cabul and in Gwalior campaign ; major, 1851 ; served in 
Crimea ; lieutenant-general and K.C.B., 1877 ; general, 
1881. [SuppL i. 21] 

AIREY, RICHARD, LORD AIREY (1803-1881), gene- 
ral ; son of Sir George Airey [q. v.] ; educated at Sandhurst, 
and was successively ensign, lieutenant, captain, major, 
and lieutenant-colonel, 34th regiment, 1821-38 ; colonel and 
military secretary to Lord Hardinge, 1852 ; quartermaster- 
general to Crimean army, 1854-5 ; major-general and 
K.O.B., 1864 ; quartermaster-general, 1865-65 ; exonerated 
himself of charges of inefficiency in Crimea, 1856 ; go- 
vernor of Gibraltar, 1865-70 ; G.O.B., 1867 ; general, 1871 ; 
created peer, 1876 ; president of the commission on the 
short service system,.1879. [i. 202] 

AIRTH, first EARL (1591-1661). [See GRAHAM, WIL- 

AIRY, SIR GEORGE BIDDELL (1801-1892), astro- 
nomer royal ; sizar of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1819 ; 
senior wrangler, and first Smith's prizeman, 1823 ; fellow, 
1824; member of Astronomical Society, 1828, and of 
Geological Society, 1829 ; Lucasian professor of mathe- 
matics at Cambridge, 1826 ; Plumian professor of astro- 
nomy and director of Cambridge observatory, 1828; 
astronomer royal, 1835-81 ; F.R.S., 1836 : equipped Royal 
Observatory with instruments designed by himself ; created 
at Greenwich magnetic and meteorological department, 
1838 ; reduced all planetary and lunar observations made 
at Greenwich from 1760 to 1830 ; gold medallist, Royal 
Astronomical Society, 1846 ; controlled British expeditions 
to observe transit of Venus, 1874, and subsequently re- 
duced collected data ; D.C.L., Oxford, 1844 ; LL.D., Cam- 
bridge, 1862, and Edinburgh; K.O.B., 1872; published 
voluminous writings on astronomical subjects. 

[Suppl. L 22] 

AISLABIE, JOHN (1670-1742), statesman ; M.P. for 
Ripon, 1695-1702 and 1706-21, and for Nortballerton, 
1702 ; one of commissioners for executing office of lord 
high admiral, 1712 ; successively treasurer of navy, and 
chancellor of exchequer, 1714-18 ; supported South Sea 
Company's scheme for paying off national debt, 1719, and 
on its failure was expelled the house, 1721. [L 203] 

1896), lieutenant-governor of the Punjab ; educated at 
Edinburgh (M.A., 1853, LL.D., 1877), and at Halle ; en- 
tered Indian civil service, 1855 ; mider-secretary in political 
department, India, 1859-65; commissioner of Lahore; 
foreign secretary, 1868-78 ; chief commissioner of British 
Burma, 1878-81 ; lieutenant-governor of the Punjab, 1882 ; 
member of governor-general's council, 1887-8 : K.C.S.I., 
1881; C.I.E., 1882; published 'Collection of Treaties 
. . . relating to India' (1862-92, 11 vola.), and other 
works. [Suppl. i. 25] 

AITKEN, JAMES (1752-1777), incendiary, known as 
JOHN THE PAINTER ; apprenticed as house-painter in 
Edinburgh ; came to London and took to highway-rob- 
bery on Finchley Common ; fled to America and took part 




in tea-duty riots at Boston ; returned, 1775, and, being 
imbued with anti-monarchical principles, planned de- 
struction of British navy when about to sail against 
America ; succeeded in firing some storehouses at Ports- 
mouth and Bristol, and was ultimately executed at Ports- 
mouth. [i- 205] 

AITKEN, JOHN (1793-1833), editor of 'Constable's 
Miscellany ' ; employed in a bank, but in 1822 became 
bookseller in Edinburgh ; wrote occasional verse and 
prost-. [L 206] 

AITKEN, ROBERT (1800-1873), preacher ; ordained, 
1823 ; withdrew from English church ; preached in Wes- 
leyan and other chapels, and returned to English church, 
1840 ; beneflced hi Cornish parishes ; directed building of 
a fine church at Pendeen. [i. 206] 

AITKEN, SIR WILLIAM (1825-1892), pathologist ; 
M.D. Edinburgh, 1848 ; assistant pathologist to medi- 
cal commission in Crimea, 1856 ; professor of pathology 
at army medical school, Fort Pitt, Chatham (afterwards 
at Netley), 1860-92 ; F.R.S, 1873 ; knighted, 1887 ; pub- 
lished medical writings. [Suppl. i. 26] 

AITKIN, JOHN (d. 1790), surgeon ; M.R.O.S. Edin- 
burgh, 1770 ; surgeon and lecturer at Edinburgh, 1779 ; 
made some practical improvements in surgery and wrote 
medical works. [i. 206] 

AITON, JOHN (1797-1863), religious writer; son of 
William Aiton (1760-1848) [q.v.] ; published a refutation 
of Robert Owen, 1824. [i. 207] 

AITON, WILLIAM (1731-1793), botanist ; assistant 
gardener at Botanic Garden, Chelsea, 1754 ; manager of 
Kew Botanic Gardens, 1759 ; manager of royal forcing 
and pleasure gardens at Kew and Richmond, 1783 ; 
published 4 Hortus Kewensis,' 1789. [i. 207] 

AITON, WILLIAM (1760-1848), sheriff-substitute of 
Lanark : authority on Scottish husbandry ; wrote histo- 
rical and agricultural works. [i. 207] 

AITON, WILLIAM TOWNSEND (1766-1849), bota- 
nist ; son of William Aiton (1731-1793) [q.v.], whom he 
assisted and succeeded at Kew, 1793 ; edited his father's 
' Hortus Kewensis,' 1810-13 ; a founder and fellow of the 
Royal Horticultural Society. [L 208] 

AKENSIDE, MARK (1721-1770), poet and physician ; 
after 1737 contributed frequently to the 'Gentleman's 
Magazine ' ; sent to Edinburgh to study theology, 1739, 
but abandoned it for medicine, 1740 ; member of the Medi- 
cal Society of Edinburgh, 1740 ; practised in Newcastle, 
1741-3 ; went to London and published ' Pleasures of the 
Imagination,' a didactic poem, 1744 ; toured in Holland, 
and graduated doctor of physic at Leyden ; practised at 
Northampton, 1744, and at Hampstead, 1745-7 ; becoming 
embarrassed, he was relieved and provided for by Jere- 
miah Dyson, and ultimately rose to eminence in his pro- 
fession ; doctor (by mandamus) of Cambridge University 
and F.R.S., 1753: F.O.P., 1754; physician to Christ's 
Hospital, 1759 ; physician to the queen, 1761 ; collected 
poems published, 1772. [i. 208] 

ALAN OP BECCLKS (d. 1240), official secretary to 
Archbishops Pandulph and Thomas de Blundeville of 
Norwich, 1218-36 ; archdeacon of Sudbury, 1225 ; one of 
the arbitrator? between Bishop Grosseteste and his chap- 
ter, 1239. [i. 214] 

ALAN OP LYNN (/. 1424?), Carmelite monk and 
scholastic. [i. 214] 

ALAN OP TEWKESBURY (12th century), writer ; pro- 
bably for some years canon of Beneveuto, Italy, where he 
became interested in Henry II's struggle with Becket ; 
entered monastery of Christ Church, Canterbury, 1174 ; 
incurred Henry II's displeasure by procuring authority to 
collect Peter's pence ; subsequently Abbot of Tewkesbury 
till death ; wrote life of Becket. [i. 214] 

ALAN OP WALSINGHAM (d. 1364 ?), architect; junior 
monk at Ely, 1314 ; sub-prior, 1321 ; designed St. Mary's 
Chapel, now Trinity Church, Ely ; sacristan 1321 ; re- 
built tower of the cathedral and made other additions, 
constructing the unique 'lantern*; prior, 1341; bishop- 
elect of Ely, 1344 and 1361, but election set aside by the 
pope. [i. 215] 

ALAN, WILLIAM (1532-1594). [See ALLEN, WIL- 

TESCUE OP CREDAN (1670-1746), justice of common pleas, 
1728-46 ; solicitor-general to Prince of Wales, 1714, and to 
king, 1715 ; baron of exchequer, 1717 ; justice of king's 
bench, 1728. [i. 216] 

ALANE, ALEXANDER (1500-1565). [See ALESIUS, 

ALASCO, JOHN (1499-1560). [See LASKI, JOHN.] 

ALBAN, ST. (d. 304?), called ' protomartyr of Bri- 
tain ' ; said by Bede to have suffered (22 June, c. 304), on 
site of future abbey of St. Albans, martyrdom for sheltering 
a Christian cleric who converted him ; Offa (d. 796) [q. v.] 
is believed to have discovered the martyr's body. 

[Suppl. i. 27] 

T JOHN YONGE (1806-1873), numisma- 
tist and antiquary ; secretary to William Cobbett, and 
later, to Lord Albert Couyngham ; F.S.A., 1834 ; joint 
secretary, 1848, and sole secretary, 1853-60 ; started and 
contributed largely to 'Numismatic Journal'; helped to 
found Numismatic Society of London, 1836. [i. 211] 

ALABASTER, WILLIAM (1567-1640), Latin poet 
and divine ; nephew by marriage of John Still, author of 
' Gammer Gurton's Needle ' ; educated at Westminster and 
Trinity College, Cambridge; began a Latin epic to 
Elizabeth, preserved in manuscript: wrote 'Roxana* be- 
fore 1592 ; accompanied Earl of Essex as chaplain to 
Cadiz, 1596; converted to Romanism; after publishing 
several religious works and suffering imprisonment was 
reconverted to protestantism : D.D., '.prebendary of St. 
Paul's and rector of Therfleld, Hertfordshire. [i. 211] 

ALAIN DE LILLE or DE L'lsLE (1114-1203), scholar ; 
haa been identified with Alain de Flandre, bishop of 
Auxerre, c. 1152 ; nationality uncertain ; probably spent 
much time in England with Cistercians ; wrote ' Com- 
mentary on Merlin's Prophecies,' and in prose and verse 
on other subjects ; possibly rector of the ecclesiastical 
school, Paris; retired to abbey of Oiteaux, where he 
died. [L212] 

ALBANY, LOUISA, COUNTESS OP (1753-1824), wife 

of Prince Charles Edward, the Young Pretender ; daughter 

of Gustavus Adolphus, prince of Stolberg-Gederu ; on 

death of her father became pensioner of Empress Maria 

I Theresa ; canouess of Mons, 1770 ; secretly married Charles 

| Edward, 1772 ; left him after eight years, and li ved with 

Alfieri the poet ; on outbreak of French revolution came 

to England and was received at court ; on death of 

Alfieri (1830) lived with Fabre, a French artist ; died 

at Florence. [i. 216] 

ALBANY, DUKE OF (1853-1884). [See LEOPOLD.] 

DUKE, 1340 ?-1420 ; STEWART, MURDAC or MURDOCH, 

DUKE, 1608-1670 ; MONCK, CHRISTOPHER, second DUKE, 

d. 1242 ; WILLIAM DE FORS d. 1260 ; KEPPEL, ARNOLD 
JOOST VAN, first EARL of the Keppel family, 1669-1718 ; 
KEPPEL, WILLIAM ANNE, second EARL, 1702-1754; 
KEPPEL, GEORGE, third EARL, 1724-1772 ; KEPPEL, 
GEORGE THOMAS, sixth EARL, 1799-1891 ; KEPPEL, WIL- 
LIAM COUTTH, seventh EARL, 1832-1894.] 

second son of Ernest, duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and 
of Louise, daughter of Augustus, duke of Saxe-Gotha- 
Altenburg ; educated under private tutor ; visited Eng- 
land with Dukeof Coburg, 1836, when the Princess Victoria 
expressed her willingness to accept Albert as consort ; 
continued his education at Brussels and Bonn, 1836-8 ; 
travelled through Italy with Baron Stockmar ; came to 
England and became betrothed to Queen Victoria, 1839 ; 
married 1840 ; his annuity, proposed at 50,000/., was fixed 
at 30,0007., largely through influence of Peel ; counselled 
by Stockmar ; became a director of the Ancient Concerte 
and assisted Philharmonic Society ; appointed regent in 
case of queen's death, 1840; placed by Peel at head of 
royal commission on rebuilding of Houses of Parliament, 




1841 ; LL.D., Cambridge, 1843 ; chaucellor of Cambridge 
University, 1847 ; largely aided the queen in the perform- 
ance of her political duties, and offered advice to 
ministers ; created favourable impression by sympathy 
with condition of working-classes, 1848 ; advocated success- 
fully Alterations in system of study at Cambridge ; projected 
iiirii of International Exhibition (carried out, 1851); on 
his suggestion a camp for training troops formed at 
Chobham, 1853 ; gave advice of value throughout the 
Crimean war ; suggested in regard to Trent affair a con- 
ciliatory attitude which averted war with United States, 
November 1861 : showed signs of serious illness early in 
IHCl ; typhoid fever developed late in the year; he died 
HIM-." [i. 217] 

(1864-1892), eldest son of the Prince of Wales (afterwards 
Edward VII) ; joined training ship Britannia at Porte- 
mouth, 1877 ; entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 1883 ; 
hon. LL.D., 1888 ; captain and aide-de-camp to Queen 
Victoria, 1889 ; betrothed to Princess Mary of Teck (after- 
wards Duchess of Cornwall and York and Princess of 
Wales), 1891, but died before marriage. [Suppl. i. 28] 

ALBERTAZZI, EMMA (1813-1847), vocalist ; pupil, 
of Sir Michael Costa, 1827 ; studied in Italy under Pro- 
fessor Oelli ; sang with great success in Milan, Madrid, 
Paris, and London ; died of consumption. [i. 231] 

essayist ; born at Osterode-am-Harz ; graduated at Gottin- 
gen, 1745 : spent some years in England ; protestaut 
minister of Tundern, Hanover; published philosophical 
and theological works. [i. 232] 

ALBERT, JAMES (1838-1889), dramatist ; became 
playwright, and in 1866 his " Dr. Davy ' was produced at 
the Lyceum. His most successful play was ' Two Roses,' 
produced at the Vaudeville, 1870, with (Sir) Henry Irving 
as Digby Grant. [Suppl. i. 29] 

ALBLN, ELEAZAR (fl. 1713-1759), naturalist and 
teacher of water-colour drawing ; published works on 
natural history, with coloured illustrations. [i. 232] 

ALBIN, HENRY (1624-1696), ejected minister ; edu- 
cated at Glastonbury and Oxford ; ordained ; ejected for 
nonconformity from West Oammel, 1660, and from 
Donyatt, Somerset ; ' stated preacher ' at Frome Selwood, 
Shepton Mallet, Bruton, and Wincanton in rotation, 1687. 

[i. 233] 

ALBINI (BniTO), WILLIAM DE (d. 1156), justiciar ; 
son of Robert de Todeni, lord of Belvoir, itinerant justice, 
1130; lands forfeited by Stephen, but afterwards re- 
stored, [i. 233] 

ARUNDEL (rf. 1176), son of William de Albini Pincerna 
(the Butler), by Maud, daughter of Roger le Bigod [q. v.] ; 
married Adeliza [q. v.], widow of Henry I, adherent of 
Stephen; confirmed by Henry II in his earldom, and 
served under him against Prince Henry, 1173. [i. 233] 

EARL OP SUSSEX (d. 1221), grandson of preceding ; favour- 
ite of King John, but in the barons' revolt adhered to 
their side ; justiciar, 1217. [i. 234] 

grandson of preceding ; sheriff and itinerant justice under 
Richard I, John, and Henry III ; of the moderate party 
in the barons' revolt ; finally fought against John ; high 
in Henry Ill's favour. [i. 234] 

ALBINTJS (d. 732), abbot of St. Peter's, Canterbury ; 
assisted Bede in his ' Historia Ecclesiastical [i. 234] 

ALBIS or ALBHTS (1593-1676). [See WHITE, THOMAS.] 

BEAUCHAMP PAOKT, 1821-1895.] 

ALCHFRITH (./?. 655), uuder-king of theDeirans; son 
of Oswiu, king of Northumbria, and Eanflaed, daughter 
of Eadwine ; married Cyneburh, daughter of Penda, king 
of Mercia ; with Oswiu defeated Mercians, 656 ; took 
part in struggle between Celtic and Roman churches, 
and finally joined Roman party. [i. 235] 

ALCHIN, WILLIAM TURNER (179U-1865), anti- 
quary ; librarian of Guildhall Library ; compiled indexes 
to Winchester and Salisbury ecclesiastical regis- 
ters. [ L 235] 

ALCHMTTND (d. 781), bishop of Hexham, 767 ; re- 
garded as a saint. [i. 236] 

ALCOCK, JOHN (1430-1500), bishop of Rochester, 
1472, Worcester, 1476, Ely, 1486 ; LL.D., Cambridge 
c. 1461 ; rector, St.*Margaret* s, Fish Street ; dean, St. 
Stephen's, Westminster ; master of rolls, 1462 ; preben- 
dary of St. Paul's and Salisbury, 1468 ; privy councillor, 
1470-1 ; on several royal commissions under Richard III 
and Henry VII ; lord chancellor, 1474 (conjointly with 
Rotherham, bishop of Lincoln) and 1485 ; tutor to Ed- 
ward V ; comptroller of royal buildings, 1485 ; published 
religious works. [i. 236] 

ALCOCK, JOHN (1740 9-1791), doctor of music, son 
of John Alcock (1715-1806) [q. v.], Mas. Bac., Oxford, 
1766 ; organist at Walsall, 1773 till death ; published vocal 
and instrumental music. [i. 237] 

ALCOCK or ALLCOCK, JOHN (1715-1806), doctor of 
music ; organist at Lichfield Cathedral, 1749-60 ; Mus. 
Doc., Oxford, 1765 ; won Catch Club prizes, 1770, 1771, 
and 1772 ; published musical compositions. [i. 237] 

ALCOCK, NATHAN (1707-1779), physician ; studied 
at Edinburgh and Leyden, where he graduated M.D., 1737 ; 
lectured on chemistry at Oxford, though unauthorised by 
the university ; M.A. and incorporated of Jesus College 
1741; M.D., 1749; F.R.8. : F.R.C.P., 1754; afterwards 
practised at Runcorn. [L 2371 

ALCOCK, SIR RUTHERFORD (1809-1897), diplo- 
matist; serred as army surgeon in Portugal, 1832-6, 
and Spain, 1836 ; nominated consul at Fuchow, China, 
1844, and at Shanghai, 1846; first consul-general in 
Japan, 1858-65 ; K.O.B., 1862 ; honorary D.O.L., Oxford, 
1863 ; minister-plenipotentiary at Peking, 1865-71 ; presi- 
dent of Geographical Society, 1876-8 ; published numerous 
works relating to Japan. [Suppl. i. 29] 

ALCOCK, SIMON (d. 1459 ?), scholastic writer ; M.A. 
and D.D. Oxford ; held livings in Essex ; prebendary of 
Hereford, 1436 ; probably canon of Lincoln ; his writings 
never published. [i. 238] 

ALCOCK, THOMAS (d. 1564), traveller in employ of 
Muscovy Company, 1558-63 ; journeyed in Russia and 
Poland, and crossing the Caspian Sea entered Persia, 
where he was murdered. [L 238] 

ALCOCK, THOMAS (1709-1798), miscellaneous writer, 
younger brother of Dr. Nathan Alcock [q. v.] ; M.A. 
Oxford, 1741 ; held livings of Runcorn and, later, St. 
Budrock's, Plymouth. [i. 238] 

ALCOCK, THOMAS (1784-1833), surgeon to St. 
James's workhouse, 1813-28 ; contributed largely to medi- 
cal journals. [i. 239] 

(735-804), theologian, man of letters, and coadjutor of 
Charlemagne in educational reforms ; born at York and 
educated in cloister school under Archbishop Egbert and 
Ethelbert, afterwards archbishop ; assisted in conduct of 
the school at York, and became master, 778 ; met Charle- 
magne at Parma, 781, and settled on the continent ; en- 
dowed with abbeys of Ferrieres, Troyes, and St. Martin 
at Tours ; took important part in council of Frankfort ; 
retired as abbot of Tours, 796 ; wrote metrical annals, 
hagiological and philosophical works. [i. 239] 

AT.PAKT, THOMAS (d. 1660), quaker ; early disciple 
of George Fox ; imprisoned at York, 1652. [L 241] 

ALDAY, JOHN (fl. 1570), translator from French ; 
chiefly known by his English version, published c. 1567, 
of two French pamphlets, entitled ' Theatrum Mundi ' ; 
translated also ' Praise and Dispraise of Women,' 1579, and 
possibly a French summary of Pliny, 1666. [L 241] 


ALDER, JOSHUA (1792-1867), zoologist; friend of 
Thomas Bewick ; member of Newcastle Literary and 
Scientific Society, 1815 ; devoted himself to conchology 
and zoophytology ; received civil list pension of 7d/.. 1867 ; 
published with Albany Hancock a work on British 
Mollusca, 1845-55. [i. 241] 




ALDERSEY, LAURENCE (/. 1581-1586), traveller ; , 
went to Jerusalem, journeying overland to Venice, 1881, 
and to Alexandria, visiting Tunis, Cyprus, and Syria, 
1586 ; his accounts of his travels are in Hakluyt's 
Voyages.' [i. 242] 

ALDERSON, AMELIA (1769-1853). [See Om:.] 

ALDERSON, Sm EDWARD HALL (1787-1857), 
judge ; educated at Charterhouse and Caius College, Cam- 
bridge ; Browne's medallist, 1807 ; senior wrangler, first 
Smith's prizeman, and first chancellor's medallist, 1809 ; 
called to bar, Inner Temple, 1811 ; reporter to king's 
bench, 1817-22 ; judge of court of common pleas, 1830 ; 
baron of exchequer, 1834. [L 242] 

ALDERSON, Sm JAMES (1794-1882), physician : son i 
of John Alderson [q. v.] ; M.A., Pembroke College, Cam- | 
bridge, 1825; M.D., Magdalen College, Oxford, 1829; ' 
P.R.O.P., 1830 : practised in Hull, and later in London ; 
connected with St. Mary's hospital ; president, College of 
Physicians, 1867 ; knighted, 1869 ; physician-extraordinary 
to queen, 1874. [L 243] 

ALDERSON, JOHN (1757-1829), physician ; practised ' 
in Hull; published essays on fever (1788) and paralysis 
(1792); physician to ilull infirmary, where a statue of 
him (1833) was erected. [i. 243] 

king of Northumbria ; illegitimate son of Oswiu ; succeeded 
his brother Ecgfrith, 685 ; renowned for his learning and 
piety ; resisted the Romish party. [i. 244] 

ALDOYTH (/. 1063), daughter of ^Elfgar, earl of 
Mercia : married Gruffydd, king of Wales, and later, pro- 
bably, Harold, who had conquered Gruffydd, and was 
already pledged to a daughter of William I. [L 245] 

ALDHELM (640?-709), bishop of Sherbome, related 
to King 1 ne ; educated under Theodore and Hadrian at 
Canterbury, and was foremost in the intellectual movement 
led by them ; abbot of Malmesbury ; built churches at Mal- 
mesbury, Bruton, and Wareham, and monasteries at Frome 
and Bradford ; wrote works in verse and prose, [i. 245] 

ALDHTTN or EALDHUN (d. 1018), bishop of Durham ; 
appointed to Bernician see of Ohester-le-Street, Durham, 
990; to escape ravages of Danes left Chester with his 
monks, and carried the body of St. Cuthbert to Ripon, 
995 ; returned and built church at Durham ; consecrated 
to the see, 998. [i. 247] 

ALDI8, Sm CHARLES (1775 ?-1863), surgeon; 
studied at Guy's and St. Bartholomew's hospitals, 1794 ; 
surgeon to Norman Cross barracks, c. 1798 ; introduced 
vaccination in Hertford ; founded Cancer hospital, Clif- 
ford Street, London. [i. 247] 

physician ; son of Sir Charles Aldls [q. v.] ; educated at St. 
Paul's School and Trinity College, Cambridge ; M.D., 1837 
F.R.O.P., 1838 ; physician successively to several London 
dispensaries; effected improvements in sanitation, and 
did much to ameliorate condition of workshop hands ; 
published medical works. [i. 248] 

ALDRED THE GLOSSATOR (10th century), writer of 
the glosses in Northumbrian dialect inserted in the ' Lindis- 
farne Gospels,' c. 700. [i. 248] 

ALDRED (d. 1069), archbishop of York ; monk of 
Winchester ; abbot of Tavistock, 1027 ; bishop of Wor- 
cester, 1044 ; ambassador from King Eadward the Con- 
fessor to Emperor Henry III, 1054 ; took charge of sees 
of Hereford and Ramsbury ; journeyed to Jerusalem, 
1058 ; archbishop of York, 1060 ; went to Rome to receive 
the pall, which was refused ; was degraded from episcopate 
for various offences ; robbed by brigands, whereat the 
pope was intimidated by Tostig and granted the pall ; spent 
lavishly in cause of the church ; after battle of Hastings 
upheld rights of Eadgar : submitted to William the Con- 
queror, whom and Matilda he crowned. [i. 249] 

ALDRICH, HENRY (1647-1710), divine and scholar 
educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford- 
M.A., 1669 ; D.D., 1682 ; dean of Christ Church, 1689 till 
death ; said to have designed chapel of Trinity College 
and All Sainte' church, Oxford : left large musical library 
to his college ; composed or adapted several anthems and 
songs ; entrusted, with Spratt, with publication of Cla- 
rendon'* * Memoirs.' [i. 261] 

scholar and divine ; educated at Eton and King's College, 
Cambridge; B.A., 1512 : M.A. and schoolmaster of Eton, 
1515 ; corresponded with and worked for Erasmus ; pre- 
bendary of Lincoln, 1528 ; D.D., 1530 ; archdeacon of Col- 
chester, 1531 ; canon of Windsor, 1534 ; registrar of order 
of Garter ; provost of Eton, 1536 ; bishop of Carlisle, 1537 ; 
signed act of Six Articles, 1539, and the opinion on the 
king's marriage with Anne of Cleves, 1540 ; under Ed- 
ward VI protested against church reforms. [i. 252] 

ALDRIDGE, WILLIAM (1737-1797), nonconformist 
minister; having idled away his youth, entered the 
Countess of Huntingdon's college at Trevecca ; preached 
at Margate, Dover, and Wapping ; left the countess's 
connexion and occupied the Jewry Street chapel for 
nearly twenty years. [i. 253] 

ALDTTLF, king of Northumbria (d. 810). [See EARD- 


ALDTTLF or E ALDTTLF (rf. 1002), archbishop of 
York ; possibly chancellor to King Eadgar ; monk and later 
abbot of Peterborough ; elected to see of York, 992. 

[i. 253] 

ALED, TUDUR (./*. 1480-1525), Welsh poet; Fran- 
ciscan ; pupil of Dafydd ab Edmwnd, and teacher of 
Gruffydd Hiraethog. [i. 254] 

ALEFOTTNDER, JOHN (d. 1796), portrait and minia- 
ture painter; silver medallist (Royal Academy), 1782; 
died in India. [i. 254] 

ALEMOOR, LORD (<f . 1776). [See PRINGLE, ANDREW.] 

ALESIUS, ALEXANDER (1500-1565), Lutheran 
divine; born and educated at Edinburgh; canon of St. 
Andrews ; gained applause by confuting Luther's argu- 
ments, and was chosen to reclaim Patrick Hamilton [q. v.], 
abbot of Fern, from Lutheran opinions, but was himself 
converted ; imprisoned by provost of St. Andrews ; fled 
to Germany, 1532 ; met Luther and Melanchthon ; 
went to England as bearer of a letter from Melanchthon 
to Henry VIII, 1535; warmly welcomed by Cranmer and 
Latimer ; divinity lecturer at Cambridge ; practised as 
physician in London, where his religious views met with 
opposition, 1537 ; returned to Germany, 1540 ; professor 
of theology at Frankfort-on-the-Oder ; attached as theo- 
logian to an unsuccessful embassy to Luther to induce 
him to sanction less extreme views than he himself 
professed, 1541; dean of theological faculty, Leipzig, 
1543 : visited Naumbug, 1664 and 1561, NUrnberg, 1555, 
and Dresden, 1561 ; engaged in arranging disputes among 
protestant parties ; revisited England and translated 
into Latin Edward VI's first liturgy ; twice rector of 
university of Leipzig, where he died ; published many exe- 
getical, dogmatic, and controversial works. [i. 254] 

ALEXANDER I (1078?-1124), king of Scotland: 
fourth son of Malcolm Canmore and Margaret, grand- 
niece of Edward the Confessor; on his father's death, 
1093, was protected by Edgar Atheling ; on death of his 
brother Edgar, who reigned 1097-1107, succeeded to the 
kingdom north of Forth and Clyde ; married Sibylla, a 
natural daughter of Henry I ; earned title of 'Fierce' by 
his defeat of the men of Moray and Mearns, c. 1115, and 
founded a church at Scone in honour of the victory ; en- 
tered into dispute concerning filling of see of St. Andrews, 
maintaining that right of investiture lay with pope or 
archbishop of Canterbury and not with archbishop of 
York, but died before its final settlement. [i. 259] 

ALEXANDER H (1198-1249), king of Scotland : son 
of William the Lion and Ermengarde, daughter of Richard, 
viscount of Beaumont ; knighted by King John of Eng- 
land, 1212 ; succeeded William the Lion, king of Scotland, 
1214, and took part with barons against John ; besieged 
Norham 1215 ; after invasions of Scotland by John and of 
England by Alexander, the latter did homage to Louis, the 
dauphin, at Dover ; invaded England again, 1217, but, on 
defeat of Louis, made peace with Henry III, confirmed by 
treaty, 1219 ; married Joan, elder daughter of John, 1221 ; 
reduced Argyle and Caithness, 1222, and subdued insurrec- 
tions, 1224 and 1228; repelled Norse invasion, 1230; 
married, secondly, Mary, daughter of Ingelram de Couci, 
1239 ; quarrelled with Henry III over an alleged intended 
alliance with France ; dispute settled by treaty at New- 
castle, 1244 ; died of fever while attempting to wrest the 
Hebrides from Norway. [i. 261] 




ALEXANDER HI (1241-1285), king of Scotland ; son 
of Alexander II [q. v.] and Mary de Oouci ; succeeded his 
father as a child, 1249 ; married Margaret, daughter of 
Henry III ; knighted by Henry, who demanded homage, 
1251 ; detected a plot to obtain papal legitimation of 
Marjory, a natural daughter of Alexander II, whereby her 
children might be heirs ; removed chief conspirators from 
office ; acted through regents the Earl of Menteith and 
the Comyns, 1251-5, and, from 1255, fifteen nobles chosen 
by Henry III ; was in hands of a new regency, combining 
two parties of nobility, 1258. Alexander successfully re- 
sumed his father's project of uniting the Hebrides to his 
kingdom, 1261 : assisted Henry III against the barons, 
1264, and did homage to Edward I, 1278. [i. 264] 

ALEXANDER (d. 1148), bishop of Lincoln ; nephew 
of Roger, bishop of Salisbury, by whom he was adopted ; 
archdeacon of Sarum, 1121; bishop of Lincoln, 1123; 
accompanied archbishops William of Canterbury and 
Thurstan of Yorh to Rome, 1125 ; took part in councils 
directed against marriage of clergy ; built castles at Slea- 
ford, Newark, and Banbury, and religious houses at Haver- 
holme, Thame, Dorchester-ou-Thames ; supported King 
Stephen, although he had previously sworn to receive 
Henry's daughter, Empress Maud, as queen ; his loyalty 
being suspected, he and his uncle were arrested at Oxford, 
1139 ; his castles surrendered ; took part in reception of 
Maud by Bishop Henry of Blois at Winchester, 1141 ; 
revisited Rome, 1145 ; probably crowned Stephen at Lin- 
coln, 1146. [i. 267] 

ALEXANDER OP CANTERBURY (fl. 1120?), monk of 
Ohristchurch, Canterbury; author of 'Dicta Anselmi 
Archiepiscopi.' [i. 271] 

ALEXANDER OP ASHBY (/. 1220), prior of the 
Austin priory, Ashby, Northampton; wrote theological 
tracts, chronicles, and Latin poems. [i. 271] 

ALEXANDER OP HALES (d. 1245), philosopher; 
trained for the church ; held successively various ecclesias- 
tical appointments, and was finally archdeacon ; retired to 
France ; studied theology and metaphysics in Paris, where 
he lectured; lecturer to the Franciscan order, 1222-38; 
student of Aristotle and his Arab commentators ; wrote 
Summa Theologize ' (printed, 1476). [i. 271] 

poetess, nee Humphreys; with a friend, Lady Harriet 
Howard, wrote tracts in connection with Oxford move- 
ment from 1842; married, 1850, William Alexander, 
bishop of Dcrry (afterwards archbishop of Armagh). 
Her poetical works comprise many hymns, including 
' There is a green hill far away.' [SuppL i. 30] 

ALEXANDER, DANIEL ASHER (1768-1846), archi- 
tect ; educated at St. Paul's school; silver medallist, 
Royal Academy ; surveyor to London Dock Company 
(1796-1831) and to Trinity House ; designed lighthouses 
at Harwich and Luudy Island, and prisons at Dartmoor 
and Maidstone. [i. 272] 

ALEXANDER, HELEN (1654-1729), heroine of Scot- 
tish covenanters ; avowed adherence to presbyterianism 
and the covenant; assisted many fugitives, including 
John Welsh and James Renwick. Her experiences were 
published from her dictation. [L 272] 

general; lieutenant, 1825; in Balkans during Russo- 
Turkish war, 1829; captain, 1830; aide-de-camp to Sir 
Benjamin D'Urban [q. v.] in Kaffir war, 1835 ; knighted, 
1838 ; aide-de-camp successively to D'Urban and Sir Wil- 
liam Rowan in Canada, 1847-55 ; in Crimea, 1855-6 ; 
colonel, 1858 ; in Maori war, 1860-2 ; major-general, 1868 ; 
O.B., 1873 ; general, 1881 ; published works relating to his 
service, and other writings. He was responsible for the 
preservation of Cleopatra's Needle. [Suppl. i. 31] 

ALEXANDER, JOHN (d. 1743), presbyterian minister 
at Stratford-on- Avon and at Dublin ; moderator of general 
synod of Ulster, 1734. [i. 273] 

ALEXANDER, JOHN (1736-1765), commentator ; son 
of John Alexander (d. 1743) [q. v.] ; educated at Daveutry, 
with Priestley, 1751 ; studied biblical criticism under Dr. 
Qorge Benson ; wrote several scriptural paiaphrases. 

[i. 273] 

first Anglican bishop of Jerusalem ; born and educated in 
Germany in Jewish faith ; private tutor in England ; 
converted, 1825 ; taught Hebrew in Dublin and was 
ordained, 1827; worked at Danzig in connection with 
Society for Promoting Christianity among Jews, 1827-3U ; 
professor of Hebrew, King's College, London, 1832-41 ; 
assisted in revising New Testament in Hebrew, 1835 ; 
bishop of united church of England and Ireland in 
Jerusalem, 1841 ; died in Egypt on journey to England ; 
published religious works. [i. 273] 

(1567?-1640), poet and statesman; perhaps educated at 
Stirling, Glasgow, and Leyden ; travelled as tutor to Archi- 
bald, earl of Argyle, to France, Spain, and Italy ; tutor 
to Prince Henry, son of James VI ; gentleman of bed- 
chamber to Prince Henry, 1603 ; knighted, 1609 ; on death 
of Prince Henry, 1612, appointed to same position in 
household of Prince Charles ; formed friendship with Drum- 
mond of Hawthornden, c. 1613 ; master of requests, 1614 ; 
assisted the king in a metrical version of the Psalms 
(published 1631), and received patent for sole printing rights 
for thirty-one years ; granted jurisdiction over Nova Scotia 
and Canada, 1621 ; published ' Encouragement to Colonies,' 
1625 ; secretary of state for Scotland, 1626 till death ; raised 
to peerage, 1630 ; extraordinary judge of court of session, 
1631 ; Earl of Stirling, 1633 ; died insolvent in London ; 
published many volumes of poetry. [i. 275] 

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM (1726-1783), American 
general ; son of James Alexander, who had fled to America 
after the rebellion of 1715 ; clerk in his mother's provision 
business at New York ; joined army commissariat ; aide- 
de-camp and secretary to General Shirley ; claimed unsuc- 
cessfully the earldom of Stirling, 1762 ; surveyor-general, 
New York ; governor of Columbia College ; commanded 
American militia regiment in war of independence, and 
served throughout the war ; major-general, 1777. [L 280] 

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM(1767-1816), artist, and first 
keeper of prints and drawings in British Museum, 1808 ; 
student at Royal Academy, 1784 ; junior draughtsman 
with Lord Macartney's embassy to China, 1792 ; professor 
of drawing at Military College, Great Marlow, 1802; 
published several volumes of engravings. [L 281] 

congregational divine; educated at Leith High School, 
Edinburgh and St. Andrews ; D.D., 1846 ; classical tutor 
in Blackburn Theological Academy, 1827-31 ; pastor, 1835- 
1877, of North College Street Congregational Church 
(which removed, 1861, to Augustine Charcb, George IV 
Bridge, Edinburgh) ; reviser of Old Testament, 1870 ; pro- 
fessor of theology at Theological Hall, Edinburgh, 1854, 
and principal, 1877 ; LL.D. Edinburgh, 1884 ; published 
religious and other writings. [Suppl. i. 32] 

ALEYN, CHARLES (d. 1640), poet; educated at 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge ; private tutor to Sir 
Edward Sherburne. [L 281] 


(d. 1585), seminary priest ; educated at Eton and Cam- 
bridge ; became catholic ; recanted under torture ; tor- 
tured and hanged for disseminating Roman catholic lite- 
rature. . [L 282] 

ALFORD, HENRY (1810-1871), dean of Canterbury, 
1857-71 ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge ; Bell 
scholar ; graduated 1832 ; ordained curate at Ampton, 
1833 ; fellow of Trinity, 1834 ; vicar of Wymeswold. 
1835-53 ; studied German at Bonn, 1847 ; minister of 
Quebec Chapel, Marylebone, 1853; edited Greek Testa- 
ment, 1849-61 ; published sermons and poems, including 
translation of the * Odyssey ' in blank verse, and took part 
in revising the New Testament ; first editor of 'Contem- 
porary Review.' [L 282] 

ALFORD, known as LADY MARIAN ALPORD (1817-1888), 
artist, daughter of Spencer Compton, second Marquis of 
Northampton [q. v.] ; marridd, 1841, John Home Cast, 
viscount Alford (son of Earl Brownlow) ; friend of the 
leading artists of the day ; assisted in founding Royal 
School of Art Needlework, Kensington ; published * Needle- 
work as Art,' 1886. [SuppL L 33] 




ALFORD, MICHAEL (1587-1652), Jesuit and ecclesi- 
astical historian; studied philosophy :it Seville; 
penitentiary at Rome, 1615 ; pursued missionary labours in 
Leicestershire. [i. 284] 

ALFRED, KINO (849-901). [See JELFRED.] 

ALFRED OK BKVKRI.KY (/. 1143), chronicler; trea- 
surer of church of Beverley; compiled history up to 
1129. [i. 285] 

(12th-13th cent.), writer ; possibly translator of Aristotle, 
and author of ' De Motu Oordls,' 1220. [i. 285] 

second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert ; educated 
for navy ; served in Channel, North America, West Indies, 
and Mediterranean ; elected by suffrage king of Greece, 1862, 
but was compelled on political grounds to refuse crov/n : 
captain, 1 866; created Duke of Edinburgh and Earl of Ulster 
and Kent, and elected Master of Trinity House, 1866 ; com- 
missioned H.M.S. Galatea, 1867, and visited many parts of 
the world, 1867-71 ; served in the Mediterranean fleet ; 
rear-admiral, 1878 ; vice-admiral, 1882 ; commanded Chan- 
nel squadron, 1883-4 ; commander-in-chief in Mediterra- 
nean, 1886-9: admiral, 1887; commander-in-chief at 
Devonport, 1890-3 ; admiral of the fleet, 1893 ; succeeded, 
1893, his father's brother as reigning Duke of Paxe-Ooburg 
and Gotha, in virtue of renunciation in 1863 by his brother, 
Prince of Wales, of title to duchy : relinquished privi- 
leges as English peer ; died at Rosenau, near Ooburg. He 
married, 1874, Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna, only 
daughter of Alexander II, tsar of Russia. [Suppl. i. 34] 

HESSE-DARMSTADT (1843-1878), third child of Queeii Vic- 
toria and Prince Albert ; married, 1862, Frederick of Hesse, 
nephew of Louis III, grand duke of Hesse- Darmstadt ; 
foundress of Women's Union for Nursing Sick and 
Wounded In War. [I. 285] 

ALISON, ARCHIBALD (1757-1839), writer of an 
essay on 'Taste' (1790) ; of Balliol College, Oxford, 1784 : 
took holy orders ; studied natural history as disciple of 
Gilbert White ; prebendary of Salisbury, 1791 ; minister of 
episcopal chapel, Oowgate, Edinburgh, 1800 till death ; 
adherent of the Scottish ' common-sense ' philosophy ; pub- 
lished sermons. [i. 286] 

ALISON, SIR ARCHIBALD (1792-1867), historian ; 
younger son of Archibald Alison [q. v.] ; educated at Euln- 
burgh ; called to bar, 1814 ; travelled on the continent ; 
advocate depute, 1822 ; published work on Scottish criminal 
law, 1832-3 ; sheriff of Lanarkshire, 1834 ; successfully 
suppressed distress riots and strikes, 1837 ; published his 
' History of Europe,' 1833-42, and a continuation, 1852-9 ; 
elected lord rector of Marischal College, Aberdeen, against 
Macaulay, 1845, and of Glasgow against Palmerston, 1851 ; 
created baronet, 1852 ; published autobiography besides 
historical works. [i. 287] 

ALISON, WILLIAM PULTENEY (1790-1859), phy- 
sician ; elder son of Archibald Alison [q. v.] ; educated 
at Edinburgh ; M.D., 1811 : physician to New Town dis- 
pensary, 1815 ; professor of medical jurisprudence, Edin- 
burgh, 1820-2; professor of 'institutes of medicine,' first 
jointly, afterwards solely, for twenty years ; published 
Outlines of Physiology,' 1831, in which tke leading idea 
was that of a life-force distinct from the physical forces 
of dead matter : professor of practice of medicine, 1842-56 ; 
appointed first physician to her ma jesty for Scotland ; hon. 
D.O.L., Oxford, 1850; successfully advocated legal relief 
of the destitute in Scotland. [i. 290] 

ALKEN, HENRY (.ft. 1816-1831), draughtsman and 
engraver ; said to have been stud-groom to the Duke of 
Beaufort ; published many etchings of sporting subjects, 
mostly coloured. [i. 292] 

ALKEN, SAMUEL (fi. 1780-1796), draughtsman ; 
engraved plates after Morland and others, and published 
Beta of original etchings. [i. 292] 

AT.T.Alf ANDREW (1655-1685), antiquary ; graduated 
at St. Edmund's Hall, Oxford, and was made tutor and 
subsequently vice-principal ; took holy orders, 1680 ; 
assisted Anthony a Wood in his ' Atheuae Oxonienses,' and 
produced other works, ohiefly historical. [i. 293] 

ALLAN, DAVID (1744-1796), Scottish painter; 
apprenticed to Robert Foulis, the Glasgow printer ; went 
to Rome, where he met Gavin Hamilton, 1764 ; probably 
exhibited at Royal Academy, 1771 and 1773; gained 
gold medal of St. Luke's for historical composition, 1773 ; 
earned title of the 'Scottish Hogarth' by pictures of 
Venetian Carnival exhibited at Royal Academy, 1779; 
painted portraits in London, 1777-80 ; director and master 
of Trustees' Academy at Edinburgh, 1786 ; Illustrated 
poems by Burns, Allan Ramsay, and others. [i. 293] 

ALLAN, GEORGE (1736-1800), antiquary and topo- 
grapher; practised as an attorney at Darlington, Dur- 
ham ; acquired numerous collections of manuscripts, 
charters, and genealogical records relating chiefly to Dur- 
ham, many of which he printed at a private press erected 
at Darlington, c. 1768. His library was open to antiquaries, 
and was of great assistance to several well-known histo- 
rical works, notably Hutchinson's ' History of Durham.' 

[1. 294] 

(1830-1897). [See HAVELOCK-ALLAN.] 

ALLAN, PETER (1798-1849), coloniser of the 'Mars- 
den Rock ' ; successively valet, gamekeeper to Marquis of 
Londonderry, landlord of a tavern at Whitburn, and super- 
intendent of quarries near Durham ; excavated cavern on 
the coast near Sunderland in bay of Marsden ; lived In it 
from 1828 till his death. The cavern was destroyed by 
fall of cliff, 1865. [i. 295] 

ALLAN, PETER JOHN (1825-1848), poet; lived 
mostly in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. His poems, 
published posthumously, show traces of Byron's In- 
fluence, [i. 296] 

ALLAN, ROBERT (1774-1841), Scottish poet ; by trade 
a muslin-weaver ; died at New York. His poems, though 
melodious, achieved little success. [i. 296] 

ALLAN, THOMAS (1777-1833), mineralogist ; amassed 
a large collection of minerals ; contributed the article on 
' Diamond ' to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' ; F.R.S. 
and member of the Edinburgh Royal Society ; published 
geological works. [1. 297] 

ALLAN, SIR WILLIAM (1782-1850), painter of Rus- 
sian scenery and life ; educated in Edinburgh ; apprenticed 
to a coachmaker ; studied at the Trustees' Academy and 
Royal Academy schools ; exhibited first in Royal Academy, 
1803 ; went to Russia, 1805, and spent some years travelling 
In the Interior ; returned to Edinburgh, 1814 ; master of 
the Trustees' School, 1826 ; travelled on continent and In 
Asia Minor ; R.A., London, 1835 ; president of Royal Scot- 
tish Academy, 1838 ; limner to queen in Scotland, 1841 ; 
knighted 1842. [L 297] 

pedestrian, commonly known as CAPTAIN BARCLAY ; en- 
tered 23rd regiment 1805 ; served in Walcheren expedition 
as aide-de-camp to the Marquis of Huntly, 1809 ; claimed 
unsuccessfully earldoms of Alrth, Strathern, and Mon- 
telth, 1839-40; noted for his walking feate, which in- 
cluded walking one mile in each of one thousand succes- 
sive hours. [I. 298] 

ALLARDYCE, ALEXANDER (1846-1896), author: 
educated at Aberdeen ; engaged In journalism in India, 
1868-75 ; subsequently reader to Messrs. William Black- 
wood & Sons at Edinburgh ; published novels and edited 
John Ramsay's 'Scotland and Scotsmen In Eighteenth 
Century,' and ' Letters from and to Charles Kirkpatriok 
Sharpe' [q. v.] [Suppl. i. 36] 

1634), printer ; freeman of Stationers' Company, 1584 ; 
his name appears In the registers down to 1623. [I. 299] 

(fl. 1565-1592), printer ; first freeman of Stationers' Com- 
pany, 1555 ; mentioned In the original charter of the com- 
pany, 1657. [i. 299] 

ALLECTTJS (250 ?-296), Roman emperor in Britain ; 
minister of Carausius [q. v.j ; assassinated Carausius, and 
proclaimed himself emperor, 293 ; struck numerous coins 
at London and Colchester ; fell in battle In Hampshire. 

[ix. 35] 

AT.T.EINE, JOSEPH (1634-1668), author of 'An 
Alarm to the Unconverted ' ; entered Lincoln College, Ox- 
ford, 1649 ; scholar of Corpus Ohristi, 1651 ; B.D. and 




tutor, 1653 ; ordained as associate of George Newton at 
Tauutou, 1G54 ; ejected, 1662 ; imprisoned for evangelical 
preaching ; wrote religious works. [i. 299] 

ALLEINE, RICHARD (1611-1681), author of Vin- 
dicia? I'irtatis ' and other religious works ; graduated B.A., 
St. Albau Hull, and M.A. New Inn Hall, Oxford ; or- 
dained ; rector of Batcombe, Somerset, 1641-61 ; appointed 
assistant to the commissioners for * ejecting scandalous 
minister*,' 1654 ; ejected under Act of Uniformity and 
preached semi-privately in neighbourhood of Frome 
Sehvood. [i. 300] 

ALLEINE, WILLIAM (1614-1677), divine ; younger 
brother of Richard Alleine [q. v.] ; B.A. and M.A. St. 
Alban Hall, Oxford ; private chaplain in London ; vicar 
of Blandford, Bristol, e. 1653 ; ejected from living 1662 ; 
preached in private ; later, held livings at Bristol and 
Yeovil. [i. 301] 


ALLEN, ALEXANDER (1814-1842), philologist ; son 
of John Allen (1771-1839) [q. v.] ; educated at his father's 
school, Hackney, and at London University ; carried on his 
father's school on his death ; doctor of philosophy, Leipzig, 
1840 ; published works principally philological, [i. 302] 

ALLEN, ANTHONY (d. 1754), barrister and anti- 
quary ; educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge ; 
master in chancery ; wrote unpublished biographical ac- 
count of members of Eton College. [i. 302] 

ALLEN, BENNET (ft. 1761-1782), miscellaneous 
writer ; B.A. Wadham College, Oxford, 1757 ; M.A., 1760 ; 
took holy orders and settled in London ; published pam- 
phlet entitled ' Modern Chastity,' by way of defence of 
Lord Baltimore, who was charged with rape, 1768 ; subse- 
quently contributed to 'Morning Post,' and was im- 
prisoned for killing in a duel one whom he had slandered 
in an anonymous article, 1782. [i. 302] 

ALLEN, EDMUND (1519?-1559), bishop-elect of 
Rochester, 1559; M.A. Corpus Christi College, Cam- 
bridge, 1537 ; studied abroad, where, probably, he gra- 
duated B.D. ; chaplain to Princess Elizabeth, 1549, and to 
her when queen ; acted as ambassador ; published several 
religious works. [i. 303] 

ALLEN, GRANT (1848-1899), author, whose full 
in Canada ; educated at King Edward's school, Birming- 
ham ; B.A. Merton College, Oxford, 1871 ; professor of 
mental and moral philosophy in college at Spanish 
Town, Jamaica, for education of negroes, 1873-6 ; returned 
to England, 1876, and adopted literature as profession ; 
published ' Physiological ^Esthetics,' 1877 ; assisted Sir 
William Wilson Hunter [q. v.] in compilation of ' Imperial 
Gazetteer of India'; published, 1884, his first novel, 
'Philistia,' which had appeared serially in ' Gentleman's 
Magazine,' and subsequently produced under his own 
name and pseudonyms more than thirty works of fiction, 
including 'The Woman who did' (1895) and ' The British 
Barbarians ' (1896). [Suppl. i. 36] 

ALLEN, JAMES BAYLIS (1803-1876), line-engraver ; 
articled as general engraver ; studied drawing under 
J. V. Barber ; employed by the Fiudens in London, 1824 ; 
engraved plates (including 'Rivera of France') after 
Turner and other artists. [i. 304] 

ALLEN, JAMES 0. (d. 1831), line-engraver ; pupil of 
W. B. Cooke, in conjunction with whom, after 1821, he 
engraved series of plates, including 'Views of the 
Colosseum,' after drawings by Major-general Cockburn. 

ALLEN, JAMES MOUNTFORD (1809-1883)', archi- 
tect ; practised in London, and later as a church-architect 
at Crewkerue, Somerset. [i. 305] 

ALLEN, JOHN (1476-1534), archbishop of Dublin ; 
studied at Oxford and Cambridge ; in Italy on eccle- 
siastical business for Archbishop Warhain ; took holy 
orders, J499 ; vicar of Chislet, 1503 ; presented to livings 
of Sundridge( 1508) and Aldington (1511); rural dean of 
Risebergh, Buckingham, 1512; rector of South Ocken- 
don, Essex, and prebendary of Lincoln Cathedral, 1516 ; 
rector of Gaulsby, 1523; acted as Wolsey's agent in sup- 
pressing minor monasteries, 1524-5 ; prel>endary of Not- 
tingham, 1526, and of St. Paul's Cathedral, 1527 ; accom- 

panied Wolsey to France; archbishop of Dublin, 1528, 
when he resigned his prebends ; chancellor of Ireland, 
1528-32 ; fined under statutes of provisory and pram mnrr, 
1531 ; murdered by followers of Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, 
1534. [i. 305] 

ALLEN or ALLIN, JOHN (1696-1671), New England 
puritan colonist ; left living at Ipswich to avoid perse- 
cutions of Bishop Wren ; went to New England with 
, band of puritans, 1638 ; pastor of church at Dedham, 
Massachusetts, 1639 ; resisted attempts to subject colo- 
nists to British government, 1646 ; took part in dispute 
with English divines on baptism, 1662. [i. 307] 

ALLEN or ALLEYN, JOHN (16607-1741), phy- 
sician and inventor ; M.D. ; extra-licentiate, College of 
Physicians, 1692 ; practiced at Bridgewater, Somerset ; 
published 'Synopsis Medicinae,' 1719, and 'Specimina 
Ichnographica,' 1730, a book describing several inven- 
tions, including a new method of navigating vessels. 

[i. 307] 

ALLEN, JOHN (/. 1764), nonconformist divine; 
minister successively of baptist churches in Petticoat 
Lane (now Middlesex Street), London, and Broadstaira, 
Newcastle ; dismissal for misconduct ; died in New York ; 
published popular tracts. [L 308] 

ALLEN, JOHN, the younger (d. 1831), bookseller and 
antiquary of Hereford ; made a large collection of anti- 
quities, books, prints, <fec., relating to Herefordshire, of 
which county he left an unpublished and unfinished 
history. [i. 308] 

ALLEN, JOHN (1771-1839), dissenting layman; 
author of 'Modern Judaism,' 1816, and other works of 
religious history ; kept academy at Hackney. [i. 309] 

ALLEN, JOHN (1771-1843), political and historical 
writer ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1791 ; in the confidence of 
Jeffrey and his coadjutors on the ' Edinburgh Review ' ; 
accompanied Lord Holland to Spain, 1801-5 and 1808; 
warden of Dulwich College, 1811-20, and master, 1820 
till death ; published ' Inquiry into Rise and Growth of 
Royal Prerogative in England,' 1830, and contributed 
historical and political articles to 'Edinburgh Review,* 
' Annual Register,' and ' Encyclopaedia Britanuica.' 

[L 309] 

ALLEN, JOHN (d. 1855), revolutionist; tried for 
high treason with Arthur O'Connor, 1798; concerned in 
Robert Emmet's rising, 1803 ; fled to France and served 
in French army in Peninsula ; colonel in French army, 
1810. [i. 310] 

ALLEN, JOSEPH WILLIAM (1803-1852), landscape 
painter ; originally a tutor ; worked as scene-painter for 
the Olympic ; took an active part in establishing Society 
of British Artists. [i. 310] 

ALLEN, RALPH (1694-1764), philanthropist; em- 
loyed in Bath post office ; obtained patronage of General 
Vude by detecting a Jacobite plot ; raised and equipped 
one hundred volunteers at Bath, 1745; deputy post- 
master, Bath ; devised and managed a system of cross- 
posts for England and Wales by which he amassed a 
large fortune ; became intimate with Pope, Fielding (who 
drew from him Squire Allworthy in 'Tom Jones'), the 
elder Pitt, and other eminent people ; gave large sums in 
charity, principally in Bath. [i. 311] 

ALLEN, THOMAS (1542-1632), mathematician; 
educated at Trinity College, Oxford ; B.A., 1563 ; fellow, 
1565 ; M.A., 157 ; obtained patronage of Earl of North- 
umberland, and came in contact with most mathema- 
ticians and scholars of his day; refused offer of a 
bishopric from Earl of Leicester ; left historical, anti- 
quarian, astronomical, philosophical, and mathematical 
manuscripts, some of which are preserved in Bodleian 
Library. [i. 312] 

ALLEN, THOMAS (1608-1673), nonconformist divine ; 
graduated at Cains College, Cambridge ; held living of 
St. Edmund's, Norwich ; ' silenced ' by Bishop Wren for 
disagreement with ' Book of Sport?,' 1636 ; fled to 
Charlestown, New England, 1638 ; returned to Norwich, 
1652 ; ejected, 1662 ; published religious works, [i. 313] 

ALLEN, THOMAS (1681-1755), divine; B.A. New 
College, Oxford, and ordained, 1705; successively clerk 
in Lincoln's Inn, and schoolmaster ; vicar of Ircbester, 
Northamptonshire, 1706, and of Ketteriug, 1715; wrote 
various religious work*. [i. 313] 






ALLEN. THOMAS (1803-1833), topographer ; pro- 
duced from 1827 illustrated volumes relating to Lam- 
beth, Westminster, Southwark, Yorkshire, Surrey, Sussex, 
and Lincolnshire. [i. 314] 

ALLEN, WILLIAM (1532-1594), cardinal ; B.A. 
and fellow, Oriel College, Oxford, 1550; M.A., 1554; 
principal of St. Mary'e Hall, 1556 ; proctor, 1556-7 ; 
his zeal for the catholic faith making it impossible for 
him to remain in Oxford, he took up residence at uni- 
versity of Louvain, 1561 ; owing to ill-health, returned 
to England in disguise, 1562 ; stayed in Lancashire 
(where he rigorously opposed occasional conformity), 
Oxford, and Norfolk : finally returned to Low Countries, 
1565 ; ordained at Mechlin ; lectured on theology ; went , 
on pilgrimage to Rome, 1567 ; opened, with the assistance 
of several eminent divines, a catholic seminary at Douay, 
1568 ; B.D. ; regius professor of divinity at Douay, 1570 ; i 
D.D., 1671 ; canon of church of Our Lady at Cambray, [ 
1675 ; his seminary, to escape persecutions of Calvinists, 
removed to Rheims, 1578 ; arranged for foundation of an i 
English Jesuit college at Rome, 1579 ; his efforts con- 
sistently opposed by the protestants ; resided at the i 
English hospital, Rome, after 1585; as supporter of j 
Philip II of Spain's claim to English throne made 
cardinal, 1587, so that, in the event of Philip's success, he 
might reconcile the realm to the church ; received from 
the pope an abbey in Calabria and the revenues of the 
archbishopric of Palermo ; nominated archbishop of 
Mechlin, 1589, but did not obtain the see ; apostolic 
librarian ; entrusted, with Cardinal Oolonna, with re- 
vision of the Vulgate; published many religious 
writings. [i. 314] 

ALLEN, WILLIAM (1770-1843), quaker, scientist, 
and philanthropist ; entered Sevan's chemical establish- 
ment at Plough Court, which, from 1795, he carried on ; 
fellow Linnean Society, 1801 ; F.R., 1807 ; lecturer at 
Guy's Hospital, 1802-26 ; intimate with Clarkson, Wilber- 
force, and James Mill ; active opposer of slavery ; en- 
gaged in schemes of social improvement, and made 
several journeys on the continent, examining prisons 
and other public institutions, 1816-33 ; helped to found an 
agricultural colony at Lindfield, Sussex. [i. 322] 

ALLEN, WILLIAM (1793-1864), naval officer; lieu- 
tenant, 1815; commander, 1836; captain, 1842; took 
part in the Niger expeditions of 1832 and 1841-2 ; rear- 
admiral, 1862 ; published books of travel. [i. 322] 

ALLEN80N, JOHN (/. 1616), puritan divine ; pupil 
at Cambridge of Dr. Whitaker ; B.D., 1590 ; fellow of St. 
John's, 1584 ; senior dean and sacrist, 1603 ; senior bursar, 
1604 ; suspended for puritan opinions successively from 
curacies of Barnwell and Horniugsea, Cambridgeshire; 
edited works by Dr. Whitaker. [L 323] 

ALLESTREE, RICHARD (1619-1681), royalist di- 
vine ; B.A. and moderator in philosophy, Christ Church 
College, Oxford, where his tutor was Richard Busby, 
1640 ; took arms for the king and served under Sir John 
Biron, 1641, and was present at Kineton Field ; twice 
captured, but was released ; M.A., 1643 ; entered holy 
orders and became censor of his college ; expelled from 
Oxford by parliamentarian.*, 1648 ; frequently employed 
in carrying messages to and from the king; in prison 
several weeks and released on account of ill-health, 1659 ; 
canon of Christ Church and D.D., 1660; chaplain in 
ordinary to the king, 1663 ; regius professor of divinity, 
1663-79 ; provost of Eton College, 1665 ; author of ' The 
Whole Duty of Man ' and tracts and sermons, [i. 324] 

ALLESTRY, JACOB (1653-1686), poetical writer ; 
educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford ; 
music reader, 1679 ; teme fllius, 1682 ; contributed to 
' Examen Poeticum,' published 1693. [i. 325] 

ALLEY, WILLIAM ( 15 10 ?-1570), bishop of Exeter, 
1560; educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge ; 
B.A., 1633 ; during Mary's reign travelled in north of 
England, gaining a precarious livelihood by practising 
physic and teaching ; divinity reader and, in 1569, pene- 
tentiary and prebendary of St. Paul's ; D.D. Oxford, 1561 ; 
wrote religious works. [L 326] 

ALLZYN, EDWARD (1666-1626), actor and founder 
of Dulwich College ; one of Earl of Worcester's players, 
1586 ; married a step-daughter of Philip Heuslowe [q. v.], 
1592, whose partner he became ; attached to Lord Ad- 

miral's company ; toured with Lord Strange's company, 
1593 ; acted in London, 1694-7 ; acquired interest in bear- 
baiting house, Paris Garden, 1594 ; built, with Heuslowe, 
Fortune theatre, Cripplegate, 1600, where he acted at head 
of Lord Admiral's company ; purchased with Heuslowe 
office of master of Royal Game of bears, bulls, and mastiff 
dogs, 1604 ; retired soon after the accession of James I, 
when the Lord Admiral's company was taken over by 
Prince Henry; last recorded appearance, 1604; played 
hero in Marlowe's 'Tamburlaine,' 'Jew of Malta,' and 
' Faustus ' ; acquired great wealth and landed property ; 
bought manor of Dulwich, 1605 ; built and endowed the 
college, 1613-16, and received patent for its incorporation, 
1619 ; personally managed its affairs, 1617-22, and possibly 
till death ; lost his wife and afterwards married a daughter 
of Dr. Donne ; on terms of friendship with many persons 
of note, and patron of Dekker, John Taylor, and other 
writers. [i. 327] 

ALLIBOND, JOHN (1597-1658), son of Peter Allibond 
[q. v.] ; schoolmaster ; M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 
1619 ; D.D., 1643 ; master of Magdalen College School, 
1625-32, and lecturer on music ; held successively three 
church livings in Gloucestershire after 1634 ; wrote Latin 
poems. [i. 330] 

ALLIBOND, PETER (1560-1629), translator; B.A. 
Magdalen Hah 1 , Oxford, 1581 ; M.A., 1686 ; travelled abroad 
and subsequently became rector of Chenies, Buckingham- 
shire; translated theological works from Latin and 
French. [i. 330] 

1688), judge ; grandson of Peter Allibond [q. v.] ; Roman 
catholic ; educated at Douay ; entered Gray's Inn, 1663 ; 
king's counsel and knighted, 1686 ; serjeant-at-law and 
justice of king's bench, 1687 ; incurred unpopularity Jay 
opposing the seven bishops, 1688. [i. 330] 

ALLIES, JABEZ (1787-1866), antiquary and writer 
on folklore ; practised as solicitor in London ; F.S.A., c. 
1840 ; retired to Worcester ; published works on antiqui- 
ties of Worcestershire and Herefordshire, and on Shake- 
speare's fairy mythology. [L 331] 

ALLIN, SIR THOMAS (1612-1685), naval commander ; 
originally merchant and shipowner in Lowestoft: sup- 
ported royalists during civil war ; captain, 1660 ; com- 
mander-in-chief in the Downs, 1663 ; fought against 
Dutch in Mediterranean, 1664, and at Lowestoft, 1665 ; 
knighted and appointed admiral ; defeated Dutch off Isle 
of Wight and French off Dungeness, 1666 ; engaged 
against Barbary pirates, 1668-70 ; comptroller of navy, 
1670-8 ; commander-in-chief in the Narrow Seas against 
French, 1778. [i. 332] 

ALLINGHAM, JOHN TILL (/. 1799-1810), drama- 
tist ; educated for the law ; wrote many popular plays, 
much of the success of which was due to the actor, Charles 
Mathews. [i. 333] 

ALLINGHAM, WILLIAM (1824-1889), poet ; born 
at Ballyshannon, Donegal, where, c. 1837, he entered the 
bank managed by his father ; received appointment in 
customs, c. 1846; became acquainted with Leigh Hunt 
in London; published 'Poems,' 1850, and 'Day and 
Night Songs ' (a second series of which contained illus- 
trations by pre-Raphaelite artists), 1864; edited 'The 
Ballad Book' for 'Golden Treasury Series,' 1864; pub- 
lished ' Laurence Bloomfield in Ireland,' his most am- 
bitious work, 1864 : his poetical works were collected in 
six volumes, 1888-93; editor of 'Fraser's Magazine,' 
1874-9. A collection entitled ' Varieties in Prose ' appeared 
posthumously, 1893. [Suppl. i. 38] 

ALLISON, THOMAS (/. 1697), Arctic voyager ; pub- 
lished, 1699, an account of his voyage in 1697-8 from Arch- 
angel to the neighbourhood of North Cape. [i. 333] 

ALLIX, PETER (1641-1717), protestant preacher; 
born at Aleneon ; educated at Sanmur and Sedan ; worked 
with Claude on French translation of the bible ; pastor of 
St. Agobille, Champagne ; translated to Charenton, Paris, 
1670 ; moderator of synod at Lisy, 1683 ; on revocation of 
edict of Nantes came to England, 1686, and founded in 
London a church for protestant refugees ; D.D. of Oxford 
and Cambridge ; treasurer of Salisbury Cathedral, 1690 ; 
published many theological works in Latin, French, and 
English. [i. 334] 




ALLMAN, GEORGE JAMES (1812-1898), botanist 
1 zoologist ; educated at Belfast ; B.A. Trinity College, 
blin, 1839 ; M.D., 1847 ; F.R.O.S. Ireland, 1844 ; M.D. 

ford, 1847 ; professor of botany, Dublin University, 

1841 : F.H.S., 1854 ; regius professor of natural history, 
Edinburgh University, 1855-70; president of Liunean 
Society, 1H74-83, and gold medallist, 1896. His most im- 
portant work was his investigation into the morphology 
of the coelenterata and polyzoa. [Suppl. i. 40] 

ALLMAN, WILLIAM (1776-1846), botanist; B.A. 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1796 ; M.A., 1801 ; M.D., 1804 ; 
practised medicine in Cloumel till 1809 ; professor of 
botany, Dublin, 1809-44 ; published botanical works. 

ALLOM, THOMAS (1804-1872), architect : furnished 
drawings for series of illustrated works on ' Cumberland 
and Westmoreland,' 'Scotland,' 'Constantinople,' and 
other places ; exhibited frequently at Royal Academy. 

ALLON, HENRY (1818-1892), congregational divine ; 
studied theology at Cheshunt College ; sole pastor, 1852, 
at Union Chapel, Islington ; honorary secretary of Ches- 
hunt College, 1862, and trustee of Countess of Hunting- 
don's connexion ; honorary D.D. Yale University, 1871, 
and St. Andrews, 1885 ; president of congregational 
union, 1864 and 1881 ; editor of ' British Quarterly Review,' 
1877-86 ; edited volumes of hymns and wrote religious 
publications. [Suppl. i. 41] 

ALLON, HENRY ERSKINE (1864-1897), composer ; 
son of Henry Allon (1818-1892) [q. v.] ; educated at Uni- 
versity College, London, and Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
wrote sonatas and assisted in founding 'New Musical 
Quarterly Review.' [Suppl. i. 42] 

ALLOTT, ROBERT (/. 1600), editor of ' England's 
Parnassus' 1600, and of 'Wits Theater of the Little 
World,' 1599. [i. 336] 

ALLOTT, WILLIAM (d. 1590?), catholic divine; 
educated at Cambridge ; retired to Louvainon Elizabeth's 
accession ; in high favour with Mary Queen of Scots ; re- 
turned and preached in England, but was imprisoned and 
banished ; canon of St. Quintin, Picardy. [i. 337] 

ALLOWAY, LORD (d. 1829). [See OATHCABT, 

ALLPORT, SIR JAMES JOSEPH (1811-1892), railway 
manager ; chief clerk, then traffic manager and manager, 
Birmingham and Derby railway ; manager of Newcastle 
and Darlington line, 1844-50, and of Manchester, Sheffield 
and Lincolnshire, 1850-3 ; general manager of Midland 
railway, 1853-7, director, 1857, and again general manager, 
1860-80 ; managing director of Palmer's Shipbuilding 
Company, Jarrow, 1857-60 ; knighted, 1884. Under his 
management the Midland railway grew into one of the 
chief English railway systems. [Suppl. i. 42] 

ALLSOP, THOMAS (1795-1880), stockbroker and 
author ; entered silk mercery trade in London, 1812 ; 
joined Stock Exchange ; made the acquaintance of Cole- 
ridge, 1818 ; on the poet's death published his ' Letters, 
Conversations, and Recollections ' ; intimate with Lamb, 
Hazlitt, Barry Cornwall, and other eminent men ; provided 
Feargus O'Connor with his property qualification as re- 
presentative of chartism on his election as M.P. for i 
Nottingham ; was in sympathy with Orsini, the con- 
spirator against Napoleon III. A reward was offered for 
his apprehension as accessory in the ' attempt of Orsini,' 
but the overtness of his actions disarmed suspicion. 

[i. 337] 

ALMACK, WILLIAM (d. 1781), founder of Almack's 
Assembly Rooms ; apparently came to London as valet of 
Duke of Hamilton ; proprietor of a tavern in St. James's 
Street; opened a gaming club in Pall Mall, known as 
Almack's Club (now Brooks's), before 1763 ; erected his 
assembly rooms in King Street, 1764. [i. 339] 

ALMEIDA or MEADE, JOHN (1672-1653), Jesuit mis- 
sionary ; taken without his parents' consent to Viana, 
Portugal, at age of ten ; admitted member of Society of 
Jesus, 1592 ; ordained, 1602 ; spent many years travelling 
on foot through Brazil as missionary. [i. 340] 

ALMON, JOHN (1737-1805), bookseller and journa- 
list ; apprenticed to printer at Liverpool ; travelled on , 
continent, 1758-9 ; employed in London as printer ; con- I 

tributed to the 'Gazetteer,' and attracted attention of 
Lord Temple, Burke, and other members of the opposi- 
tion ; formed acquaintance with Wilkes, 1761, which lasted 
till Wilkes's death ; established himself in Piccadilly a- 
l look and pamphlet teller ; imprisoned and fined for sup- 
porting Wilkes, 1770 ; proprietor and editor of ' General 
Advertiser,' 1784 ; tried for libel, 1786, ami retired in 
financial difficulties to France ; died in England ; wrote 
and edited miscellaneous works. [i. 340] 

ALMOND, Mus. EMMA (1814-1868). [See ROMKK.] 

ALMS, JAMES (1728-1791), captain in navy; of 
bumble origin ; served as midshipman at battles of 
Namur and Fiuisterre and in East Indies, 1744-9; as 
lieutenant at capture of Gheriah, 1756, and blockade of 
Brest, 1759, and as captain at reduction of Martinique 
and Havana; in actions at Praya Bay, 1781, Sadras, 
Providieu, Negapatam, and Trincoinalee, 1782; retired, 
1784. [i. 842] 

ALNWICK, MARTIN OF (d. 1336). [See MARTIN.] 

ALNWTCK, WILLIAM (d. 1449), bishop of Norwich 
and of Lincoln ; LL.D. Cambridge ; monk of St. 
Albans; first confessor of the Brigetiue nuns at Syon, 
1414 ; prior of Wymondham, and archdeacon of Sarum, 
1420; received stall of Knaresborough-cum-Bickhill in 
York Cathedral, 1421 ; bishop of Norwich, 1426 ; confessor 
to Henry VI ; translated to see of Lincoln, 1436 ; settled 
disputes between dean and chapter, and published (1440) 
a new code of statutes for regulation of the cathedral, 
which originated a contest between him and the dean, 
still undecided at his death ; took part in founding Eton 
School and Kiug's College, Cambridge. [i. 343] 


ALPHERY, NIKEPHOR (ft. 1618-1660), divine: 
rector of Woolley, Huntingdonshire, 1618 ; ejected, c. 1643 ; 
reinstated, 1660. [i. 345] 

ALSOP, ANTHONY (d. 1726), poetical writer ; M.A. 
Christ Church, Oxford, 1696; B.D., 1706; censor and 
tutor ; published selections from -32sop, 1698 ; prebendary 
of Winchester and rector of Brightwell, Berkshire; left 
England on losing an action for breach of promise of 
marriage ; returned and met death by drowning, [i. 345] 

ALSOP, VINCENT (d. 1703), nonconformist divine ; 
M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge ; took holy orders as 
conformist, and became tutor at Oakham; afterwards 
received presbyterian ordination ; ' presented ' to Wilby, 
Northamptonshire ; ejected, 1662 ; preached semi-privately 
and suffered imprisonment ; published ' Antisozzo,' a witty 
attack on Bishop Sherlock, 1675 ; minister of a congrega- 
tion at Westminster ; said to have drawn up the presby- 
terians' address to James II for general indulgence. 

[i. 345] 

ALSTON, CHARLES (1683-1760), scientific writer; 
studied medicine under Boerhaave at Leyden ; lecturer in 
botany and materia medica at Edinburgh, and superintend- 
ent of botanical gardens, 1710 till death. [i. 346] 

ALSTON, SIR EDWARD (1595-1669), president of 
College of Physicians, 1635-66 ; M.D. St. John's College, 
Cambridge, 1626 ; elected fellow of the College of Physi- 
cians, 1631 ; knighted, 1660. [i. 347] 

ALSTON, EDWARD RICHARD (1845-1881), zoo- 
logist ; wrote papers on mammalia and birds ; zoological 
secretary, Linnean Society, 1880-1. [i. 847] 

ALTEN, SIR CHARLES, COUNT vox (1764-1840), 
general ; of protestant Hanoverian family ; served in 
Hanoverian army, 1781-1803, and on its disbandment ( 1803) 
joined British army and held command (1805-1816) ; in 
Hanover, 1805, at Copenhagen, 1807, in Sweden and Spain, 
1808, Walchereu, 1809, the Peninsula and at Waterloo ; 
major-general, 1816 ; became field-marshal in reorganised 
Hanoverian army. [i. 847] 

ALTHAM, SIR JAMES (d. 1617), judge; M.P. 
Bramber, Sussex, 1589 ; reader at Gray's inn, 1600 ; double 
reader and serjeant-at-law, 1603 ; baron of exchequer 
and knighted, 1606 ; decided against the king's superiority 
over the law, 1610 and later, but admitted error in de- 
ciding that the crown had no right to grant commcn- 

[i. 348] 





ALTHAUS, JULIUS (1833-1900), physician ; born iu 
Lippe-Detmold, Germany ; M.D. Berlin, 1855 ; assisted iu 
tending l,,,,i,,tal for epilepsy an.i pur.ilyaii, Regent's 
lark, of whu-h he was physician, 1866-94; published 
writing mainly on therapeutic effects o( electricity. 



ALVES, ROBERT (1745-1794), poet and prose writer ; 
educated at Aberdeen ; head-master, Banff grammar school, 
1773-9; taught classics and modern languages in Edin- 
burgh ; published poems and literary history. [i. 349] 

ALVEY, RICHARD (d. 1584), master of the Temple, 
1560 ; fellow, St. John's College, Cambridge, 1537 ; B.D., 
1543 ; successively rector of Thoringtou, Grinstead, and 
Sandon, 1540-52 ; canon of Westminster, 1652 ; deprived 
of preferments under Mary, but under Elizabeth restored 
to Thoringtou ; again canon of Westminster, 1560-75 ; 
rector of Bursted Parva, Essex, 1571-6. [i. 349] 

ALVEY, THOMAS (1645-1704), physician; M.D. 
Merton College, Oxford, 1671 ; F.R.O J>., 1676 ; Harveian 
orator, 1684. [i. 350] 


AMBROSE, ISAAC (1604- 1663), divine; B.A. Brase- 
nose, Oxford, 1624 ; presented to cure of Castleton, Derby- 
shire, 1627 ; one of king's four preachers in Lancashire, 
1631 ; twice imprisoned by commissioners of array ; 
worked for establishment of presbyterianism ; successively 
at Leeds, Preston, and Garstang, whence he was ejected for 
nonconformity, 1662 ; published religious works, [i. 350] 

AMBROSE, JOHN(d. 1771), captain in navy ; served 
In Channel and Mediterranean, 1734-44; court-martialled 
for neglect of duty at Toulon (1744) and cashiered; re- 
stored to rank and half-pay, 1748 ; retired rear-admiral, 
1750. [i.351] 

AMBROSE, Miss (1720 ?- 1818). [See PALMER, 

440), British leader ; probably descended from Constantiue ; 
opposed Saxon invaders and confined them to limits of 
isle of Thanet. [i. 351] 

AMTiT.TA (1783-1810), princess; youngest child of 
George III ; delicate in health ; died of erysipelas, having 
been a confirmed invalid for two years. [L 352] 

AMES, JOSEPH (1619-1695), naval commander under 
the Commonwealth; transported many royalists to 
colonies. [i. 352] 

AMES, JOSEPH (1689-1759), bibliographer and anti- 
quary, grandson of preceding : apprenticed to plane maker 
in London ; entered business at NVapping as either ship- 
chandler, ironmonger, or patten maker, and continued 
successfully till death ; became acquainted with Rev. J. 
Lewis of Margate, and other antiquaries, on whose sug- 
gestion he prepared his ' Typographical Antiquities,' 1749 ; 
F.SJL, 1736 ; F.R.S., 1743 ; published also an illustrated 
catalogue of English engraved portraits, and memoirs of 
the Wren family. [i. 363] 

AMES, WILLIAM (1576-1633), puritan divine and 
casuist ; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge, where 
his religious zeal resulted in his suspension by the vice- 
chancellor ' from all degrees taken or to be taken ' ; being 
prevented by the Bishop of London from settling as a 
preacher at Colchester, he went to Leydeu ; worsted in a 
controversy with Grevinchovius, the Arminiau minister at 
Rotterdam, 1613 ; chaplain to Sir Horace Vere, English 
governor of Brill, Holland, whose daughter he married ; 
employed by Oalvinists at synod of Dort, 1619 ; professor 
of theology, Franeker, 1622 ; owing to ill-health removed to 
Rotterdam, where he died ; wrote theological works. 

[i 356] 


AMES, WILLIAM (rf. 1662), baptist minister and 
quaker ; joined quakers, 1655 ; officer in parliamentary 
army ; settled in Amsterdam, 1657 ; returned to England 
and was imprisoned for attending quaker meeting, 
1662. [i. 366] 

AMESBURY, BARON (1751-1832). [See DUNDAS, 

AMHERST, FRANCIS KERRIL (1819-1883), Roman 
catholic prelate ; educated at St. Mary's College, Oscott, 
where, after ordination, he became professor ; missionary 
rector of St. Augustin's church, Stafford, 1856 ; bishop of 
Northampton, 1858-79 ; preconised to titular see of 
Sozusa, 1880. [i. 367] 

1797), field- marshal ; ensign in guards, 1731 ; aide-de- 
camp to General Ligonier in Germany ; successively on 
staff of Ligouier and Duke of Cumberland ; lieutenant- 
colonel, 15th regiment, 1756 ; major-general, commanding 
expedition to North America, 1758 ; took Louisburg, Cape 
Breton Isle, succeeded James Abercromby as commander- 
in-chief , and took Fort Du Quesne, 1758 ; took Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, and shared in capture of Montreal, 
1759 ; governor-general of British North America and 
knighted, 1761 ; took strong but unsuccessful measures 
against Indian chief Poutiac ; returned to England, 1763 ; 
governor of Virginia, 1763, and of Guernsey, 1770 ; privy 
councillor, 1772; created Baron Amherst, 1776; held 
various military offices ; field-marshal, 1796. [i. 357] 

AMHERST, JOHN (1718 ?-1778), admiral, younger 
brother of Jeffrey Amherst [q. v.] ; captain, 1744 ; flag- 
captain in East Indies and in North America, 1755, in 
Mediterranean, 1756 ; at Louisbourg, Belle-Isle, and 
Gibraltar, 1761-2 ; commander-iu-chief at Plymouth, 
1776. [i. 359] 

ARRACAN (1773-1857), statesman ; nephew of Jeffrey Am- 
herst [q. v.] ; envoy to Pekiu to represent to the emperor 
wrongs suffered under his rule by British subjects, 1816 ; 
repelled by his discourteous reception, he returned, 1817 ; 
governor-general of India, 1823-8; declared war on king 
of Burmah, 1824 ; peace made after capture of Rangoon, 
Martabau, and Prome, and cession of Tenasserim, Arracan, 
and Assam ; created Earl Amherst, 1826 ; returned to Eng- 
land, 1828, and retired from public affairs. [i. 360] 

AMHTTRST, NICHOLAS (1697-1742), poet and poli- 
tical writer ; educated at Merchant Taylors' and St. 
John's College, Oxford ; expelled from university perhaps 
on account of his whig principles, 1719 ; settled in London ; 
started bi-weekly periodical, 'Terras Filius,' in which Ox- 
ford was severely satirised, 1721 ; suffered short imprison- 
ment, 1737, for libel of Colley Gibber in 'Craftsman,' 
which he started, 1726 ; published occasional poems. 

[i. 361] 

AMMONIO, ANDREA (1477-1517), Latin secretary to 
Henry VIII ; born at Lucca ; educated at Rome : sent to 
England as collector for the pope; held ecclesiastical 
offices at Westminster and Salisbury ; accompanied 
Henry VIII in French campaign as Latin secretary, and 
celebrated his victories hi a Latin poeiu, 1513. [i. 363] 

AMNER, JOHN (d. 1641), organist of Ely Cathedral, 
1610; Mus. Bac. Oxford, 1613; published sacred 
music. [i. 363] 

AMNER, RALPH (</. 1664), minor cauou ; lay clerk 
of Ely Cathedral, 1604-9; minor canon, St. George's, 
Windsor ; gentleman of Chapel Royal, 1623. [i. 363] 

AMNER, RICHARD (1736-1803), Unitarian divine ; 
studied at Daventry, 1756-62; minister at Yarmouth, 
1762-4, and at Hampstead, 1765; published theological 
works ; his name unwarrantably appended to indelicate 
notes by George Steevens in his edition of Shake- 
speare, [i. 364] 

AMORY, THOMAS (1701-1774), dissenting tutor; 
studied divinity at Tauuton academy, where he was assis- 
tant, 1725, and principal, 1738 ; ordained, 1730 ; successively 
minister in Hull Bishops, Taunton, and London (1759) ; 
one of Dr. Williams's trustees, 1767 ; D.D. Edinburgh, 1768 ; 
strenuously supported agitation against subscription to 
Toleration Act, 1772. [i. 364] 

AMORY, THOMAS (1691 ?-1788), eccentric writer; 
of Irish descent, though not born in Ireland ; probably 
lived in Dublin, where he knew Swift; lived at West- 
minster, c. 1757, with a country house near Hounslow ; 
published, 1765, ' Memoirs, containing Lives of several 
Ladies of Great Britain,' and, 1756-66,' Life of JohuBuncle, 
Ktq.,' virtually a continuation of ' Memoirs.' [i. 365] 



AMOS, ANDREW (1791-1860), lawyer ; born in 
India ; educated at Eton aud Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
fifth wrangler and fellow, 1813 ; called to bar and joined 
middle circuit ; recorder of Oxford ; sat on criminal law 
commissions, 1834-43 ; first professor of law, University 
College, London, 1829 ; succeeded Macaulay as fourth 
member of governor-general's council in India, 1837-43 ; 
county court judge for Marylebone, Brentford, and 
Bromptou, 1843 ; Downing professor of law, Cambridge, 
1848 till death: published legal, constitutional, and 
literary works. [i. 366] 

AMOS, SHELDON (1835-1886), jurist, sou of Andrew 
Amos [q. v.] ; B.A. Clare College, Cambridge, 1859 ; bar- 
rister at Inner Temple, 1862 ; reader till 1869 ; professor of 
jurisprudence, University College, London, 1869-79 ; judge 
of court of appeal (native tribunals) in Egypt, c. 1882 ; 
advocated higher education and political emancipation 
of women. His publications include a ' Systematic View 
of the Science of Jurisprudence,' 1872. [Suppl. i. 44] 

judt?e ; sixth wrangler, St. Peter's College, Cambridge, 
1831 : called to bar, Lincoln's Inn, 1834 ; joined Oxford 
circuit ; took silk, 1858 ; M.P., East Worcestershire, 1868 ; 
president Legal Education Association, 1873; baron of 
exchequer, 1874 ; promoted to court of appeal, 1876 ; retired, 
1877. [i. 367] 

AMPTHILL, first BARON (1829-1884). [See RUSSELL, 

AMYOT, THOMAS (1775-1850), antiquary; of 
Huguenot origin ; articled to a Norwich attorney ; elec- 
tion agent (1802) and private secretary (1806) to Mr. 
Wiudham, whose speeches he published, 1812 ; held several 
appointments in colonial department; connected with 
Royal, Percy, aud Shakespeare societies, and Society of 
Antiquaries. [i. 368] 

AMYRATJT or AMABOTT, PAUL (/. 1636-1662), 
divine ; of German birth ; vicar of Ermington ; sus- 
pended for puritanism, 1636 ; held living of Muusley, 
Norfolk, and was ejected 1662. [i. 369] 

ANARAWD (<*. 915 ?), Welsh prince ; succeeded his 
father, Rhodri, as king of all Wales, 877 ; defeated Saxons 
at Cymryd,, 880; 'cum Anglis' devastated Cardigan, 
c. 893. [i. 370] 

ANCELL, SAMUEL (rf. 1802), military writer ; served 
with 58th regiment ; besieged at Gibraltar, 1779-83 ; pub- 
lished account of siege, 1784. [i. 370] 

ANCRTJM, first EARL OP (1578-1654). [See KER, 

angler ; educated at Harrow ; became partner in a London 
business firm, 1816 ; published devotional works and a book 
on angling. [i. 370] 

ANDERDON, WILLIAM HENRY (1816-1890), Jesuit, 
sou of John Lavicoimt Anderdon [q. v.] ; B.A. University 
College, Oxford, 1839; M.A., 1842; entered Roman 
catholic church, 1850 : ordained priest at Oscott, 1853 ; 
secretary to (Cardinal) Manning in London, 1863 ; on 
mission in America, 1868-70 : D.D. Rome, 1869 ; joined 
Society of Jesus, 1872 ; engaged in missionary work 
in England ; published religious and other works. 

[Suppl. i. 46] 

ANDERSON, ADAM (1692 ?-1765), historian of com- 
merce; for forty years clerk in the South Sea House, 
ultimately becoming chief clerk of stock and new annui- 
ties ; published (1764) history of commercial enterprise 
from earliest times to 1762. [i. 371] 

ANDERSON, ADAM (rf. 1846), physicist; rector of 
Perth academy, and afterwards professor of natural philo- 
sophy at St. Andrews ; published articles on physics. 

[i. 371] 

ANDERSON, ALEXANDER (1582-1619?), mathe- 
matician ; taught mathematics in Paris early in seven- 
teenth century ; friend of Vieta, whose writings he edited, 
1615-17 ; published mathematical works. [i. 371] 

ANDERSON, ALEXANDER (d. 1811), botanist; 
superintendent of botanic garden, St. Vincent ; went on 
botanising expedition to Guiana, 1791. [i. 372] 

ANDERSON, ANDREW (</. 1861), champion Scottiab 
draught-player ; stocking- weaver ; published book ou 
'Draughts,' 1848. [i. 372] 

ANDERSON, ANTHONY (d. 1593), theological 
writer and preacher ; rector of Medbourue, Leicestershire, 
1573-93; vicar of Stepney, and rector of Denge, Essex, 
1587 ; sub-dean of Chapel Royal, 1592 ; published theo- 
logical works of puritanic character. [i. 372] 

ANDERSON, CHRISTOPHER (1782-1852), theo- 
logical writer aud preacher ; originally in insurance 
office, but ^ became baptist minister in Edinburgh : 
founded Gaelic School and Edinburgh Bible societies ; 
supported Indian missions ; published ' Annals of English 
Bible, 1 1835, and other works. [L 373] 

ANDERSON, SIR EDMUND (1530-1605), judge ; edu- 
cated at Lincoln College, Oxford ; studied at Inner Temple, 
1550 ; reader at his inn of court, 1567 ; double reader at 
Inner Temple, 1574 ; serjeant-at-law, 1577 ; serjeant-at- 
law to queen, 1579 ; knighted and made lord chief justice 
of common pleas, 1582 ; took part in trial of Babiugton, 
of Secretary Davisou, and of Mary Queen of Scots, 1586, 
anil in the trials of Perrot, 1590, Earl of Essex, 1601, and 
Raleigh, 1603 ; showed great severity towards puritans, 
and notably John Udall. [i. 373] 

ANDERSON, GEORGE (/. 1740), mathematician; 
friend of the mathematician William Jones, whose letters 
to him were published, 1841. [i. 376] 

ANDERSON, GEORGE (1760-1796), accountant ; of 
humble origin ; educated and sent by friends to Wadham 
College, Oxford ; M.A., 1784 ; took deacon's orders, but 
obtained post in board of control, to which he ultimately 
became accountant-general ; translated Archimedes's 
' Arenarius,' 1784. [i. 376] 

Indian civil servant ; employed chiefly on judicial duties 
hi Bombay civil service, 1806-31 ; framed ' Bombay Code 
of 1827'; principal collector and political agent of 
Southern Mahratta districts, 1831 ; Bombay member of 
Indian law commission, 1835-8 ; member 'of council of 
governor of Bombay, 1838 ; governor of Bombay, 1841-2 ; 
knighted and made C.B. ; governor of Mauritius, 1849 ; 
K.C.B. aud (1850-5) governor of Ceylon. [i. 377] 

ANDERSON, JAMES (1662-1728), genealogist aud 
antiquary ; M.A. Edinburgh, 1680 ; writer to the signet, 
1691 ; published, 1705, 'An Historical Essay showing that 
the Crown and Kingdom of Scotland is Imperial and 
Independent,' in which documents, cited hi a pamphlet 
by William Atwood on the supremacy of the crown of 
England over that of Scotland, were shown to be forgeries ; 
rewarded by Scottish parliament ; devoted himself to col- 
lecting facsimiles of Scottish charters and other muni- 
ments, for which work money was voted by the Scottish 
parliament, but never paid, the parliament terminating it 
at the union ; postmaster-general for Scotland, 1715 ; 
retained office for only eighteen mouths, but continued 
to draw salary ; his facsimiles, published 1729 under title 
of ' Diplomata ' ; also published ' Collections relating to 
Mary Queen of Scots.' [i. 378] 

ANDERSON, JAMES (1680 ?-1739), preacher ; brother 
of Adam Anderson [q. v.] ; educated at Aberdeen ; minister 
of presbyteriau churches in Swallow Street, London, 1710, 
and Lisle Street, Leicester Fields, 1734. Published sermons, 
works on history, freemasonry, and other subjects. 

[i. 380] 

ANDERSON, JAMES (1739-1808), economist ; after 
age of fifteen managed farms near Edinburgh and in 
Aberdeenshire ; published essays on agriculture; LL.D. 
Aberdeen, 1780 ; advocated protection of Scottish fisheries, 
provoking remonstrance from Bentham, 1783 ; employed 
by Pitt to survey fisheries, 1784 ; retired to Isleworth, 
1797 ; published many economic works. [i. 381] 

ANDERSON, JAMES (d. 1809), botanist ; physician- 
general of East India Company, Madras, where he at- 
tempted to introduce silk cultivation and interested himself 
in plants of commercial value. [i. 382] 

ANDERSON, JAMES (1760-1835), navy captain; 
served in American and first French revolutionary wars ; 
commander, 1806 ; post-captain, 1812 ; sent to Quebec, but 
returned, mistrusting the capabilities of his ship ; court- 
martialled aud acquitted. [i. 382] 




ANDERSON, siu JAMES CALEB (1792-1861), in- 
ventor ; sou of John Anderson (fl. 1816) [q. v.] ; created 
baronet, 1813, in appreciation of his father's services to 
In-kind ; patented inventions in machinei y. [i. 382] 

actor ; appeared with Macready at Oovent Garden as 
Florizcl ('Winter's Tale'), 1837, and subsequently played 
Biron (' Love's Labour's Lost '), Romeo, lago, and Cassio ; 
seen as Othello, Orlando, FaulconbridKe, Posthumus, 
Antony ('Julius Caesar' and 'Antony and Cleopatra'), 
Richard I, and Mercutio, at Drury Lane, which theatre 
he managed, 1849-51 ; joint-manager of the Surrey, 1863 ; 
wrote a few dramas. [Suppl. i. 46] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (1668 ?-1721), theologian ; minis- 
ter of Dumbarton, and (1720) of Kamshorn (now St. 
David's) Church, Glasgow ; took active part in contro- 
versy between episcopacy and presbyterianism, and 
published works hi the presbyterian interest. [i. 382] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (1726-1796), natural philosopher ; 
officer in corps raised to resist Jacobite rebellion, 1746 ; 
studied at Glasgow ; professor of oriental languages, 1756, 
and of natural philosophy, 1760 ; interested in practical 
applications of science, [i. 383] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (fl. 1799), wood-engraver ; pupil 
of Thomas Bewick ; enarraved blocks for George Samuel's 
illustrations of ' Grove Hill, 1 a poem. [i. 384] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (d. 1804), physician to General 
Sea-bathing Infirmary, Margate ; M.D. Edinburgh ; F.S.A. 

[i. 384] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (/. 1816), founder of Fennoy ; 
of humble origin ; established himself as provision ex- 
porter, Cork, 1780 ; purchased land on estate of Fermoy, 
Minister : bnilt town of Fermoy and opened and improved 
roads in Ireland ; refused baronetcy, which was, however, 
conferred on his sou. James Caleb Anderson [q. v.], 
1813. [i. 384] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (fl. 1825), genealogist ; writer 
to the signet ; secretary to Scottish Society of Antiquaries ; 
wrote history of family of Frisel or Fraser, 1825. [i. 385] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (1789-1832), genealogist ; L.R.O.S. 
Edinburgh ; surgeon to Lanarkshire militia, and to Duke 
of Hamilton, the history of whose family he published, 
1825-7. [i. 385] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (1795-1845), diplomatic agent; 
entered service of East India Company, 1813 ; after 
holding various appointments was ' senior merchant,' sec- 
retary to government, and Malay translator, 1827 ; agent to 
governor of Pulo Penang, 1823 ; engaged in mercantile 
duties in London, where he died ; published works relating 
to Eastern policy and commerce. [i. 385] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (1805-1855), missionary; educated 
at Edinburgh ; prizeman in Latin and moral philosophy ; 
ordained minister of Scottish church and sent as mis- 
sionary to Madras, 1836 ; established Madras Christian 
College ; on disruption of Church of Scotland joined Free 
Church and carried on mission in connection with that 
church, 1843 ; especially successful in regard to female 
education ; died at Madras. [i. 386] 

ANDERSON, JOHN (1833-1900), naturalist; M.D. 
Edinburgh, 1862; assisted in founding Royal Physical 
Society, Edinburgh ; professor of natural history in Free 
Church College, Edinburgh ; curator of Indian museum, 
Calcutta, 1865 ; accompanied scientific expeditious to 
Yunnan, 1867, Burmah, 1875-6, and the Mergui archi- 
pelago, 1881-2, and published accounts of journeys ; 
F.R.S., 1879 : honorary LL.D. Edinburgh, 1885 ; F.L.S. ; 
F.S. A. ; professor of comparative anatomy, medical school, 
Calcutta ; returned to London, 1886 ; contributed to ' Pro- 
ceedings ' of various learned societies, and published 
several works. [Suppl. i. 46] 

ANDERSON, JOHN HENRY (1815-1874), conjurer 
and actor ; known as ' Wizard of the North,' occupied 
Covent Garden theatre when it was bunit down, 1856. 

[i. 387] 

ANDERSON, JOSEPH (1789-1877), lieutenant-colonel ; 
ensign, 1805 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1812 ; served in Australia 
and India ; military commander and civil governor of 
penal settlement, Norfolk Island : squatter, 1848, and 
member of legislative council, Victoria, 1852. [i. 387] 

ANDERSON, LIONEL, alias MUSSON (d. 1680), 
Roman catholic priest ; tried, with seven others, on un- 
substantiated Charge of receiving orders from see of Rome ; 
condemned, hanged, drawn, and quartered. [i. 387] 

ANDERSON, LUCY (1790-1878), pianist: played 
regularly at principal concerts after 1818 : introduced 
into England many great works by Beethoven, Hummel, 
and other composers. [i. 388] 

ANDERSON, PATRICK (1675-1624), Scottish Jesuit ; 
, educated in Scotland : entered Society of Jesus, Borne, 
1597 ; missionary to Scotland, 1609 ; first Jesuit rector of 
Scote College, Rome, 1615 ; was betrayed and imprisoned 
in Edinburgh when revisiting Scotland ; liberated ; wrote 
theological works. [i. 389] 

ANDERSON, PATRICK (fl. 1618-1635), physician ; 
author of a history of Scotland and several medical 
works. [i. 389] 

ANDERSON, ROBERT (/. 1668-1696), mathema- 
tician and silk-weaver ; experimented with view of im- 
proving gunnery, after 1671; wrote scientific works 
chiefly relating to firearms. [i. 390] 

ANDERSON, ROBERT (1750-1830), editor and bio- 
grapher of British poets ; intended for ministry, but took 
to medicine ; M.D. Edinburgh ; devoted himself to litera- 
ture ; edited ' Complete Edition of Poets of Great Britain,' 
! 1792-5, and separate editions of various authors ; for a 
' time edited ' Edinburgh Magazine ' ; among first to recog- 
nise genius of the poet Campbell. [i. 390] 

ANDERSON, ROBERT (1770-1833), Cumbrian poet ; 

educated at charity and quaker schools ; apprenticed to 

pattern drawer in Carlisle ; his first poem, entitled ' Lucy 

! Gray,' probably suggested Wordsworth's ' She dwelt among 

I the untrodden ways ' ; published ballads in Cumbrian 

! dialect, 1805 ; fell into habits of intemperance, and died 

in extreme poverty. [i. 391] 

ANDERSON, THOMAS (1832-1870), botanist : M.D. 
Edinburgh, 1853 ; entered Bengal medical service, Calcutta, 
1854 ; director of Calcutta botanic garden : organised and 
superintended Bengal forest department, 1864 ; left an in- 
complete work on Indian flora. [i. 392] 

ANDERSON, THOMAS (1819-1874), chemist; Hope 
prizeman, 1839-40, and M.D. Edinburgh, 1841; studied 
on continent ; F.R.S. Edinburgh, 1845 : regius professor 
of chemistry, Glasgow, 1852 ; gained high honours from 
English and Scottish scientific societies ; conducted experi- 
ments in organic and agricultural chemistry. [i. 392] 

ANDERSON, WALTER (d. 1800), historian; for 
fifty years minister of Chirnside, Berwickshire: wrote 
historical works. [i. 393] 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM (d. 1778), surgeon and 
naturalist ; accompanied Captain Cook as surgeon's mate, 
1772-5, and later as naturalist ; contributed observations 
to Cook's ' Voyages.' [i. 393] 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM (1757-1837), Scottish 
painter ; exhibited pictures, chiefly of marine subjects, at 
i Royal Academy, 1787 to 1814. [i. 393] 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM (1766-1846), gardener at 
Edinburgh ; curator of botanic gardens of Society of 
| Apothecaries, Chelsea ; F.L.S., 1815. [i. 393] 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM (1805-1866), miscellaneous 
writer; brother of John Anderson (1789-1832) [q. v.] ; 
i entered lawyer's office, Edinburgh ; took to journalism ; 
I published volumes of verse and prose ; in London, 1836-42 ; 
| produced ' Gift of All Nations,' an annual ; chief sub-editor 
I of ' Glasgow Daily Mail,' 1845; compiled various works, 
| including ' Scottish Nation,' 1859-63. [i. 394] 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM (1799-1873), Scottish 
preacher ; pastor of congregation in John Street, Glasgow, 
1822 till death ; LL.D. Glasgow, 1850 ; advocated separa- 
tion of church and state, and political and social reforms ; 
published pamphlets and theological books. [i. 394] 

ANDERSON, Sm WILLIAM (1835-1898), director- 
general of ordnance ; born in St. Petersburg, where, and 
at King's College, London, he was educated ; president of 
Institution of Civil Engineers, Ireland, 1K63 ; designed 
gun and turret mountings of the Moncrieft* type for 
British and Russian governments ; designed machinery 
for manufacture of cordite, c. 1888 ; director-general of 




ordnance factories, 1889; M.I.C.E., 1869, vice-president, 
1896; K.K.S., 1891; K.C.B., 1897; honorary D.O.L. Dur- 
ham, 1889 ; published scientific writings. [Suppl. i. 47] 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM (1842-1900), anatomist ; edu- 
cated at City of London School ; F.R.O.S., 1869 ; surgical 
registrar and assistant demonstrator of anatomy, St. 
Thomas's Hospital, 1871 ; professor of anatomy and sur- 
gery at Imperial Naval .Medical College, Tokio, 1873-80 ; 
joined surgical staff of St. Thomas's, 1880, and was sur- 
gi-on, 1891; professor of anatomy at Royal Academy, 
1 s i .t 1 . Published works on Japanese and Chinese art, his 
culli ctions of which were made over to the British 
Museum, 1882. [SuppL i. 48] 

ANDERTON, HENRY (1630-1665 ?), painter ; pnpil 
of Streater; executed portraits of Charles II and many 
of his courtiers. [i. 396] 

ANDERTON, JAMES (ft. 1624), Roman catholic con- 
troversialist ; probably a priest ; published between 1608 
and 1624, under name of 'John Brereley, Priest,' learned 
works, including ' The Protestants Apologie for the Ro- 
man Church,' in which he quoted passages from protestaut 
writers admitting chums of the Roman church, [i. 395] 

ANDERTON, LAURENCE, alias SCROOP (1577-1643), 
Jesuit ; B.A. Christ's College, Cambridge, 1597 ; entered 
Society of Jesus, Rome, 1604, and worked as missioner in 
England ; published theological works. [i. 396] 

ANDRE, JOHN (1751-1780), major ; born and educated 
at Geneva ; came to England ; was befriended by Miss 
Seward at Lichfield; entered army, served in America, 
and was captured at St. John's, 1775 ; on release was 
aide-de-camp successively to General Grey and Sir Henry 
Clinton ; adjutant-general ; entrusted with secret negotia- 
tions with Benedict Arnold, who was plotting betrayal of 
West Point to British ; captured by Americans and hanged 
as spy. A monument was erected to his memory in West- 
minster Abbey. [i. 397] 

ANDREAS or ANDRE, BERNARD (fl. 1500), poet 
and historian ; Augustinian friar ; Frenchman by birth ; 
came to England with or shortly before Henry VII ; poet 
laureate ; tutor to Prince Arthur ; presented to parish of 
Guisnes, near Calais, 1500 ; received benefice of Higham, 
1501 ; wrote an incomplete life of Henry VII, also other 
works in verse and prose. [i. 398] 

ANDREE, JOHN (1699 ?-1785), physician: M.D. 
Rheims, 1739 ; L.O.P., 1741 ; a founder of London Hos- 
pital, of which he was first physician, 1740-64; wrote 
medical works. [i. 399] 

ANDREE, JOHN, the younger (/. 1790), surgeon ; son 
of John Andree (1699 ?-1785) [q. v.] ; surgeon to Magdalen 
hospital, 1766, to Finsbury dispensary, 1781, and to St. 
Clement Danes workhouse-, 1784 ; M.D., c. 1798 ; one of 
first to operate successfully for cronp of the larynx ; 
published medical works. [i. 399] 

ANDREW, JAMES, LL.D. (17747-1833), school- 
master ; established military academy at Addiscombe, 
and on its purchase by East India Company was appointed 
headmaster and professor of mathematics, 1809. [i. 400] 

ANDREWE, LAURENCE (/. 1510-1537), translator 
and printer ; native of Calais ; practised as printer in 
London, and produced scientific works translated by him- 
self, [i. 400] 

ANDREWE, THOMAS (fl. 1604), poetical writer ; 
served as soldier in Low Countries ; wrote ' The Unmask- 
ing of a Female Machiavell,' 1604. [i. 400] 

ANDREWES, GERRARD (1750-1825), divine; edu- 
cated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
M.A., 1779 ; D.D., 1809 ; held living of St. James's, Picca- 
dilly, 1802 ; dean of Canterbury, 1809. [i. 401] 

ANDREWES, LANCELOT (1555-1626), bishop of 
Winchester ; educated at Merchant Taylors' and Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge ; fellow of Pembroke and of Jesus 
College, Oxford ; received holy orders, 1580 ; chaplain to 
Earl of Huntingdon ; obtained living of St. Giles's 
Cripplegate, 1589 ; prebendary of St. Paul's ; master of 
Pembroke tiU 1605 ; chaplain to Whitgift and chaplain in 
ordinary to the queen ; dean of Westminster, 1601 ; 
bishop of Chichester, 1605, of Ely, 1609, and of Win- 

Chester, 1619; dean of Chapel Royal, 1619; privy coun- 
cillor for England, 1609, and for Scotland, 1617 ; took 
part in Hampton Court conference, 1604 ; first on list of 
divines appointed to make 'authorised version' of bible, 
1611 ; renowned for hifl patristic learning; wrote theolo- 
gical works. [i. 401] 

ANDREWS, EUSEBIUS (d. 1650), royalist ; secre- 
tary to Lord Oapel ; barrister ; joined king's army, and 
after surrender of Worcester, 1645, returned to his legal 
practice ; became involved in a bogus plot arranged by 
Barnard, a parliamentary spy ; condemned after sixteen 
weeks' imprisonment, and beheaded on Tower Hill. 

ANDREWS, GEORGE (/. 1776), barrister;' called 
to bar, 1740; published, 1754, reports of king's bench 
cases, 1737-40. [i. 406] 

ANDREWS, HENBY (1743-1820), astronomical 
calculator to ' Nautical,' 'Moore's' and other almanacs; 
successively domestic servant at Sleaford and Lincoln, 
usher at Stilton, and bookseller and schoolmaster at 
Royston. [i. 406] 

ANDREWS, HENRY 0. (ft. 1799-1828), botanical 
artist ; published botanical works, for which he engraved 
illustrations, 1799-1828. [i.406] 

ANDREWS, JAMES PETTIT (17379-1797), anti- 
quary and historian ; served in Berkshire militia ; entered 
legal profession ; police court magistrate. Queen Square, 
Westminster, 1792, till death ; published translations and 
works, principally historical. [i. 407] 

ANDREWS, JOHN (fl. 1615), poet; M.A. Trinity 
College, Oxford; probably curate of Beswick Bassett, 
Wiltshire ; published the underrated poem, ' Anatomic of 
Basenesse,' 1615, and several religious works. [i. 407] 

ANDREWS, JOHN (1736-1809), author ; published, 
1774-1806, ' History of the War with America, France, 
Spain, and Holland, 1775-83 ' (1785-6), and other historical 
writings. [i. 408] 

ANDREWS, MILES PETER (d. 1814), dramatist ; 
son of a drysalter of Watling Street ; owned powder 
magazine at Dartford ; M.P. for Bewdley ; occupied man- 
sion in Green jpark ; wrote several plays, produced at 
Drury Lane, Haymarket, and Covent Garden, 1774-95. 

[i. 408] 

ANDREWS, ROBERT (d. 17669), translator of 
' Virgil ' into blank verse, 1766 ; successively minister of 
presbyterian or protestant dissenting congregations at 
Lydgate, Rusholme, and Bridgnorth. [i. 409] 

ANDREWS, THOMAS (1813-1885), professor of 
chemistry ; educated at Belfast academy and Glasgow 
University ; studied chemistry under Dumas at Paris ; 
received diploma of Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh ; 
M.D., 1835; vice-president of Northern (now Queen's) 
College, Belfast, 1845 ; professor of chemistry, Queen's 
College, Belfast, 1849-79 ; F.R.S., 1849 ; honorary F.R.S. 
Edinburgh, 1870 ; LL.D. Edinburgh, 1871, Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, 1873, and Glasgow, 1877 ; D.Sc., 1879, Queen's 
University of Ireland, where an Andrews studentship was 
established in his memory. He discovered the existence of 
a critical temperature above which gas cannot be con- 
verted into a liquid by pressure. [Suppl. i. 49] 

ANDREWS, WILLIAM (/. 1666-1683), author of 
astrological works, including ' Aunua Prodigioaus,' 1672. 

ANDREWS, WILLIAM (1802-1880), secretary and 
subsequently president of Dublin Natural History So- 
ciety ; devoted his attention chiefly to botany and marine 
ichthyology. . [i. 409] 

j'ournalist and author; of humble parents, who were 
converts to Roman catholic faith ; apprenticed to printers 
of * Norfolk Chronicle,' which he subsequently managed ; 
went to London and started, to vindicate Roman catholic 
principles, various journals, of which the 'Orthodox 
Journal and Catholic Monthly Intelligencer ' appeared at 
intervals and in different forms for many years. His 
published works are chiefly connected with religious con- 
troversies, [i. 409] 

ANDROS, SIR EDMUND (1637-1714), colonial go- 
vernor ; gentleman in ordinary to queen of Bohemia, 1660 ; 
major in Rupert's dragoons, 1672 ; bailiff of Guernsey, 1674 ; 



knighted, 1678 : governor of province of New York, 1874- 
liWl. of New England, 1685-9, of Virginia 1892 -8 (recalled 
in each case owin^r tn disputes arising from severity of lii< 
rule), und of Jersey, 1701 f- : died in London. [i! 411] 

ANEURIN ( rl. fiu3 V). Welsh poet ; identified by .-nine 
with (iildas the historian : son of Ca\\ :U Ueraint, lonl of 
Cum t'a wlwyd : educated at St. Cadoc's College, Llan- 
carvan ; probably present as bard and priest at battle of 
Cattnieth, when he was captured; on being released re- 
turned to Wales, and probably made acquaintance of 
Taliesin; murdered by Kidyn ab Einygan ; wrote 'Godo- 
din,' an epic poem on defeat of Britons by Saxons at Oat- 
traeth. [i. 411] 

ANGAS, CALEB (1782-1860), Yorkshire agriculturist : 
contributed important letters to the 'Sun,' advocating 
free trade. [1.413] 

ANGAS, GEORGE FIFE (1789-1879-), merchant and 
shipowner till 1833 : commissioner for formation of 
colony of South Australia, 1834 ; having Buffered losses, 
emigrated to Adelaide, 1851, where he died : founded 
National and Provincial and other banks. [i. 413] 

ANGAS, GEORGE FRENCH (1822-1886), artist and 
zoologist ; joined several of (Sir) George Grey's expedi- 
tious, and subsequently published sketches and accounts 
of travels in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa ; 
director and secretary of government museum, Sydney ; 
contributed In England teles of adventure to various 
journals ; fellow of the Liuuean, Zoological, and Royal 
Geographical societies. [Suppl. i. 51] 

ANGAS, WILLIAM HENRY (1781-1832), sailor 
missionary; spent early years at sea: became baptist 
minister, 1817, and sailor missionary, 1822. [i. 413] 

ANGEL, JOHN (fl. 1555), chaplain to King Philip and 
Queen Mary. [i. 413] 

ANGEL or ANGELL, JOHN (d. 1655), preacher: 
graduated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford ; was ordained and 
became evangelical preacher ; town preacher and lecturer, 
Leicester, c. 1630 ; suspended for preaching without licence, 
1634 ; lecturer at Grantham, 1650-5. [i. 413] 

ANGELIB, PETER (1685-1734), painter of land- 
scapes and conversation pieces ; born at '.Dunkirk ; having 
worked at Antwerp, where he became member of Painters 
Guild of St. Luke, was in London, c. 1719-28; went to 
Rome, and finally settled at Rennes, Brittany, [i. 414] 

ANGELL, JOHN (fl. 1758), stenographer, of Dublin ; 
published system of shorthand, being a variation of 
Mason's system, 1758. [i. 414] 

ANGELO, DO.MEXIOO (1716-1802), fencing-master, 
named originally DoMKXiro AMJKLO MALKVOI/H TKEMA- 
MOXOO ; born at Leghorn ; studied horsemanship at Paris ; 
migrated to England, e. 1765; patronised by English 
noblemen ; opened in Soho a fencing-school, whicli became 
very fashionable : published, in 1763, ' L'Ecole d' Armes ' ; 
later retired to Eton. [Ivii. 183] 

ANGELO, HENRY (1760-1839?), fencing-master : son 
of Domenico Angelo [q.v.]; became, e. 1785, head of his 
father's fencing-school : published * Reminiscences ' (1830) 
and Angelo's Pic-Nic ' (1834). [Ivii. 183] 

ANGELO, HENKY, the younger (1780-1852), fencing- 
master and superintendent of sword-exercise In the army ; 
son of Henry Angelo [q. v.] [Ivii. 183] 

(religious pseudonym of RICHARD MASON, D.D.), Francis- 
can ; priest of restored English province, 1628; successively 
filled various offices in his order ; was provincial 1669-62 ; 
retired to St. Bona venture's convent, Douay, 1675 ; wrote 
several theological works. [i. 415] 

ANGELU8, CHRISTOPHER (d. 1638), Greek scholar ; 
native of Peloponnesus ; came to England to escape per- 
secution, 1608 ; studied at Cambridge and Balliol College, 
Oxford ; published works in Greek, Latin, and English. 


ANGERSTEIN, JOHN JULIUS (1735-1823), mer- 
chant, philanthropist, and amateur of fine art; under- 
writer in Lloyds, 1766; through his influence 'Old 
Lloyd's ' coffee house was abandoned for the present esta- 
blishment; devised -y-tcm- of totteriflfl : at various 
times head of largest trading firms in uity ; besides other 

philanthropic works, re-established Veterinary College : 
acquired collection of pictures, which formed nucleus of 
National Gallery. [i. 416] 

ANGERVILLE, RICHARD (1281-1345). [See BURY, 


ANGIER, JOHN (1605-1677), nonconformist divine ; 
B.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge; came under intin- 
euce of puritans ; made pastor of Riugley, 1C30 ; ordained 
by bishop of Banger, but without subscription ; suspended 
from Ringley ; pastor of Denton, 1632 till death ; twice 
excommunicated; signed the 'Harmonious Consent,' 
1648 ; imprisoned for opposition to Commonwealth ; 
escaped persecution under Act of Uniformity, owing to 
esteem in which he was held ; published sermons, [i. 417] 

AHGIERS or ANGIER, PAUL (fl. 1749), engraver ; 
pupil of John Tlnney. [i. 419] 

ANGLESEY, first MARQUIS OP (1768-1854). [See 

PHER, first EARL, 1593?-1630 ; AXNESLEY, ARTHUR, first 
EARL of the second creation, 1614-1686 ; ANNKSI.KY, 
RICHARD, sixth EARL, 1694-1761.] 

ANGLUS, THOMAS (1693-1676). [See WHITE, 

1244?-1307 : DOUGLAS, GKORGE, first EARL, 1380?-1403 ; 
DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, second EARL, 1398 V-1437 ; DOUGLAS, 
GEORGE, fourth EARL, 1412?-1462; DOUGLAS, ARCHI- 
BALD, fifth EARL, 1449 ?-1614 ; DOUGLAS, ARCHIBALD, 
sixth EARL, 1489?-1557; DOUGLAS, ARCHIBALD, eighth 
EARL, 1565-1588 ; DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, ninth EARL, 1533- 
1691 ; DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, tenth EARL, 1554-1611 ; 
DOUGLAS, WILLIAM, eleventh EARL, 1589-1660.] 

ANGUS, LORD (1609-1665). [See DOUGLAS, ARCHI- 

ANGUS, JOHN (1724-1801), independent minister at 
Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, 1748-1801. [i. 419] 

ANLABY, WILLIAM (1552 ?-1597), Roman catholic 
| missionary ; educated as protestant, but was converted, 
and entered college of Douay, 1574 ; ordained, 1577 : mis- 
sionary in Yorkshire ; hanged as seminary priest, [i. 419] 

ANNALY, BARON (1718-1784). [See GORE, JOHN.] 

ANNAND, WILLIAM (1633-1689), dean of Edin- 
burgh ; B.A. University College, Oxford, 1655 ; ordained 
by an Irish bishop, and M.A., 1656 ; Anglican minister at 
Weston-in-the-Green ; vicar of Leighton Buzzard, 1661 ; 
chaplain to Earl of Middleton ; minister of Tolbooth 
church, 1663, and, later, of Tron church, Edinburgh ; 
dcaii of Edinburgh, 1676 ; published religious works. 

[i. 419] 

ANNANDALE, first MARQUIS OF (d. 1721). [See 

ANNE OF BOHEMIA (1366-1394), first queen of 
Richard II ; eldest daughter of Emperor Charles II, by 
fourth wife, Elizabeth of Pomerania ; arrangements for 
her marriage made by Earl of Kent and two others, 1379, 
but her arrival was delayed by Wat Tyler's rebellion ; 
she eventually reached London and was married, 1382 ; 
Richard II was devoted to her, but the expenses of the 
household, largely increased by her Bohemian retinue, 
had much to do with the struggles between Richard and 
parliament ; in 1392 she acted as mediatrix between king 
and city of London, which had refused the king a loan ; 
died childless at Sheen, of the pestilence. [i. 420] 

ANNE (1456-1485), queen of Richard III ; daughter 
of Richard Nevill, earl of Warwick, ' the king-maker,' and 
of Anne, heiress of the former earls, of the Beauchamp 
family ; betrothed at Angers, 1470, to Edward, prince of 
Wales, son of Henry VI, to be married in the event of 
Warwick's expedition to restore Henry VI being success- 
ful, an arrangement which the death of Warwick and 
Prince Edward prevented; married Richard, duke of 
Gloucester, 1474, and when he usurped the throne, 1483, 
became queen ; survived by less than a year her only son, 
who was bom c. 1476, and died 1484. [i. 423] 

ANNE (1507-1636), second queen of Henry VIII; 
daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, afterwards Earl of Wilt- 
shire, and Ormonde ; ' one of the French queen's women,' 




c. 1519-22, having, probably, pone to France with her 
father when la- was ambassador ; returned to England, 
1522 ; riinvspondi-d with Henry VIII, who had become 
attached to her; became Henry VIII's mistress after 
lf>i;7, tin* king having instituted proceedings with a view 
to his divorce from Catherine of Arragon ; secretly mar- 
ried in January 1833. Catherine's marriage being declared 
nnlL Anne was crowned on \Vhit Sunday, and her daughter, 
Princess Elizabeth, was born in September. In 1536 Henry, 
wlm-r passion had gradually died, charged her with 
i-iimiiiiil intercourse with several persons, including her 
own brother, and she was condemned to death ; whereupon 
her marriage being declared invalid she was executed. 

[i. 425] 

ANNE OP OLEVES (1516-1557), fourth queen of 
Hi-nry VIII ; daughter of John, duke of Oleves, and Mary, 
only daughter of William, duke of Juliers ; her father being 
the most powerful supporter of protestantism in west 
oi (icrmany, she was selected by Cromwell as wife for 
Henry on death of Jane Seymour; arrangements for the 
match made in 1539 ; married at Greenwich, 1540. The 
kin;,' soon wearied of her, and a catholic reaction gave him 
an excuse a few mouths later for having the marriage 
annulled by parliament : Anne was pensioned on condition 
of remaining in England, and on her death was buried in 
Westminster Abbey. [i. 429] 

ANNE OP DENMARK (1574-1619), queen of James I ; 
daughter of Frederick II of Denmark and Norway, and 
Sophia, daughter of Ulric III, duke of Mecklenburg ; was 
born at Skanderborg, Jutland; negotiations concerning 
her marriage begun in 1585, but Elizabeth, who was keep- 
Ing James's mother, Mary Queen of Scots, in confinement, 
refused to sanction it ; on the execution of Mary, the 
Scottish nobility decided that the match should be con- 
cluded, 1587, and after some delay Anne was married by 
proxy at Copenhagen, 20 Aug.,1589, and to James in per- 
son 23 Nov. following at Opsloe, Norway ; she arrived with 
him at Leith, 1 May 1590 ; crowned with James at Windsor, 
1603, and took up residence in London, 1604 ; took great 
interest in the court entertainments, and personally ap- 
peared in masks by Jonson and Dekker ; fond of pro- 
gresses through the country, that to Bath in 1613 being 
most notable. She largely indulged a taste for building, 
and consequently, in spite of many parliamentary grants, 
died heavily in debt. Her inclination towards the Roman 
church occasioned, 1604, a proclamation banishing Jesuits 
and seminary priests from the kingdom, but, though she 
is said to have declared herself a catholic, she died profess- 
ing protestantism. [i. 431] 

ANNE (1665-1714), queen of Great Britain and Ire- 
land ; born at St. James's Palace, London ; second daugh- 
ter of James II, by his first wife, Anne Hyde, daughter of 
Earl of Clarendon ; educated in protestant faith ; con- 
firmed by Dr. Lake, 1676, together with her elder sister, 
Mary (who married Prince of Orange, 1677); proposals 
for her marriage with Prince George of Hanover enter- 
tained but abandoned, 1681 ; married George, prince of 
Denmark, 1683 ; several children were born to them, but 
all died young ; joined William of Orange on the deposi- 
tion of James, and by the Declaration of Right, 1688, had 
the crown settled on her and her posterity after that of 
William's wife, Mary ; ascended the throne, 8 March 1702, 
and gave the Duchess of Marlborough, with whom she 
had been intimate from an early age, high appointments 
in the royal household, which the duchess held till 1711, 
when she was superseded by Mrs. Masham, her cousin ; 
Anne's husband, Prince George, died 1708. Throughout 
her reign the queen favoured tory and high church prin- 
ciples, regarding it as her right to appoint her ministers 
according to her own choice ; and the final estrangement 
of the Duchess of Marlborough was largely due to the 
duke's persistent advice to replace tory ministers by whigs, 
on the ground that the tory minis-try was unfavourable to 
the war of the Spanish succession. She evinced particu- 
lar interest in the church, and endeavoured to take the 
ecclesiastical patronage of the crown into her own hands. 
In 1704 she granted the crown revenues from tenths and 
first-fruits to form, for the benefit of the church, a fund 
known as 'Queen Anne's Bounty,' and, in 1711, an act 
was passed on her recommendation for the building of 
fifty churches in London. In 1703 Anne recognised 
Charles III, second son of Emperor Leopold I, as king of 
Spain, and in the following years the English armies 
fighting in defence of his claim won several glorious vic- 

tories ; the war was closed by the treaty of Utrecht, 
1713. The most important constitutional feature of 
Anne's reign was the Act of Union with Scotland, passed 
1707. She was interred in Henry VII's chapel, Westmin- 
ster. Her portrait, painted by Kneller, is at Windsor. 

[i. 441] 

ANNESLEY, ALEXANDER (</. 1813), London so- 
licitor and member of Middle Temple ; wrote legal and 
political works. [ii. 1] 

(1614-1686), son of Sir Francis Annesley [q. v.] ; gra- 
duated at Magdalen College, Oxford, 1634; entered 
Lincoln's Inn ; made the grand tour ; sent to Ireland by 
parliament to defeat Onnond's negotiations with the 
Scots in Ulster, 1645 and 1647 ; member for Dublin in 
Richard Cromwell's parliament, 1658; commissioned by 
Charles II to treat with parliament ; made Earl of Anglesey 
1661 ; president of council of state, February 1660 ; M.P. 
for Carmarthen in Convention parliament, and after the 
Restoration, privy councillor ; vice-treasurer and receiver, 
general for Ireland, 1660-7 ; treasurer of navy, Iti07 : 
lord privy seal, 1672; dismissed for adverse criticism of 
the king's government, 1682 ; wrote historical and other 
works. [ii. 1] 

NORKIS and first VISCOUNT VAI.KNTIA (1585-1660) ; held 
several, small offices of state in Dublin, 1606 ; took leading 
part in colonisation of Ulster, 1608 ; member for county 
Armagh in Irish parliament, 1613 ; knighted, 1616 ; prin- 
cipal secretary of state for Ireland, 1618 ; baronet, 1620 ; 
vice- treasurer and receiver-general of Ireland, 1625 ; raised 
to Irish peerage, 1628 ; ' treasurer-at-war ' in addition to 
other offices, 1632 ; quarrelled with Sir Thomas Went- 
worth, afterwards Earl of Strafford, who became lord- 
deputy, 1633 ; charged (1634 and 1635) with malversion 
and other offences, and sentenced to death ; deprived of 
offices and imprisoned ; his sentence declared unjust by 
the commons, 1641 ; became Viscount Valentia by rever- 
sion, 1642 ; clerk of signet in Ireland, 1648 ; secretary of 
state at Dublin under Henry Cromwell. [ii. 3] 

ANNESLEY, JAMES (1715-1760), claimant ; son of 
Lord Altham, by his wife, or by a woman called Juggy 
Landy ; lived with his father as legitimate sou for some 
years, but afterwards shifted for himself. On death of 

{ Lord Altham (1727) his brother, afterwards Earl of 
Anglesey, succeeded to title, and contrived to get his 
nephew sent to America as a slave. Anuesley entered 
navy (1740), returned to England, and taking legal 
action against his uncle (1743) was declared legitimate, 

i but being without funds died before the case could be pro- 
secuted further. [ii. 5] 

(1694-1761), succeeded his brother as fifth Baron Altham, 
1727, and his cousin as sixth Earl of Anglesey, seventh 
Viscount Valeutia, seventh Baron Mountnorris, and Baron 
Newport-Pagnell, 1737 ; married (1715) Anne Prest or 
Prust, who died without issue, 1741 ; lived with Ann 
Simpson (1737-40), and c. 1741, till death, with Juliana 
Donnovau (whom he married, 1752); both wives on his 
death (1761) claimed the titles of Valentia and Mount- 
norris for their children. The Countess Juliana won her 
case, and her son Arthur succeeded, but was unable to 
substantiate his claim to the titles of Anglesey and 
Newport-Pagnell. James Annesley [q. v.] unsuccessfully 
laid claim to title of Altham in 1743. [ii. 6] 

ANNESLEY, SAMUEL (1620?-1696), puritan non- 
conformist; graduated B.A. and M.A. Queen's College, 
Oxford ; ordained ; chaplain in Globe man-of-war to Earl 
of Warwick's fleet, 1644; obtained living of Cliffe; 
preached before the House of Commons, 1648; LLJ). 
Oxford ; lecturer of St. Paul's, 1657 ; vicar of St. Gites, 
Cripplegate, 1658 ; ejected, 1662 ; preached semi-privately, 
and kept a meeting-house in Little St. Helen's. [ii. 7] 

ANNET, PETER (1693-1769), deistical writer; 
schoolmaster ; lost his employment through bitter at- 
tacks on the apologetic writings of Bishop Sherlock and 
others, c. 1744 ; perhaps author of ' History of the Man 
after God's own Heart,' 1761 ; attacked Old Testament 
in ' Free Enquirer,' 1761 ; tried for blasphemous libel, ami 
was condemned to imprisonment, pillory, and hard labour, 
1763 ; his writings form a link between the deism of the 
early eighteenth century and that of the revolutionary 
period. [ii. 9] 




ANNING, MARY (1799-1847), discoverer of the 
ichthyosaurus ; daughter of a carpenter and vendor of 
natural curiosities ; discovered, 1811, skeleton of ichthyo- 
saurus in cliff near Lyme, and subsequently the first speci- 
mens of plesiosaurus and pterodactylus. [Suppl. i. 51] 

AN8DELL. RICHARD (1815-1885), animal painter ; 
exhibited at Royal Academy from 1840 ; R.A., 1870 ; he 
three times grained the Heywood medal at Manchester 
exhibitions. [Suppl. i. 52] 

ANSELL, CHARLES (1794-1881), actuary; employed 
in Atlas Assurance Company, 1808-64 ; consulting 
actuary to several companies ; gave ex pert evidence before 
select parliamentary committees, 1841-63; published a 
work dealing with friendly societies from a scientific 
standpoint. [ii. 10] 

ANSELL, GEORGE FREDERICK (1826-1880), in- 
ventor; studied medicine and chemistry, and became 
a<<i<tant to Dr. Hofmann at School of Mines ; held post 
in mint, 1856-66 ; experimented, with valuable results, on 
dangers of fire-damp in mines. [ii. 10] 

ANSELM, SAINT (1033-1109), archbishop of Canter- 
bury ; born at Aosta ; educated in Abbey of St. Leger, 
near Aosta ; travelled in Burgundy, France, and Nor- 
mandy, and resided at Avranches, c. 1059; entered 
monastic order at Bee, 1060 ; prior, successor to Lanfranc, 
1063-78; abbot, 1078-93; visited England soon after 
1063, and was admitted by monks of Christ Church a 
member of their house, where he became acquainted with 
Eadmer, his biographer ; called to deathbed of William 
the Conqueror at Rouen, but fell ill and did not recover 
before the king's death ; reluctantly accepted the arch- 
bishopric of Canterbury from William II, who was lying 
ill at Gloucester ; enthroned at Canterbury, 1093 ; conse- 
crated, assisted by seven bishops, the church of the abbey 
erected by William I on field on which he had defeated 
Harold, 1094 ; applied for permission to go to Rome and 
receive his pallium from the pope, 1095 ; there being two 
rivals for the papacy, Urban and Clement, neither of whom 
William II had recognised, had, as abbot of Bee, recognised 
Urban and refused to withdraw his allegiance ; a council, 
at which no definite decision was reached, held at Rock- 
ingham to decide between the claims of the king and the 
pope on his obedience; his deposition aimed at in the 
king's subsequent (unsuccessful) acknowledgment of 
Urban as pope : a form of reconciliation made by William 
with him, on which he received the pallium from the papal 
legate ; obtained leave, with difficulty, to go to Rome in 
order to interest the pope in the condition of England, . 
1097; his estates seized by the king ; received by the pope 
with honour, and promised assistance in his episcopal 
work, but not materially assisted, since delegates from 
William succeeded in influencing Urban ; returned to Eng- 
land on death of William, 1100 ; obeying a papal decree, 
refused to consecrate prelates invested by Henry I ; re- 
visited Rome ; thence went to Lyons, and remained there 
till the point in dispute with the king should be decided. 
The matter was finally settled, 1107, when the king ceded 
the right of investiture and Anselm promised that elected 
prelates should not be debarred from consecration on ac- 
count of having done homage to the king. Anselm wrote 
many theological and philosophical works, including the 
famous ' Monologion,' ' Proslogion,' and ' Cur Dens Homo.' 

[ii 10] 

ANSLAY, BRIAN (fl. 1521), yeoman of wine-cellar to 
Henry VIII : published Boke of the Oyte of Ladies,' 
1521. [ii. 31] 

ANSON, GEORGE, BARON ANSON (1697-1762), admi- 
*1 ; volunteer under Captain Chamberlen, 1712 ; midship- 
man and lieutenant under Sir John Norris in Baltic, 1716 ; 
second lieutenant under Sir George Byng, 1718-19 ; com- 
manded sloop against Dutch smugglers, 1722 ; captain of 
frigate protecting commerce on Carolina coast, 1724 ; com- 
mander 1731 ; on Carolina coast, 1732-5 ; protected trade on 
west African coast and West Indies against French, 1737-9 ; 
commanded squadron in Pacific, 1740, and in spite of 
damage from storms inflicted considerable injuries on 
Spaniards ; returned with rich prizes, having sailed round 
the world, 1744 ; went on half-pay as captain ; rear-admiral, 
1745 ; vice-admiral of Channel fleet, 1746 ; defeated French 

last served at sea in blockade of Brest, 1758 ; admiral of 
fleet, 1761 ; died without issue. [ii. 31] 

ANSON, GKORGE (1797-1857), general; served with 
3rd guards at Waterloo ; M.P., 1818 ; successively princi- 
pal storekeeper and clerk of ordnance ; held military 
command* in India, where he was commander-in-chief, 
1856 ; died of cholera. [ii. 3G] 

1828), dramatist ; married William, afterwards sixth Earl 
of Craven, 1767 ; separated from him, 1783 ; travelled on 
continent, and subsequently lived with the margrave of 
Anspach, whom she married on the death of her husband, 
1791; settled in England, 1792 ; died at Naples; wrote 
several plays produced at Drury Lane.Oovent Garden, and 
elsewhere. [ii. 36] 

AN8TED, DAVID THOMAS (1814-1880), geologist : 
fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge ; professor of geology 
at King's College, London ; assistant secretary to Geolo- 
gical Society, 1844-7 ; wrote works on geology and 
travel. [ii. 37] 

ANSTER, JOHN (1793-1867), regius professor of 
civil law, Dublin; scholar of Trinity College, Dublin, 
1814 ; published poems with translations from German, 
1819 ; called to Irish bar, 1824 ; LL.D., 1825 : published 
translation of first part of Goethe's ' Faust,' 1835 ; regis- 
trar to court of admiralty, Ireland, 1837 ; regius professor 
of civil law, Dublin, 1850 ; published second part of 
4 Faust,' 1864. [ii. 38] 

ANSTEY, CHRISTOPHER (1724-1805), poet : edu- 
cated at Eton ; scholar and fellow of King's College, Oam- 
bridge,where he distinguished himself by his verses ; in con- 
junction with Dr. Roberts, translated Gray's ' Elegy ' into 
Latin, 1762 ; published ' New Bath Guide,' 1766 ; resided 
at Bath, 1770-1805 ; published occasional verses, [ii. 38] 

ANSTEY, JOHN (rf. 1819), poet : second son of Chris- 
topher Anstey [q. v.] : barrister of Lincoln's Inn ; pub- 
lished humorous poem entitled "The Pleader's Guide," 
1796. [ii. 39] 

lawyer ; educated at Wellington and University College, 
London ; called to bar, 1839 ; became interested in the 
Oxford movement, and was converted to Roman Catho- 
licism ; professor of law at Roman catholic college, Prior 
Park, Bath ; took to politics as supporter of extreme sec- 
tion of O'Connell's followers ; M.P. for Youghal, 1847-52 ; 
attorney-general of Hong Kong, 1854 ; his radical policy 
led to his suspension and recall, 1859 ; practised, except 
from 1866-8, at Bombay bar, till death : published many 
legal and political tracts. [ii. 40] 

ANSTICE, JOSEPH (1808-1836), classical scholar; 
educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; 
professor of classical literature, King's College, London. 

off Finisterre, 1 747 ; raised to peerage ; married Lady Eliza- 
beth Yorke, daughter of lord chancellor, 1748 ; occupied 
with reforms connected with naval administration and 
dockyard? ; first lord of admiralty, 1761-6, and 1767-62 ; 

ANSTIE, FRANCIS EDMUND (1833-1874), phy- 
sician ; educated at King's College, London ; M.R.C.S. 
and L.S.A., 1856 ; M.B. London, 1857 ; M.D., 1859 ; F.C P , 
1865; assistant-physician, Westminster Hospital, 1860, 
and full physician, 1873 ; first dean of Medical School 
for Women, 1874 ; for some years on editorial staff of 
Lancet ' ; influential in bringing about reforms in poor 
laws ; contributed largely to medical journals and pub- 
lished several scientific works. [ii. 41] 

AN8TIS, JOHN, the elder (1669-1744), Garter king 
of arms ; educated at Exeter College, Oxford ; entered 
Inner Temple, 1688 ; M.P. for St. Germans, 1702 ; deputy 
general to auditors of imprest and commissioner of prizes, 
1703 ; M.P. for St. Maw's, 1711-13, and for Launceston or 
Dunheved. 1714 ; received reversionary patent for office 
of Garter, 1714 ; imprisoned for supposed intrigue with 
Pretender, 1715, and during his confinement the office of 
Garter, having become vacant, was given to Sir John 
Vanbrugh ; cleared himself of charge of treason, and 
with great difficulty obtained post of Garter, 1718 ; pub- 
liahed ieveral heraldic works, and left large collections of 
manuscripts relating chiefly to heraldry. [ii. 43] 

ANSTIS. JOHN, the younger (1708-1754), joint Garter 
king of anna son of John Anstis [q. v.] ; gentleman 
commoner, Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1725 ; joined 
bis father in office of Garter, 1727 ; F.S.A., 1736 ; LL.D., 






Anglo-Indian judge; called to bar at Lincoln's Iim ; ad- 
vocate-general, Madras, 1803 ; recorder of Bombay, aud 
kuighted, 1812 ; published reports of exchequer cases. 

[ii. 45] 

ANSTRUTHER, SIR JOHN (1753-1811), politician, 
and Anglo-Indian judge ; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 
1779; M.P. for Cockermoutn, 1790-6; took part in im- 
peachment of Warren Hastings ; chief-justice of Bengal, 
and baronet, 1797 ; returned to England, 1806 : privy 
councillor ; M.P. for Kilkenny. [ii. 45] 

ANSTRUTHER, ROBERT (1768-1809), general; 
educated at Westminster ; ensign, 1788, lieutenant aud 
captain, 1792, in Scots guards ; served in Flanders, 1793-4 ; 
major and lieutenant-colonel in 68th regiment in West 
Indies, 1797 ; served as captain and lieutenant-colonel in 
guards in Helder expedition, 1799 ; quartermaster-general 
to Sir Ralph Abercromby in Mediterranean, 1800 ; colonel 
aud deputy quartermaster-general in England ; adjutant- 
general, Ireland ; brigadier-general in Portugal, 1807 ; 
fought at Vimeiro aud in the retreat from Toro, and died 
day before battle of Corunna. [ii. 45] 

judge ; M.P. for Fifeshire, 1681 and 1689-1707 ; sided with 
Prince of Orange ; lord of session and privy councillor ; 
baronet of Nova Scotia, 1694 ; lord of justiciary, 1704 ; 
published a volume of essays. [ii. 46] 

ANTHONY, FRANCIS (1550-1623), empiric and j 
chemical physician ; M.A. Cambridge, 1574 ; perhaps i 
M.D. ; after 1600 was repeatedly fined and imprisoned 
for practising in London without license from College of ' 
Physicians, but finally succeeded in defying the college 
with the aid of friends at court; the efficacy of his 
chief remedy, aurum potabile, he defended in several ; 
pamphlets. [ii. 47] 

ANTHONY, JOHN (1585-1655), physician; son 
of Francis Anthony [q. v.] ; M.D., 1619, Pembroke Col- 
lege, Cambridge ; L.C.P., 1625 ; succeeded to his father's 
practice ; wrote ' Comfort of the Soul,' published 1654. 

[ii. 48] 

ANTON, ROBERT (ft. 1616), poetical writer ; B.A. 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1610 ; published ' Philoso- 
phers Satyrs,' in verse, 1616. [ii. 48] 

ANTRIM, MARQUIS op (1609-1683). See MACDONNELL, 

DAL, first EARL, d. 1636 ; MACDONNKLL, RANDAL, 
second EARL, 1609-1683; MACDONNBLL, ALEXANDKR, 
third EARL, d. 1696 ?.] 

APLIN, PETER (1753-1817), admiral : served in Ameri- 
can war under Hyde Parker and Oornwallis ; admiral. 

[ii. 48] 

APPERLEY, CHARLES JAMES (1779-1843), sporting 
writer, known as ' Nimrod ' ; entered Rugby, 1790 ; cornet 
in sir Watkiu Wyun's ancient light British dragoons, 
1798 ; having lost money in farming experiments, he 
became contributor to the ' Sporting Magazine,' 1822 ; 
member of staff of 'Sporting Review' ; published a series 
of sporting memoirs and reminiscences. [Suppl. i. 53] 

(1841-1879), man of letters ; educated at Reading and St. 
John's College, Oxford ; B.A., 1863 ; D.O.L., 1871 ; studied 
in Germany ; founded ' The Academy,' 1869, and edited it 
till his death ; visited America, 1875, and took up the 
question of international copyright ; travelled for his 
health to Egypt, where he died. [ii. 48] 

APPLETON, HENRY (ft. 1650-1654), captain in 
navy, and commodore ; served in Mediterranean, in Dutch 
war (1662), in conjunction with Badiley ; caused Badiley's 
defeat off Elba by neglecting to send reinforcements; 
defeated and captured by Dutch off Leghorn, 1653 ; 
ransomed, and deprived of his command. [ii. 49] 

APPLEYARD, SIR MATHEW (1606-1669), royalist 
military commander ; knighted after taking of Leicester ; 
M.P. for Headon. [ii. 50] 

APPOLD, JOHN GEORGE (1800-1865), mechanician ; 
in business at Fiusbury as fur-skin dyer ; brought out many 
scientific aud mechanical inventions. [ii. 50] 

AP8LEY, first BARON (1714-1794). [See BATHURST, 

APSLEY, SIR ALLEN (1569 ?-1630), lieutenant of the 
Tower; having been ruined at court by gambling, sailed 
with Essex to Cadiz, 1696 ; went to Ireland ; became 
victualler of Muuster, 1605, and to navy, 1610 ; lieutenant 
of Tower, 1617. [ii. 61] 

APSLEY, SIR ALLEN (1616-1683), royalist leader; 
son of Sir Allen Apsley [q. v.] ; educated at Merchant 
Taylors' and Trinity College, Oxford ; M.A., 1663 ; com- 
manded company of horse, 1642 ; royalist governor of 
Exeter and later of Barnstaple, which he surreuflered 
to the parliamentarians, 1646; engaged with Sir John 
Berkeley in negotiations between king and army, 1647 ; 
appointed to various offices in royal household after 1660 ; 
colonel in Duke of York's army, 1667 ; M.P. for Thetford, 
1661-1678 ; buried in V. -istmiuater Abbey ; published a long 
poem, ' Order and Disorder,' 1679. [ii. 61] 

AQUEPONTANU8 (1532 ?-1596 ?). [See BRIDGK- 

ARABELLA STUART (1575-1615), daughter of 
Charles Stuart, earl of Lennox, younger brother of Lord 
Darnley ; next heir to English throne after James I ; 
became engaged to William Seymour, who was also of 
royal descent ; and the marriage was celebrated secretly, 
IblO ; died in Tower. [ii. 53] 

ARAM, EUGENE (1704-1759), criminal ; with slight 
assistance educated himself till able to open a small 
school at Ramsgill, where he married ; being suspected of 
complicity in a fraud practised by one Daniel Clark, he 
disappeared for some years, during which he continually 
prosecuted his studies ; while school usher at Lyme Regis, 
1758, was arrested on information of Houseman, an accom- 
plice, on a charge of murdering Clark ; condemned and 
executed, Houseman being sole witness ; left philologi- 
cal writings of considerable value. [ii. 53] 

1840), novelist, daughter of Dr. Burney ; self-educated ; 
published her first novel, ' Evelina,' anonymously (though 
her father soon divulged the secret), 1778 ; brought by its 
success to the notice of most of the literary personages of 
the day ; published * Cecilia,' with similar success, 1782 ; 
made the acquaintance of Mrs. Delauey, who procured her 
the appointment of second keeper of the queen's robes, 
1786 ; being broken in health, obtained with difficulty per- 
mission to retire, 1790; married General d'Arblay, a 
French refugee in England, 1793; published 'Camilla,' 
1796 ; joined her husband, who had endeavoured to obtain 
employment in Paris, 1802 ; returned to England, 1812 ; 
published her last novel, ' The Wanderer,' 1814; rejoined 
her husband in Paris, and retired to Belgium ; passed the 
rest of her life in England, after the Waterloo campaign ; 
edited her father's ' Memoirs,' 1832 ; published 'Diary and 
Letters,' 1842-6. [ii. 55] 

ARBUCKLE, JAMES (1700-1734 ?), poet and essayist ; 
published between 1719 and 1727 verses, letters, and essays, 
many of which had appeared in periodicals. [iL 58] 

ARBUTHNOT, ALEXANDER (1538-1583), Scottish 
divine and poet ; educated at St. Andrews ; studied civil 
law at Bourges; licensed minister, aud appointed to 
living at Logic Buchan, 1568 ; principal of King's Col- 
lege, Aberdeen, 1569 ; received living of Arbuthnot, Kiii- 
cardiueshire ; incurred King James VI's displeasure ; being 
a zealous presbyterian, and having been appointed minister 
of St. Andrews, in 1583, was ordered to return to King's 
College, where he died, and was buried ; published and left 
in manuscript, verse aud prose works. [ii. 59] 

1585), printer, of Edinburgh ; with Thomas Bassandyne 
obtained permission to print first bible issued in Scotland, 
1575, and in 1576 was, with his associate, granted exclusive 
rights of priutiug and selling for ten years ; brought out 
the work (a reprint of the Genevan version of 1561 X 1579 ; 
made king's printer, 1579, when he was licensed to print, 
sell, and import psalm-books, prayers, and catechisms for 
seven years. [ii- 60] 

ARBUTHNOT, CHARLES (1767-1850), diplomatist; 
precis writer in foreign office, 1793 ; M.P. for East Looe, 
1795 ; under foreign secretary ; ambassador extraordinary, 
Constantinople, 1804 ; privy councillor : held various 
government offices, and from 1809 was M.P. successively 
for Eye and Orford (SnffolkX and St. Germans and St. 
Ives (Cornwall). [ii. 61] 



general : educated at Rugby and Royal Military Academy ; 
lieutenant, royal artillrrv, lt<45 ; captain, 1855 ; in Crimea ; 
1 it- n tenant-colonel, 1864 ; in India, 1868-80, was deputy 
adjutant-general, 1873-7, and inspector-general of artillery, 
1877-80, except while serving in Afghan campaigns ; 
colonel, 1874: inspector-general of artillery in England, 
1883; president ordnance committee, 1885; succeeded 
Lord Roberts chief of army in Burma, 1887 ; general, 1890 ; 
G.O.B., 1894. [Suppl. i. 64] 

ARBUTHNOT, GEORGE (1802-1865), civilian ; ap- 
pointed junior clerk in treasury, 1820; served in that 
department till death, when he was auditor of civil list 
and secretary to ecclesiastical commissioners ; acted as I 
private secretary to Sir Charles Wood, chancellor of 
exchequer. Sir Robert Peel, and to six successive aeon- 
taries and two assistant secretaries of the treasury; re- ! 
garded as an authority on currency questions, [it 61] 

ARBUTHNOT, JOHN (1667-1735), physician and wit : 
M.D. St. Andrews, 1696 ; settled in London and taught 
mathematics; F.R.S., 1704; attended Prince George of 
Denmark for a sudden illness at Epsom; physician in 
ordinary to Oueen Anne, 1709 ; F.R.C.P., 1710, censor, 
1723, Harveian orator, 1727 ; formed close friendship with 
Swift, and was acquainted with Pope and most literary 
men of the day ; published ' History of John Bull' (1712) ; 
and several witty political pamphlets ; contributed largely i 
to ' Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus,' published with I 
Pope's Works,' 1741 ; attended Anne in her last illness ; 
suffered much in health during his later years ; died at 
Hampstead; published, besides his poetical writings, I 
medical and scientific works. [ii. 62] 

ARBUTHNOT, HARRIOT (17117-1794), admiral; j 
lieutenant, 1739; commander, 1746; captain, 1747 ; com- 
manded the Portland at Quiberon Bay, 1759 ; commanded | 
guardship, Portsmouth, 1771-3; commissioner of navy, 
Halifax, 1775-8; admiral, 1778; commander of North 
American station, 1779-81 (with the exception of a short , 
period, when Sir George Rodney took the command), and 
took part in the action off mouth of Chesapeake and Cape 
Henry ; admiral of the blue, 1793. [ii. 65] 

ARBUTHNOT, SIR ROBERT (1773-1853X soldier ; 
cornet 23rd light dragoons, 1797 ; served in Irish rebel- 
lion, 1798, and at capture of Cape of Good Hope, 1806 : 
aide-de-camp to Beresford in South America, and, as 
captain in 20th light dragoons, aide-de-camp and after- 
wards military secretary to that general throughout 
greater part 'of peninsular campaign ; K.T.S. ; K.O.B., 
1815; major-general, 1830; commanded in Ceylon and 
Bengal, 1838-41 ; lieutenant-general, 1841 ; colonel, 76th 
foot, 1843. [ii. 66] 

ARBUTHNOT, SIR THOMAS (1776-1849), lieutenant- j 
general ; brother of Sir Robert Arbuthnot [q. v.] ; ensign, 
29th foot, 1794; joined staff corps under Moore, 1803; 
quartermaster-general, Cape of Good Hope; served in 
Peninsula and West Indies; K.C.B., 1815; lieutenant- 
general, 1838. [ii. 67] 

ARCHANGEL, FATHER (1571-1606). [See FORBBS, 

ARCHBOLD, JOHN FREDERICK (1785-1870), legal 
writer ; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1809 : barrister, 1814. He 
published a number of legal treatises, which include : : 
1 Summary of Law relative to Pleading and Evidence in 
Criminal Cases,' 1824 ; ' Practice of Court of Common 
Pleas,' 182'J ; and several works on parish laws. 

[Suppl. i. 64] 

ARCHDALE, JOHN (ft. 1664-1707), governor of 
North Carolina ; accompanied to New England his bro- 
ther-in-law, Ferdiuando Gorges, who became governor of 
Maine, 1664 ; returned to England, 1674 ; joined quakers ; 
visited North Carolina, 1686, and subsequently became 
one of the proprietors of the colony ; commissioner for 
Gorges in government of Maine, 1687-88; governor of 
North Carolina, 1695-7 ; M.P. for Chipping Wyoombe, 
Buckinghamshire, 1698 ; refused oath and was deprived 
of seat, 1699 ; published 4 Description of Carolina,' 
1707. [SuppL L 66] 

ARCHDALL, MERVYN (1723-1791), antiquary ; edu- 
cated at Dublin University ; domestic chaplain to Pocock, 
bishop of Ossory, who presented him to living of Attanagh 
aud prebend of Cloneamery, 1762 ; prebendary of M 

1764 ; member of Royal Irish Academy ; published his- 
torical and topographical works. [ii. 67] 

1693), Irish Jesuit ; studied classics, philosophy, and (at 
Louvain) theology ; entered Society of Jesus at Mechlin, 
1642; taught humanities, 1650, and later studied at 
Antwerp and Lille ; professor of philosophy and theology 
at Lonvain and Antwerp, where he died ; published 
theological works in English, Irish, and Latin, [ii. 68] 

ARCHER, EDWARD (1718-1789), physician ; studied 
medicine at Edinburgh and Leyden, where he gradu- 
ated M.D. 1746 ; physician to the newly founded small- 
pox hospital, 1747, to which institution he devoted most 
of his energies. [ii. 69] 

ARCHER, FREDERICK (1857-1886), jockey; ap- 
prenticed to Matthew Dawsou [q. v.], the trainer at 
Newmarket, 1867; won Two Thousand Guineas upon 
Lord Falmotith's Atlantic, 1874 ; won the Two Thousand 
Guineas, Oaks, Derby, St. Leger, and Grand Prix, 1885. 
He died by his own hand when ill. [Suppl. i. 57] 

ARCHER, FREDERICK SCOTT (1813-1857), inventor 
of collodion process ; son of a butcher ; started business 
as sculptor; first successfully used collodion process in 
photography, 1850 ; practised as photographer in Blooms- 
bury, [ii. 69] 

ARCHER, JAMES (1551 7-1624?), Irish Jesuit; first 
rector of Irish College, Salamanca. [ii. 70] 

ARCHER, JAMES (jr. 1822), catholic preacher ; began 
preaching at a public-house in Lincoln's Inn Fields; 
chaplain to the Bavarian minister in London, 1791 ; 
created D.D. by Pope Pius VII, 1821; published ser- 
mons, [ii. 70] 

ARCHER, JOHN (1598-1682), judge; B.A. Queens' 
College, Cambridge, 1619; M.A., 1622; called to bar at 
Gray's Inn, 1620; M.P., 1656 ; serjeant, 1658 ; justice of 
common bench and knighted, 1663. The King, Charles II, 
attempted to remove him from office (1672), but he refused 
to surrender the patent without due legal procedure, and 
though relieved by royal prohibition irom his duties, he 
continued to receive his salary till death. [ii. 70] 

ARCHER, JOHN (ft. 1660-1684), physician ; prac- 
tised in Dublin, 1660; court physician to Charles II, 
1671 ; published a Belf-advertising work called * Every 
Man his own Doctor,' 1671. [ii. 71] 

ARCHER, JOHN WYKEHAM (1808-1864), artist 
and antiquary ; apprenticed to an animal engraver in 
Clerkenwell; returned to London, 1831, after publishing 
several engravings in his native town, and was employed 
by various publishers in steel and wood engraving and 
watercolour painting. His works include a series of 
drawings of old London. [ii. 72] 

ARCHER, Sin SYMON (1581-1062), antiquary; 
knighted, 1624; sheriff of Warwickshire, 1628; M.P., 
1640 ; amassed much of the material used in Dugdale's 
4 History of Warwickshire' and other valuable antiquarian 
information. [ii. 73] 

ARCHER, THOMAS (1554-16307), divine; M.A. 
(1582) and fellow Trinity College, Cambridge ; held livings 
in Bedfordshire ; chaplain to Whitgift, 1599, and to the 
king, 1605 ; left manuscript obituaries of eminent con- 
temporaries, [ii. 73] 

ARCHER, THOMAS (d. 1743), architect ; pupil of 
Sir John Vanbrugh ; ' groom porter ' to Anne, George I, 
and George II; built Cliefden House and St. John's 
Church, Westminster (1728). [ii. 73] 

ARCHER, THOMAS (d. 1848), actor and dramatist: 
took Shakespearean roles at Drury Lane, 1823 ; visited 
United States and Paris, aud led a Shakespearean com- 
pany in Belgium and Germany ; wrote many successful 
PUDM, [it 73] 

ARCHER, WILLIAM (1830-1897), naturalist and 
librarian ; secretary of Dublin Microscopical Club ; con- 
tributed to ' Proceedings ' of Royal Society, and other 
learned bodies ; F.R.S., 1876 ; secretary for foreign corre- 
spondence to the Royal Irish Academy, 1876-80 ; librarian 
(1876) to Royal Dublin Society, and (1877-95) to National 
Library of Ireland, of which he compiled a catalogue. 

[Suppl. i. 57] 



Ciiiia.liiiii statesman; boni at Truro, Nova Scotia; I 
educated at Picton College ; attorney of Prince Edward ' 
Island and Nova Scotia, 1838; called to bar of Nova 
Scotia, 1839; member for Colchester in Nova Scotia 
House of Assembly, 1861 ; Q.C., 1855 ; attorney-general, 
1860 ; advocate-general in vice-admiralty court at Hali- 
fax, 1862-3 ; took part in consultations in London which 
led to Canadian federation, 1866 ; secretary of state under 
new dominion government, 1867-8 ; member for Col- ' 
clu-tcr in dominion parliament, 1869-70 ; first lieutenant- , 
governor of Manitoba, 1870-2 ; judge in equity in Nova ] 
Scotia, 1873, and lieutenant-governor, 1873-83 ; M.P. for I 
Colchester in Canadian House of Commons, 1888-91 ; 
K.C.M.G., 1886. [Suppl. i. 58] 

judge ; born at Truro, Nova Scotia ; educated at Picton 
College ; qualified as attorney and barrister-at-law in Nova 
Scotia, 1837 ; called to bar at Middle Temple, 1852 ; junior 
counsel to treasury, 1868 ; appointed justice of queen's 
bench and invested with coif, 1872; knighted, 1873; 
transferred to common pleas, 1875. [Suppl. i. 59] 

ARDBRECAIN (</. 656). [See ULTAN.] 

ARDEN, EDWARD (1542 ?-1583), high sheriff of 
Warwickshire, 1575 ; accused of complicity, though pro- 
bably innocent, in an attempt by his son-in-law to 
assassinate the queen, and hanged at Tyburn, 1583. Has 
been erroneously connected with Mary Arden, Shake- 
speare's mother. [ii. 74] 

(1745-1804), judge; educated at> Manchester grammar 
school and Trinity College, Cambridge ; distinguished in 
classics ; twelfth wrangler ; M.A., fellow, and called to 
bar, 1769 : judge on South Wales circuit, 1776 ; took silk, j 
1780 ; M.P. for Newton, and solicitor-general, 1782-3 ; I 
attorney-general and chief-justice of Chester, 1784; 
mastei of rolls, 1788 ; sat successively for Aldborough, 
Hastings, and Bath ; lord chief-justice of common pleas, 
1801. [ii. 74] 

ARDERNE, JAMBS (1636-1691), dean of Chester; 
graduated B.A., 1666, and M.A. Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge; M.A. Oxford, 1658; curate of St. Botolph, 
Aldersgate, 1666-82 ; fellow commoner of Brasenose ; 
D.D., 1673 ; chaplain to Charles II ; rector of Davenham, 
1681 ; dean of Chester, 1682 ; published religious works. 

[ii 75] 


ARDERNE, JOHN (/. 1370), first great English sur- j 
geon ; lived at Newark, 1349-70 ; practised surgery in 
London after 1370; cured many distinguished persons, 
and probably enjoyed patronage of Black Prince. Left 
manuscripts which show, for the period, a remarkable 
knowledge of surgery. [ii. 76] 

ARDERON, WILLIAM (1703-1767), naturalist; 
officer of excise and, later, managing clerk at the New 
Mills, Norwich ; P.R.S., 1745 ; wrote largely on jiatural 
history and microscopical science. [ii. 77] 

ARDMLLLAN, LOUD (1805-1876). [See CUAWFURD, 

ARGALL, JOHN (/. 1604), divine; M.A. Christ 
Church, Oxford, 1565 ; held living of Halesworth, Suf- 
folk, [ii. 78] 

ARGALL, RICHARD (fl. 1621), poet; educated at 
Oxford ; perhaps author of a volume of religious poems 
(1621) containing ' The Bride's Ornament,' republished in 
1654 in name of Richard Aylett. [ii. 78] 

ARGALL, Sin SAMUEL (rf. 1626), adventurer ; went 
as trailer in 1609 to Virginia, whither he subsequently 
made frequent voyages ; visited the Potomac and Chesa- 
peake Bay, 1612-13; reduced French settlements in 
Muine, St. Croix, and Nova Scotia, 1613 ; deputy-governor 
of Virginia and admiral of the adjacent seas, 1617 ; served 
in expedition against Algiers, under Sir R. Mansell, 1620 ; 
knighted, 1622; admiral of squadron of English and 
Dutch ships operating on French and Spanish coasts, 
1625-6 ; died at sea. [ii. 78] 

ARGENTINE, GILES DE (d. 1284), justiciar in Nor- 
mandy, 1247 ; itinerant justice, 1253 ; constable of Wind- 
sor, 1263 ; on council of nine after battle of Lewes. 

[ii. 80] 

ARGENTINE, JOHN (d. 1508), provost of King's, 
Cambridge ; M.D. King's College, Cambridge ; pro- 
vost, 1601; D.D., 1504; physician and dean of chapel 
to Prince of Wales ; master of hospital of St. John 
Baptist, Dorchester, 1499. [ii. 80] 

ARGENTINE, alias SKXTEN, RICHARD (d. 1568), 
physician and divine ; M.D. Cambridge, 1541 ; physician, 
schoolmaster, and lecturer in divinity at Ipswich ; held 
livings successively at Ipswich and Exeter, repeatedly 
changing his religious views in accordance with pre- 
vailing opinions. [ii. 80] 

second DUKE, 1678-1743 ; CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, third 
DUKK, 1682-1761.1 

ARGYLE or ARGYLL, MARQUIS OF (1598-1661). 

second EARL, d. 1513 ; CAMPBELL, COLIN, third EARL, d. 
1630; CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, fourth EARL, d. 1588;' 
CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, fifth EARL, 1530-1573; CAMP- 
BELL, COLIN, sixth EARL, d. 1584 ; CAMPBELL, ARCHI- 
BALD, seventh EARL, 1576 V-1638 ; CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, 
eighth EARL, 1598-1661 ; CAMPBELL, ARCHIBALD, ninth 
d. 1703.] 

ARGYLE or ARGYLL, COUNTESS OP (1621 ?-1706 ?). 

DOUGLAS, 1823-1900.] 

ARE3SDEN, THOMAS (fl. 1633), stenographer; 
M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1633 ; invented a 
shorthand alphabet. [ii. 81] 

ARKWRIGHT, SIR RICHARD (1732-1792), engi- 
neer ; apprenticed to a barber ; established himself at 
Bolton, before 1755, as a barber, and gradually formed a 
large business; gave up business at Bolton and turned 
his attention to mechanical inventions, c. 1767 ; invented 
and erected near Hockley a spinning-mill, 1769 ; went 
into partnership with two manufacturers of ribbed stock- 
ings and erected machinery at Cromford, Derbyshire, 
1771 ; applied the mill to manufacture of calicoes, 1773 ; 
patented a series of adaptations and inventions for per- 
forming in one machine the whole process of yarn manu- 
facture, 1775 ; one of his mills (at Chorley) sacked by riot- 
ers, 1779 ; his repeated complaints against infringements 
of his patent during the following years were met by 
a combination of manufacturers, who obtained a verdict 
against Arkwright on the questions : (1) Is the invention 
new ? (2) Is it invented by the defendant ? (3) Was 
it sufficiently described iu the specification? His 
letters patent cancelled, 1785; visited Scotland and 
assisted in erection of New Lanark mills, c. 1784 ; bu f lt 
several mills in Derbyshire and Lancashire ; introduced 
Boulton & Watt's steam-engine into his mill at Notting- 
ham, 1790 ; knighted, 1786 ; high sheriff of Derbyshire, 
1787. [ii. 81] 

ARKWRIGHT, RICHARD (1755-1843), mill-owner, 
son of Sir Richard Arkwright [q. v.] ; inherited his 
father's business and amassed a large fortune. [ii. 86] 

ARLINGTON, first EARL OF (1618-1685). [SeeBENNET, 

ARMIN, ROBERT (/. 1610), actor and dramatist; 
apprenticed to a goldsmith hi Lombard Street ; perhaps 
one of the lord chamberlain's players, 1598 ; seems to 
have succeeded Kemp in the role of Dogberry ; in com- 
pany of actors licensed by James I, 1603 ; probably mem- 
ber of Lord Chaudos's company. 

ARMINE or ARMYNE, MARY, LADY (d. 1676), 
philanthropist, nte Talbot ; second wife of Sir William 
Armiue [q. v.] ; took practical interest in missionaries 
among North American Indians ; founded three hospitals 
in England. [& 87] 

ARMINE, RICHARD DK (d. 1340V). [See AYRE- 

ARMINE, WILLIAM DK (</. 1336). [See AYRK- 



ARMINE or ARMYNE, Sm WILLIAM (1693-1661), 
parliamentarian ; baronet, 1619 ; M.P. for Boston, 1621 
and 1624, for Grantham, 1626, and for Lincolnshire, 1626, 
1628, and 1641 ; assistant to managers of Buckingham'* 
impeachment, lt>26 ; imprisoned for refusing to collect 
arbitrary loan in Lincolnshire, 1627-8 ; sheriff of Lincoln- 
shire, 1630, of Huntingdonshire, 1639 ; accompanied Charles 
to Scotland, 1641 ; discussed terms, with king at Oxford 
in behalf of parliament, 1643 ; member of council of 
state, 1649, 1660, aud 1651. [IL 87] 

ARMITAGE, EDWA11D (1817-1896), historical 
painter ; studied under Paul Delaroche in Paris ; gained 
premiums in cartoon competitions for decoration of new 
houses of parliament, 1843, 1846, and 1847 ; commissioned 
to execute two frescoes for House of Lords ; exhibited at 
Royal Academy from 1848, generally biblical subjects; 
H.A., 1872 ; member of committee of artiste employed 
in decoration of Westminster Hall who made report on 
fresco-painting, 1871 ; professor and lecturer on painting 
to Royal Academy, 1875 ; published lectures, 1883. 

[Suppl. I. 60] 

ARMITAGE, TIMOTHY (d. 1666), pastor of first 
nonconformist church In Norwich, 1647 ; superintendent 
of numerous congregations of Norfolk and Suffolk. 


ARMSTRONG, Sm ALEXANDER (1818-1899), naval 
medical officer; studied medicine at Trinity College, 
Dublin, and at Edinburgh ; graduated, 1841 ; assistant- 
surgeon In navy, 1842 ; In medical charge of party for 
exploration of Xanthus, 1843 ; appointed to royal yacht, 
1846; surgeon, 1849; surgeon and naturalist In Arctic 
expedition under (Sir) Robert John Le Mesurier Maclnre 
[q. v.], 1849-64 ; medical superintendent of Malta hospital, 
1869-64 ; director-general of medical department of navy, 
1869-71 ; K.C.B., 1871 ; F.H.S., 1873. [SuppL L 61] 

ARMSTRONG, ARCHIBALD (rf. 1672), known as 
'Archie'; jester to James I and Charles I; gained wide 
reputation as sheep-stealer at Eskdale ; was attached to 
household of James VI of Scotland, and accompanied him 
to England, where he gained great social distinction, and 
amassed a large fortune ; accompanied Charles and Buck- 
ingham to Spain, 1623 ; expelled from court for Insulting 
Archbishop Laud, 1637 ; remained in London and spent 
his time In distraining mercilessly on his debtors ; retired 
to Arthuret, Cumberland ; credited with the authorship 
of ' A Banquet of Jests,' 1630. [ii. 89] 

ARMSTRONG, COSMO (/. 1800-1836), governor of 
Society of Engravers ; exhibited with Associated En- 
gravers, 1821 ; pupil of Thomas Milton ; engraved plates 
for Cooke's British Poets ' and other works. [ii. 91] 

ARMSTRONG, EDMUND JOHN (1841-1866), poet; 
entered Trinity College, Dublin, 1869; suffered seriously 
from over-work, 1860, and subsequently spent much 
time in Jersey and Brittany ; president of Undergraduate 
PI uosophlcal Society, Trinity College, 1864 ; published 
joems, 1866, aud prose works, 1877. [ii. 91] 

ARMSTRONG, GEORGE (fl. 1767), physician ; brother 
of John Armstrong (1709-1779) [q. v.] ; established dispen- 
sary In London for relief of poor children, 1769; pub- 
lished a work on diseases of children. [11. 92] 

ARMSTRONG, JAMES (1780-1839), Irish Unitarian 
minister; trained at Rademon academy; classical assis- 
tant in Belfast academy; graduated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin ; ordained minister of Strand Street chapel, 
Dublin, 1806 ; one of founders of Irish Unitarian Society, 
1830 ; D.D. Geneva, 1834. [ii. 92] 

ARMSTRONG, JOHN or JOHNIE (d. 1628), border 
freebooter; lived near Langholm, whence he made excur- 
sions at bead of twenty-four horsemen ; hanged with his 
followers at Carlanrigg Chapel. [ii. 93] 

ARMSTRONG, JOHN (1673-1742), major-general and 
quartermaster-general in Ireland: surveyor-general of 
ordnance and chief engineer ; F.R.S., 1723. [ii. 94] 

ARMSTRONG, JOHN (1709-1779), poet, physician, 
and essayist; M.D. Edinburgh, 1782; physician to 
hospital for wounded soldiers, London, 1746 ; physician to 
the army in Germany, 1760, and on return of troops re- 
ceived half-pay for remainder of his life: intimately 
acquainted for many years with Wilkes, with whom he 

quarrelled over the publication of some verses. His works 
include essays on various subjects, ami a didactic poem 
called * The Art of Preserving Health,' 1744. [ii. 94] 

ARMSTRONG, JOHN (1771-1797), journalist; M.A. 
Edinburgh ; private tutor ; wrote for London press, 1790 ; 
published poetical and prose works. [ii. 96] 

ARMSTRONG, JOHN, the elder (1784-1829), physi- 
cian M.D. Edinburgh, 1807 ; physician to Sunderlaud 
Infirmary; removed to London, 1818; physician to 
London Fever Institution, 1819-24 ; L.C.P., 1820 ; lec- 
tured on anatomy and medicine; published medical 
works. Lii- 97] 

ARMSTRONG, JOHN, the younger ( 1813-1866), bishop 
of Grahamstown ; sou of John Armstrong (1784-1829) 
[q. v.] ; educated at Charterhouse ; scholar of Lincoln Col- 
lege, Oxford ; B.A., 1836 ; ordained, 1837 ; after holding 
three curacies, became priest-vicar of Exeter Cathedral, 
1841 ; rector of St. Paul's, Exeter, 1843 ; vicar of Tidenham, 
Gloucestershire, 1846 ; strongly advocated in magazine 
articles a scheme of female penitentiaries which ultimately 
took definite shape ; accepted new bishopric of Grahams- 
town, Cape of Good Hope, 1863 ; published many sermons 
and tracte. [U. 97] 

Gaelic lexicographer; educated at Edinburgh and St. 
Andrews University ; kept successively several schools 
in London ; published a Gaelic dictionary, 1826 ; esta- 
blished and kept a grammar school at South Lambeth ; 
received civil list pension of 60Z., 1862. [Ii. 99] 

ARMSTRONG, Sill THOMAS (1624 ?-1684), royalist ; 
born at Nimeguen ; served under Charles I, and during the 
Commonwealth was three times Imprisoned for fidelity to 
the royal cause ; knighted, 1660 ; lielitenant of first troop 
of guards, and subsequently captain of the horse ; 
fell into disfavour at court and joined English regiment 
in Flanders, 1679 ; implicated in Rye House plot, 1682 ; 
escaped to Leyden, but was arrested and executed in 
London, Judge Jeffreys giving him unfair trial, [ii. 100] 

ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM (ft. 1696), border moss- 
trooper, known as KINMONT WILLIE, from his castle of 
Morton Tower or Kinmont in Cauonbie, Dumfriesshire ; 
captured, but escaped, 1587 ; imprisoned at Carlisle, 1696, 
where the Scotch warden demanded his release, and on 
being refused succeeded in carrying him off. His fate is 
unknown. [ii. 101] 

ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM (1602 ?-1668 ?), known as 
CHRISTIE'S WILL, border freebooter ; imprisoned in Jed- 
burgh tolbooth, and released through Interposition of 
Earl of Traquair, whose devoted servant he afterwards 
became. [ii. 102] 

ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM (1778-1857), mayor of 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1860; corn-merchant; prominent in 
municipal affairs ; much interested in mathematics ; active 
j member of local literary societies. [Suppl. 1. 62] 

; ARMSTRONG OF OnAGSinK (1810-1900), inventor ; son of 
William Armstrong (1778-1867) [q. v.],of Newcastle-ou- 
Tyue ; educated at grammar school, Bishop Auckland ; 
subsequently studied law in London ; partner in legal 
firm of Doukiu, Stable & Armstrong, Newcastle, 1833 ; 
constructed 'water-pressure wheel,' 1839, and hydro- 
electric machine, c. 1844 ; secretary, 1846, and chairman, 
1866-67, to Whittle Dean (afterwards Newcastle and 
Gateshead) Water Company ; patented hydraulic crane, 
1846; F.R.S., 1846; first manager of Elswick-on-Tyne 
engineering works, 1847 ; invented hydraulic pressure 
accumulator, 1860 ; designed submarine mines for use in 
Crimean war, 1864; invented rifled-bore breechloadiug 
gun, with cylinder constructed on scientific principles, 
which was favourably reported upon by General Peel's com- 
mittee on rifled cannon, 1868 ; patented inventions and 
presented patente to nation ; Elswlck Ordnance Company 
, established for purpose of making Armstrong guns for 
j British government, under his supervision, 1869 ; ap- 
I pointed engineer of rifled ordnance at Woolwich, and 
knighted and made C.B., 1859 ; resigned appointment at 
Woolwich, 1863, when government returned largely to 
' muzzle-loaders ; finished a 6-inch breechloading gun 
with wire-wound cylinder, 1880, government once more 
j adopting breechloading guns; established, In conjunc- 
( Uou with firm of Messrs. Mitchell & Swan, new hip- 




yard at Elswick for construction of warships-, 1882 ; in- 
corporate! with his own business the works of Sir Joseph 
Whit worth [q. v.] at Openshaw, near Manchester, for 
manufacture of Whitworth guns, 1897 ; conducted im- 
portant electrical experiments at Ins residence at Cragside, 
near Rothbury ; Telfonl medallist of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers ; honorary LL.D. Cambridge, 1862 ; 
D.C.L. Oxford, 1870 ; received Albert medal from Society 
of Arts, 1878 ; D.C.L. Durham, 1882 ; president of Insti- 
tute of Civil Engineers, 1882 ; raised to peerage, 1887 ; 
master of engineering, Dublin, 1892 ; Bessemer medallist, 
1891. He was a liberal benefactor of Newcastle. Pub- 
lished writings on engineering subjects, as well as ' Electric 
Movement in Air and Water,' 1897-99. [Suppl. i. 62] 

ARNALD, RICHARD (1700-1756), divine; B.A. 
Corpus Christi College ; fellow and M.A. Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge; presented to living of Thurcaston, 
Leicestershire, 1733 ; prebendary of Lincoln ; published 
sermons and commentary on Apocrypha. [ii. 1U3] 

ARNALL, WILLIAM (1715 V-1741 ?), political writer ; 
in pay of Walpole ; wrote 'Free Briton' and succeeded 
Coucanen In the * British Journal.' [ii. 1U3] 

ARNE, CECILIA (1711-1789), singer; pupil of 
Gemiuiaui ; first appeared at Drury Lane, 1730 ; married 
Thomas Augustine Arne [q. v.], 1736 ; in Dublin, 1742 ; 
engaged at Vauxball Gardens, 1745. [ii. 103] 

ARNE, MICHAEL (1741 ?-1786), musician ; son of Dr. 
Thomas Augustine Arne [q. v.] ; appeared in Otway's 
Orphan ' when very young ; took to the harpsichord ; 
member of Madrigal Society ; died in great destitution ; 
produced many songs and musical scores. [ii. 104] 

ARNE, THOMAS AUGUSTINE (1710-1778), musi- 
cal composer ; educated at Eton ; privately studied 
music ; gave up his legal studies and wrote music for 
AiMi-son's 'Rosamond,' 1733, Fielding's 'Tom Thumb,' 
altered into ' The Opera of Operas,' 1733, Milton's ' Oomiis,' 
1738, Oougreve's ' Judgment of Paris," and Thomson and 
Mallet's 'Alfred ' (which included ' Rule Britannia,' 1740), 
'As you like it' and 'Twelfth Night'; appointed com- 
poser to Drury Lane Theatre, 1744, and later, leader of the 
baud ; wrote songs for ' The Tempest,' 1746 ; produced 
two oratorios: 'Abel,' 1755, and 'Judith,' 1764 ; Mus. Doc. 
Oxford, 1759 ; transferred his services to Covent Garden, 
1760 ; set to music the ode by Garrick performed at the 
Shakespeare jubilee at Stratford-on-Avou, 1769 ; produced 
numerous light operas and incidental music. [ii. 104] 

1679 ; DUNDAS, ROBERT, d. 1726 ; DUNDAS, ROBERT, 
1685-1753 ; DUXDAS, ROBERT, 1713-1787.] 

ARNOLD, BENEDICT (1741-1801), general ; born at 
Norwich, Connecticut; bookseller and druggist; took 
American side in war between England and the American 
colonies ; after battle of Lexington served as volunteer, 
obtained a command and was severely wounded at Quebec, 
1775; subsequently commanded at Montreal and was 
conspicuous at Saratoga, 1777 ; governor of Philadelphia : 
accused of peculation : partially acquitted and repri- 
manded by Washington, 1780 ; obtained command of 
West Point, which he arranged to surrender to British 
commander Clinton ; joined British and was made 
brigadier-general; came to England, 1782; afterwards 
distinguished himself at Guadaloupe. [ii. 107] 

ARNOLD, CORNELIUS (1711-1757?), poetical 
writer ; educated at Merchant Taylors' School ; published 
poetical works, 1767. [ii. 109] 

ARNOLD, JOHN (1736 7-1799), mechanician ; appren- 
ticed to watchmaking trade in Bpdmin ; went to Holland, 
and subsequently set up in business in London ; intro- 
duced at court ; made several improvements in the 
manufacture of chronometers. [ii. 109] 

ARNOLD, JOSEPH (1782-1818), naturalist; M.D. 
Edinburgh, 1807 ; surgeon in navy, 1808 ; made several 
voyages, and collected scientific specimens ; died at Padang, 
Sumatra ; F.L.S., 1815. [ii. 110] 

ARNOLD, MATTHEW (1822-1888), poet and critic ; 
son of Dr. Thomas Arnold [q. v.] ; educated at Rugby, 
Winchester, and Balliol College, Oxford ; Newdigate 
prizeman, 1843 ; graduated, 1844 ; fellow of Oriel College, 
1845 : master at Rugby ; private secretary to Marquis of 
Lausidowue, 1847 ; inspector of schools, 1851 : published 

' The Strayed Reveller and other Poems,' 1849, ' Empedocles 
on Etna,' 1852, 'Poems' (containing 'Sohrab and 
Rustum,' 'Scholar-Gi|^\,' and ' Requiescat'), 1853, and 
' Poems, second series,' 1855 ; professor of poetry at Ox- 
ford, 1857-67; published 'On Translating Homer,' 1861 
(second volume, 1862), 'On Study of Celtic Literature,' 
1867, ' Essays in Criticism,' 1865 (second series, 1888), 
' Culture and Anarchy,' 1869, ' Friendship's Garland,' 
1871, ' Literature and Dogma,' 1873 ; lectured in America, 
1883-4 and 1886, and issued ' Discourses in America,' 
1885; published also works on educational subjects. 
He adopted from Swift the phrase ' sweetness and light' 
to explain his literary and social creed. His most per- 
manent work is in his poetry (3 vols. 1885). His letters 
appeared in 1895. His portrait by Mr. G. F. Watte, R.A., 
itf in the National Portrait Gallery. [SuppL L 70] 

ARNOLD, SIR NICHOLAS (1507 V-1580), gentleman 
pensioner of Henry VIII in 1526 ; employed by Cromwell 
in connection with dissolution of monasteries; knight 
of shire for Gloucester, 1545 ; commander of garrison, 
Queenborough, 1545, Boulogneberg, 1546-9 ; knighted by 
Edward VI ; imprisoned in Tower on suspicion of com- 
plicity in Wyatt's rebellion, 1554-5, and for his connection 
with Sir Henry Dudley [q. v.] and Richard Uvedale [q. v.] 
in plot to drive Spaniards from England, 1556 ; sheriff of 
Gloucestershire, 1559 ; sent to Ireland to inquire into 
complaints against Sussex's administration, 1562; lord 
justice in Ireland, 1564-5 ; M.P. for Gloucester, 1563, and 
for Gloucestershire, 1572. He did much to improve the 
breed of English horses. [Suppl. i. 75] 

ARNOLD, RICHARD (d. 1521 ?), antiquary ; haber- 
dasher in London, 1473 ; arrested as spy while on business 
visit to Flanders, 1488, and imprisoned at Sluys. Pub- 
lished a work on the customs of London (1502). [ii. 110] 

ARNOLD, SAMUEL (1740-1802), musical composer; 
educated in Chapel Royal ; composer to Covent Garden, 
before 1763 ; brought out his first opera, ' Maid of the 
Mill,' 1765 ; member Royal Society of Musicians, 1764 ; 
set Browne's ode, the 'Cure of Saul,' as an oratorio, 1767 ; 
leased Marylebone Gardens, 1769, where he produced many 
operas and burlettas ; Mus. Doc. Oxford, 1773 ; organist to 
Chapels Royal, 1783, and of Westminster Abbey, 1793. 
Published collection of cathedral music, 1790. [ii. Ill] 

ARNOLD, SAMUEL JAMES (1774-1852), dramatist ; 
son of Samuel Arnold (1740-1802) [q. v.] ; produced at 
the Haymarket, Drury Lane, the English Opera, and the 
Lyceum many original musical plays (including 'The 
Prior Claim,' written in conjunction with Pye, the poet 
laureate, whose daughter he married) and several notable 
foreign operas ; F.R.S. [ii. 112] 

ARNOLD, THOMAS (1679-1737), sailor ; made com- 
mander for bravery in battle off Cape Passaro ; captain, 
1727 ; served on Carolina coast. [ii. 113] 

ARNOLD, THOMAS (1742-1816), physician; M.D. 
and F.R.C.P. Edinburgh, where he owned and conducted 
a lunatic asylum ; published works on insanity, [ii. 113] 

ARNOLD, THOMAS (1795-1842), headmaster of 
Rugby ; educated at Winchester and Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Oxford ; first class classics, 1814 ; fellow of Oriel, 
1815 ; won chancellor's Latin and English essay prizes, 
1815 and 1817 ; ordained, 1818 ; headmaster of Rugby, 
1828-42 ; B.D. and D.D., 1828 ; added mathematics, mo- 
dern history, and modern languages to the ordinary 
school course ; published, 1829, a pamphlet on the ' Chris- 
tian Duty of Conceding the Roman Catholic Claims ' ; 
published ' Principles of Church Reform,' 1833 ; regius 
professor of history at Oxford, 1841 ; published sermons, 
an edition of Thucydides, and works on Roman and 
modern history. [ti. 113] 

ARNOLD, THOMAS (1823-1900), professor of English 
literature, younger sou of Dr. Thomas Arnold [q. v.] ; B.A. 
University College, Oxford, 1845; M.A., 1865; entered 
Lincoln's Inn, 1846 : clerk in colonial office, 1847 ; went 
to New Zealand, 1847 ; started school at Fort Hill, near 
Nelson, 1849 ; inspector of schools in Tasmania, 1850-6 : 
entered Roman catholic church, 1866 ; professor of Enc- 
lish literature at catholic university, Dublin, 1856-62 ; left 
church of Rome, 1865, but rejoined it, 1876 ; fellow of 
Royal University of Ireland, and professor of English 
language and literature, University College, St. Stephen's 
Green, 1882-1900 ; published a ' Manual of English Litera- 
ture,' 1862, and other works. [SuppL L 76] 




ARNOLD, THOMAS JAMES (1804 V-1877), barrister ; 
called, 1829 ; police magistrate, 1847-77 ; published legal 
manuals and translations of Goethe's 'Reineke Fuchs' 
(1860), of ' Faust '(1877), and of Anacreon (1869). [ii. 117] 

educationalist : B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1821 ; 
fellow ; M.A., 1824 ; rector of Lyudon, Rutland, 1830-53 ; 
published many classical works, educational adaptations 
from American and German authors, sermons and other 
theological writings. [it 118] 

Anglo-Indian official and novelist; younger son of Dr. 
Thomas Arnold [q. v.] ; educated at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford : went to India as ensign in 58th native infantry ; 
assistant-commissioner of Punjab ; director of public in- 
struction, 1856 : invalided home and died at Gibraltar ; 
published ' Oakfield,' a novel, 1853. [ii. 119] 

ARNOT, HUGO (1749-1786), historical writer ; advo- 
cate, 1772; published History of Edinburgh,' 1779, and 
' Criminal Trials in Scotland,' 1785. [il. 119] 

ARNOT, WILLIAM (1808-1875), preacher; appren- 
ticed as gardener : studied for ministry at Glasgow ; 
minister of St. Peter's Church, Glasgow, 1838, and of one 
of the leading free church congregations in Edinburgh, 
1863-75 ; thrice visited America on ministerial work ; 
published religious and biographical works. [ii. 119] 

botanist ; M.A. Edinburgh, 1818 ; studied law, but aban- 
doned the profession for botany ; travelled on continent ; 
botanical lecturer, 1839, and professor, 1845, Glasgow; 
associated with Sir William Hooker in botanical publica- 
tions, [ii. 120] 

ARNOTT, NEIL (1788-1874), physician and natural 
philosopher ; M.A. Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1805 ; 
went to London and became a student at St. George's 
Hospital, 1806 ; visited China as surgeon in East India Com- 
pany's service, 1807 and 1809 ; practised in London, 1811- 
1855 ; lectured on natural science at Pliilotnathic Institu- 
tion ; M.D. Aberdeen, 1814 ; physician successively to 
French (1816) and Spanish embassies ; a founder and 
original member of senate of university of London, 1836 ; 
physician extraordinary to Queen Victoria, 1837 ; F.R.S., 
1838; member of Medical Council, 1854 ; published Ele- 
ments of Physics,' 1827-9. [ii. 121] 

ARNOTJL or ARNULF (1040-1124). [See Enxn.y.] 

ARNOTJLD, Sin JOSEPH (1814-1886), Indian judge 
and author ; educated at Charterhouse and Wadham Col- 
lege, Oxford : Newdigate prizeman, 1834 ; B.A., 1836 ; 
probationer fellow, 1838-41 ; moderator of philosophy, 
1840 ; called to the bar at the Middle Temple, 1841 ; con- 
tributed to Douglas Jerrold's ' Weekly Newspaper ' and 
wrote leaders for ' Daily News ' ; knighted and appointed 
to seat on l>ench of supreme court (afterwards high court 
of judicature) of Bombay, 1859 ; published legal and other 
writings. [SuppL i. 78] 

ARNULF, EARL ov PKMBIIOKK (./?. 1110), fifth son 
of Roger de Montgomery [see BoCHOt IK MoHTOOXnuB, 
EARL OK SHRKWSBURY, d. 1093] ; built Pembroke Castle 
about 1090 ; rebelled against Henry I, and marrying, after 
much negotiation, the daughter of Murchadh, king of 
Lcinster, died next day. [xlix. 103] 

ARNWAY, JOHN (1601-1653), royalist divine; rector 
of Hodnet and Ightfleld, 1635 ; archdeacon of Lich field 
and Coventry and prebendary of Woolvey ; exiled during 
protectorate ; died iu Virginia. [ii. 122] 

EARL, 14779-1529; HAMILTON, JAMKS, second RAUL, </. 
1575; HAMILTON, JAMIW, third BAKU 1530-1609; 
STEWART, JAMKS, <1. 1596.] 

ARROWSMITH, AARON (1750-1823), geographer ; 
left practically destitute in early life ; found employment 
with a map-maker in London, 1770; published several 
maps, including a chart of the world (Mercator'a projec- 
tion), now rare, 1790, Map of Scotland,' 1807, and Atlas 
of Southern India,' 1822. [ii. 123] 

ARROWSMTTH, EDMUND (1585-1828), Jesuit; 
known sometimes as BRADBHAW and RKJHY ; educated at 
Douay; ordained, 1612; returned to fefbad on English 
miftioii, 1613 ; entered Society of Jesus, 1624 ; executed 

for taking order of priesthood beyond the seas. His 
hand is preserved as a relic at Ashton, Newton-le- Willows. 

[ii. 124] 

ARROWSMITH, JOHN (1602-1659), puritan divine: 
graduated at Cambridge, 1623 ; incumbent of St. Nicholas* 
Chapel, King's Lynn, 1631 ; D.D. and regius professor of 
divinity, 1644 ; rector of St. Martin's, Ironmonger Lane, 
1646 ; vice-chancellor of Cambridge, 1647 ; master of 
Trinity, 1649 ; published sermons. [ii. 124] 

ARROWSMITH, JOHN (1790-1873), map-maker; 
nephew of Aaron Arrowsmith [q. v.], whom he assisted, 
1810-23; began business alone, 1823, and ultimately be- 
came head of his uncle's house ; an original fellow of 
Royal Geographical Society, 1830 ; published many maps 
and charts. [ii. 125] 

ARSDEKIN, RICHARD (1618-1693). [See ARCH- 

ARTAUD, WILLIAM (fl. 1776-1822), portrait 
painter ; exhibited in the Royal Academy between 1784 
and 1822. [ii. 125] 

ARTHUR, real or fabulous King of Britain ; born 
probably towards end of the 5th century ; perhaps son of 
Uther Pendragon, brother of Ambrosius Aureltaniw 
[q. v.], and leader of the Roman party in Britain ; ob- 
tained command of British army, c. 516, and is credited 
by Nennius with twelve victories over the invading Saxons, 
of which probably only that at Badou Hill (c. 520) is his- 
torical ; said to have died at battle of Oamlan. [ii. 126] 

posthumous son of Geoffrey, third son of King Henry II 
and Constance, daughter and heiress of Conau le Petit, 
count of Brittany ; declared his heir by his uncle, Richard I, 
1190 ; supported by Philip of France on the accession of his 
next nncle John ; captured by King John at Mirabel, 1202 ; 
murdered at Rouen, probably by John's orders, [ii. 129] 

ARTHUR (1486-1502), eldest son of Henry VII and 
Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV ; K.B., 
1489 ; married Katharine of Arragou, 1501. [ii. 131] 

ARTHUR, ARCHIBALD (1744-1797), professor of 
moral philosophy, Glasgow ; M.A. Glasgow ; received 
preacher's licence, 1767 ; chaplain and librarian, Glasgow 
University ; professor of moral philosophy, 1796 ; com- 
piled catalogue of Glasgow University Library, published 
1791 ; published theological and literary discourses, 1803. 

[ii. 131] 

ARTHUR, Sin GEORGE (1784-1854), lieutenant- 
general ; joined 91st Argyllshire Highlanders, 1804 ; lieu- 
tenant in Italy, 1806, and in Egypt, 1807; captain in 
Sicily, 1808, and in Walcheren, 1809; deputy assistant 
adjutant-general ; military secretary to Sir George Don, 
governor of Jersey ; major 7th West India regiment, and 
assistant quartermaster-general, Jamaica, 1812; lieu- 
tenant-governor, British Honduras, 1814-22, Van Diemen's 
Land, 1823-37, and Upper Canada, 1837-41; baronet, 
1841 ; governor of Bombay, 1842 ; elected provisional 
governor-general, but compelled by ill-health to return 
home, 1846; privy councillor and hon. D.O.L. Oxford; 
colonel 50th Queen's Own regiment, 1853. [ii. 132] 

ARTHUR, JAMES (d. 1670 ?), divine ; professor of 
divinity, Salamanca University ; subsequently retired to 
convent of St. Dominic, Lisbon : published and left in 
manuscript commentaries on Aquinas's Summa.' 

[ii. 135] 
i; fellow, St. 

ARTHUR, THOMAS (d. 1532), divine; 
John's College, Cambridge, and principal, St. Mary's 
Hostel, 1518 ; charged with heresy, 1526 and 1627, and 
recanted to Romanism ; wrote tragedies. [ii. 136] 

ARTHUR, THOMAS (1593-1666?), Irish catholic 
physician ; educated at Bordeaux ; studied medicine at 
Paris ; practised in Limerick, 1619, and in Dublin, 1624 ; 
wrote Latin elegiacs. [ii. 136] 

ARTLETT, RICHARD AUSTIN (1807-1873), en- 
graver; pupil of Robert Cooper and James Thomson ; 
produced several portraits ; remembered chiefly for en- 
gravings of sculpture. [ii. 136] 

ARUNDALE, FRANCIS (1807-1853), architect; 
pupil of Augustus Pugin ; travelled on the continent and 
in Egypt ami Puli-stim- : published several illustrated 
works on architectural subjects. [ii. 130 J 



ARUNDEL, K\ui.s OK. [S.v Mum, WILLIAM DE, 
first EAKI., ,i. 1176; AI.HINI, WILLIAM DK, third EARL, 
d 1221- FIT/ALAN, RICHARD, first EARL of the second 
creation, 127-1302; FIT/ALAN, KDMCND, second EARL, 
Kicii.uu), third EARL, 1307 ?-1376 ; 
Frr/.u \N liicii AKI>, fourth MAUL, 1346-1397; FITZALAX, 
TuiiM is, fifth KARL, 1381-1415; FITZALAN, JOHN, seventh 
HAUL, lins M:;r> ; FIT/M.AX, HKNKY, twelfth EARL, 
1611 V-lSHd ; HOWARD, I'nii.ii 1 , thirteenth KAKI,, 1557- 
E|f; HOWAKH, THOMAS, fourteenth EARL, 1686-1646; 
HO\VAKI>, UKXKY FREDERICK, fifteenth EARL, 1608-1652.] 

AKUNDEL, THOMAS (1353-1414), archbishop of 

nuiteriniry : bishop of Ely, 1374 ; chancellor, 1386-9 ; arch- 
bishop of York, 1388 ; again chancellor, 1391-6 ; archbishop 
of Canterbury, 1396; was perhaps implicated in a con- 

..; li'is brother, Karl of Arundel, the Duke of 
, and Earl of Warwick against King Richard II ; 
1 by House of Commons and banished, 1397, 

ting the commission of regency eleven years 
before, in derogation of the king's authority ; went to 
Koine and sought intercession of Boniface IX, who at 
Richard H's request translated him to St. Andrews, a see 
which acknowledged the rival pope ; returned to Eng- 
land with Henry IV, whom he crowned, 1399 ; again 
chancellor, 1399, 1407, and 1412 ; strenuously resisted 
lollardy. [ii. 137] 

ARUNDELL OF CORNWALL The three principal 
branches of the Cornish family of Arundell were the 
Arundells of Lanherne, Trerice, and Tolverne. 

The ARUXDELLS OP LANHERNE settled at Lanherne 
about the middle of the thirteenth century. The more 
important members of this branch not noticed elsewhere 
are Roger, marshal of England ; William de Arundell, 
canon of Exeter Cathedral (d. 1246) ; Sir Ralph Arundell, 
.f Cornwall, 1260 ; Sir John Arundell, K.B., ' the 
Magnificent,' M.P. and sheriff of Cornwall, died c. 1433 ; 
John Arundell, sheriff and admiral of Cornwall, attainted, 
1483 ; and Sir John Arundell, who was made knight 
banneret at Therouenne, and died in 1545. 

The ARUNDELLS OP TRERICE include Sir John Arun- 
dell, vice-admiral of Cornwall early in fifteenth century 
(d. 1471), and the Hon. Richard Arundell, M.P. (d. 1759). 

The ARUNDELLS OF TOLVERNE include Sir Thomas 
Arundell (d. 1443), Sir Thomas Arundell (d. 1652), 
knighted by James I, and his son, John Arundell, colonel 
, -for Charles II (rf. 1671). 

The ARUNDELLS OP MEXADARVA appear to have been 
founded by one Robert Arundell, a natural son of Sir 
John Arundell of Trerice [q. v.] [ii. 141] 

ARUNDELL, BLANCHE, LADY (1583-1649), defender 
of Wardour Castle; daughter of Edward, earl of Wor- 
cester; married Thomas Arundell of Wardour, Wilt- 
shire ; defended Wardour Castle for nine days against 
parliamentarians, 1643. [ii. 143] 

1846), antiquary; M.A. Exeter College, Oxford, 1809; 
rector of Landulph, 1805 ; chaplain to British factory, 
Smyrna, 1822-36 ; journeyed in Asia Minor, 1826-35, and 
inibii-hed descriptions of his travels and discoveries, 
1834 ; made large collections of antiquities, coins, and 
manuscripts. [ii- 14 3] 

WARDOUR (1606 ?-1694), fought for Charles I in civil 
wars; dislodged parliamentarians, 1644, from Wardour 
Castle, which had been taken from his mother, Lady 
Blanche Arundell [q. v.] ; master of horse to Henrietta 
Maria, 1663 ; one of the ambassadors sent by Charles IT 
to Louis XIV to arrange secret treaty of Dover, 1669 ; 
i>y Titus Gates of complicity in a popish plot 
| 'harles,and arrested, 1678 ; imprisoned in Tower, 
but not tried; released 1684; privy councillor, 1686; 
keeper of privy seal, 1687 ; published religious and courtly 
poems. [ii. 144] 

l.vxn, rebel; leader of an insurrection due to enclosure of 
common lands, 1549 ; unsuccessfully besieged Exeter ; 
ultimately captured and executed at Tyburn, [ii. 145] 

naval commander; repulsed French off Cornwall, 1379, 
but was caught in storm and drowned. [Ii. 146] 

ARUNDELL, JOHN (d. 1477), bishop of Chichestcr ; 
fellow, Exeter College, Oxford, 1421-30 ; chaplain to 
Henry VI ; bishop of Chichester, 1458. [ii. 146] 

ARUNDELL, JOHN, OK LAMIKUNK (/. 1504), divine; 
M.A. Exeter College, Oxford ; dean of Exeter, 1483-96 ; 
bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 1496, and Exeter, 1502. 

[ii. 146] 

vice-admiral of the west, called 'Jack of Tilbury'; 
knighted at battle of Spurs, 1613 ; twice sheriff of Corn- 
wall ; esquire of the body to Henry VIIL [ii. 146] 

royalist, nicknamed ' Jack for the King ' ; grandson of 
Sir John Arundell (1496-1661) [q. v.] ; at various times 
M.P. for Cornwall, Bodmin, Tregony, and Michell ; 
governor, 1643, of Pendennis Castle, which he was com- 
pelled to surrender to Fairfax, 1646. [ii. 147] 

ARUNDELL, MARY, OF LANHERNE (d. 1691), trans- 
lator ; left manuscript translations from Latin. 

[ii. 147] 

TRKRICE (d. 1687), M.P. for Lostwithiel ; colonel in king's 
army ; governor, Pendennis Castle, 1662. [ii. 148] 

alleged conspirator ; sheriff of Dorset, 1531-2 ; gentleman 
of privy chamber to Wolsey ; knighted, 1633; a com- 
missioner for suppression of religious houses, 1535 ; 
imprisoned in Tower for alleged implication in Cornish 
rising, 1550-1 ; executed for share in Somerset's con- 
spiracy, [it 148] 

WARDOUR (1560-1639), soldier of fortune ; made count of 
Holy Roman Empire by Emperor Rudolph II for ser- 
vices against the Turks, 1595. [ii. 148] 

OF WARDOUR (1584-1643), fought for royalists in civil 
war. [ii. 149] 

ASAPH (rf. c. 596), Welsh saint ; known also as ASAAF, 
ASSA, or ASA ; grandson of Pabo [q. v.] ; succeeded St. 
Kentigern [q. v.], c. 570, in the monastery at confluence of 
rivers Clwyd and Elwy ; the monastery, perhaps in 
Asaph's time, elevated into a cathedral foundation ; 
possibly first bishop of the see of Llanelwy (known since 
c. 1100 as St. Asaph) ; his anniversary formerly celebrated 
at St. Asaph on 1 May. [SuppL i. 78] 

A8BURY, FRANCIS (1745-1816), Wesleyan bishop ; 
went as preacher to America, 1771 ; made joint superin- 
tendent, and, later, bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, United States of America, 1784. [ii. 149] 

ASCHAM, ANTHONY (Jl. 1553), astrologer; M.B. 
Cambridge, 1640 ; vicar of Bumeston, Yorkshire, 1653 ; 
published astronomical and astrological works, [ii. 149] 

ASCHAM, ANTONY (d. 1650), parliamentarian 
ambassador ; educated at Eton and King's College, Cam- 
bridge ; tutor to James, duke of York ; Hamburg agent 
of the republic, 1649 ; ambassador to Madrid, 1650, where 
he was murdered on his arrival. [ii. 160] 

ASCHAM, ROGER (1515-1568), author ; educated at 
St. John's College, Cambridge, where he distinguished 
himself in classics ; B.A. and fellow, 1534 ; M.A., 1537 ; 
Greek reader at St. John's, 1538; visited Yorkshire; 
returned to Cambridge, 1542 ; published ' Toxophilus,' a 
treatise on archery, in which accomplishment he had 
considerable skill, 1545; public orator, Cambridge Uni- 
versity, 1546; succeeded Grindal as tutor to Princess 
Elizabeth, 1548 ; resigned this post and returned to his 
duties at Cambridge, 1550; secretary to Sir Richard 
Morysin, English ambassador to Charles V, 1550-3, 
during which period he travelled largely on the conti- 
nent ; Latin secretary to Queen Mary, 1553 ; was specially 
permitted to continue in his profession of protestantism ; 
married and resigned his offices at Cambridge, 1554 ; 
private tutor to Queen Elizabeth, 1568; prebendary of 
York, 1559 ; troubled with ill-health during latter years of 
his life. His ' Scho'emaster,' a treatise on practical edu- 
cation, which he left unfinished, was published in 1570. 

Lii. 160] 

ASGILL, SIR OH>JLES (1763 ?-1823), general; en- 
sign 1st foot guards, 1778 ; lieutenant with captain's 
rank, 1781 ; captured at the capitulation of York Town; 



1781 ; chosen to suffer death in retaliation for the exe- 
cution of :in American prisoner, but released : lientcnant- 
oolonel in guards 17'.n : .-crviil 111 Flaiuli r- : colon, !, 
1795: .-tatY-liriL'a'licr in Ireland, 17'J7;, 
1798: colonel l<:ih foot, an.l commander of Dublin, 1800 ; 
. 1814. [ii. 159] 

ASGILL, JOHN (1659-1738), eccentric writer ; student 
of Middle Temple, 1686 ; called to the bar, 1692 ; published 
a pamphlet to prove that death was not obligatory upon 
Christians, 1699 : went to Ireland ; member for Knniscorthy 
in Irish llou-.' of Commons 17u3; expelled ami lii's 
pamphlet ordered to be burned ; returned to England : 
M.P. for Bramber in parliament of 1705-7 ; expelled after 
his book had again l>een ordered to be burned ; became in- 
volved in financial difficulties, and passed the rest of his 
life in Fleet or within rules of King's Bench : published 
several pamphlet*. [ii. 159] 

ASH, JOHN (1724?-1779), baptist pastor at Lough- 
wood, Dorset, and later at Pershore, Worcestershire ; 
published an English dictionary, 1776. [ii. 161] 

ASH, JOHN (1723-1798), physician; M.D. Trinity 
College, Oxford, 1754 : first physician of General Hospital, 
Birmingham, at which town he practised; F.C.P., 1787; 
practised in London after 1787, and held various posts 
in the College of Physicians [ii. 161] 

ASH, SIMON OF (fl. 1200). [See SIMON.] 

ASHBEE, HENRY SPENCEH (1834-1900), biblio- 
grapher ; founder and senior partner of London mercan- 
tile firm of Charles Lavy & Co., whose parent house was 
in Hamburg; organised branch at Paris, 1868; subse- 
quently devoted his leisure to travel and book-collecting ; 
formed the finest Oervantic library out of Spain ; published 
' Notes on Curious and Uncommon Books ' (private!} 7 , 
1877-85) and other bibliographical writings ; he bequeathed 
many valuable books to the British Museum. 

[Suppl. i. 79] 

ASHBORNE, THOMAS OP (ft. 1382). [See THOMAS.] 

ASHBURNHAM, JOHN (1603-1671), royalist; pro- 
tege of Duke of Buckingham ; groom of bedchamber, 
1628 ; M.P. for Hastings, 1640 : 'discharged and disabled ' 
by the commons for contempt, being prevented by his at- 
tendance on the king from attending in the house, 1643 ; 
treasurer and paymaster of royalist army ; attended king 
at Hampton Court, 1647; lost the confidence of the 
royalists owing to his connection with an unsuccessful 
attempt to effect Charles's escape, 1647 ; suffered many 
hardships, but, at the Restoration, again became groom of 
the bedchamber. [ii. 162] 

ASHBURNHAM, WILLIAM (d. 1679), royalist; 
brother of John Asburnbam [q. v.] ; M.P. for Ludgershall, 
1640 ; governor of Weymouth, 1644 ; cofferer of the house- 
hold after the Restoration. [ii. 164] 

BARON, 1731-1785 ; BARING, ALKXANDKR, first BARON of ; 
the second creation, 1774-1848 ; BARING, WILLIAM BING- ! 
HAM, second BARON, 1799-1864.] 

ASHBURT, JOSEPH (1638-1720), actor; served In I 
army in Ireland ; lieutenant of foot, Dublin, after the Re- I 
storation ; master of revels and patentee to the Duke of 
Ormonde, lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 1682 ; .rained reputa- 
tion for the Irish stage and for himsi.if as actor and 
manager. [Ii. 164] 

ASHBY, GEORGE (d. 1476), poetical writer ; clerk 
of signet to Henry VI, and afterward* to Margaret of 
Anjou ; perhaps confined in the Fleet, r. 1461 ; tutor to 
Henry VI's son Edward ; left verses in manascript. 

[ii. 164] 

ASHBY. GEORGE (1724-1808), antiquary; educated 
nt Westminster, Eton, and St. John's College, Cambridge ; 
M.A., 1748; fellow and B.D., 1756; rector of Hungerton, 
1754-67, ami of Twyfonl, Ix-ici-st<-r<liirv, 1759-69; presi- | 
dent, St. John's College, 1769-76 ; F.8.4 ., 1775; accepted \ 
living of Barrow, Suffolk, and also in I "HO that of Stans- [ 
field ; wrote largely on antiquarian suljecte. [ii. 165] 

ASHBY, HARRY (1744-1818)7 writing engraver; 
apprenticed at Wotton-under-Edge/CHoucestcrshire, to a 
dockmaker; employed later in Jfinlnn as writing i-n- 
graver ; executed plates for seven^'ork.* on penmanship. 

ASHBY, :-IK .luilN (d, UiM). admiral ; lieuteni 
1666; captain, 1668; fought at Btintry Bay: kni.uhted ; 
made secoi 1 rear-admiral of the blue, 1689 ; admiral of 
blue at Barfieur, 1692. [ii. 166] 

ASHBY, RICHARD (1614-168i>). Jesuit, whose 
name was THIMKI.UY ; entered Society of Jesus, 1632 ; prfl 
fessor at Liege ; joined English mission, c. 1648 ; rector 

St. Diner's College : wrote theological works. [ii. ICG] 

ASHDOWNE, WILLIAM (1723-1810), nnitariau 
preacher ; preacher at general baptist church, Dover, frona 
1769 to 1781, when he was elected pastor; published 
religious works. [ii. 167] 

ASHE, JOHN (1671-1735), religious writer ; dissenting 
minister at Ashford. [ii. 167] 

ASHE, JONATHAN (fl. 1813), masonic writer ; D.DJ 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1808 ; published a work on free- 
masonry, 1813. [ii. 1C7] 

ASHE, ROBERT HOADLEY (1761-1826), divined 
D.D. Pembroke College, Oxford, 1794 ; held living of 
Crewkeme, Somerset, 1775-1826. [ii. 167] 

ASHE, ST. GEORGE (1658?-1718), Irish bishop;] 
fellow, Trinity College, Dublin, 1679 ; provost, 1692 ; 
bishop of Cloyne, 1695, of Clogher, 1697, and of Derry, 
1717: known chiefly for his intimacy with Dean Swift, 
who was his pupil at Trinity College. [ii. 168] 

ASHE, SIMEON (d. 1662), nonconformist divine;] 
educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge; ejected for 
nonconformity from a living which he held in Stafford- 
shire ; chaplain to Earl of Manchester ; after civil war 
received living of St. Austin ; wrote several pamphlets and 
sermons. [ii. 168] 

ASHE or ASH, THOMAS (fl. 1600-1618), legal writer; 
called to bar at Gray's Inn, 1574 ; pensioner, 1597 ; pub- 
lished legal works. [ii. 169] 

ASHE, THOMAS (1770-1836), novelist ; held commis- 
sion in 83rd foot regiment; entered a counting-house 
at Bordeaux; did secretarial work in Dublin and sub- 
sequently spent some years in foreign travel ; wrote novels 
and miscellaneous works. [ii. 169] 

ASHE, THOMAS (1836-1889), poet ; B.A. St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 1859; curate of Silverstone, North- 
amptonshire, 1860; mathematical and modern form master 
at Leamington college, 1866, and subsequently at Queen 
Elizabeth's school, Ipswich; wrote several volumes of 
poetry (collected, 1885). [Snppl. i. 80] 

ASHFIELD, EDMUND (/. 1680-1700), artist ; pupil 
of John Michael Wright [q. v.] ; executed crayon and oil 
portraits. [ii. 169] 

ASHFORD, WILLIAM (1746 ?-1824), landscape 
painter ; settled in Dublin, 1764 ; abandoned a situation in 
Dublin ordnance department in the interests of art; first 
president, Royal Hibernian Academy, 1823. [ii. 169] 


ASHLEY, first BARON (1621-1683). [See COOPER, 

ASHLEY, SIR ANTHONY (1651-1627), clerk of the 
privy council ; probably educated at Oxford ; clerk of the 
council before 1588 ; journeyed with Norris and Drake to 
Spain, 1589; M.A. Oxford, 1592; secretary for war in 
the 'honourable voyage unto Cadiz' and knighted, 1596 ; 
made baronet, 1622 ; author of ' The Mariners Mirrour 
of Navigation,' 1588. [ii. 17(J] 

ASHLEY, CHARLES JANE (1773-1843), performer 
on violoncello ; son of John Ashley (1734 ?-1805) [q. v.] ; 
secretary of Royal Society of Musicians, 1811. [ii. 171] 

ASHLEY, GENERAL CHARLES (1770?-1818), vio- 
linist ; son of John Ashley (1734 ?-18()5) [q. v.] ; pupil of 
aiardini and Barthelemou : took part in Handel com- 
memoration, 1784; member Royal Society of Musicians, 
1791. [it. 171] 

ASHLEY, JOHN (17347-1805), musician ; member of 
Royal Society of Musicians, 1766 ; assistant conductor at 
Handel commemoration, 1784; manager of oratorio con- 
certs, Coveut Garden, 1795. . [ii. 1 7 1 ] 




ASHLEY, JOHN JAMES (1772-1815), singing master ; 
aon of John Ashley (17347-1805) [q. v.] ; pupil of 
Schroeter ; member of Royal Society of Musicians, 1792. 

ASHLEY, RICHARD (1775-1836), violinist; son of 
John Ashley (17347-1806) [q. v.] ; member of Royal 
Society of Musicians, 17UC.. [ii. 171] 

ASHLEY, ROBERT(1565-1641),miscellaneous writer ; | 
educated at Oxford ; fellow commoner, Hart Hall, 1580 ; | 
called to bar at Middle Temple; proficient linguist in 
European tongues and author of miscellaneous works. 

ASHMOLE, ELIAS (1617-1692), antiquary and as- 
trologer ; educated at Lichfield ; solicitor, 1638 ; joined 
royalist?, and in 1644 was appointed commissioner of 
; Lichfield ; studied physics and mathematics at 
Brast-i lose College, Oxford ; commissioner of excise, cap- 
tain of horse and comptroller of ordnance, Worcester ; 
Windsor Herald, 1660 ; held successively several govern- } 
ment appointments ; presented, 1677, his collection of ; 
curiosities to Oxford University, to which he subsequently 
fceqneathed his library; M.D. Oxford, 1690; wrote or 
edited antiquarian and Rosicruciau works. [ii. 172] 

ASHMORE, JOHN (ft. 1621), translator ; published 
the first translation into English of selected Odes of 
Horace. [ii. 174] 

ASHPITEL, ARTHUR (1807-1869), architect; prac- 
tised 1842-54; spent some time in Rome, of which city 
he bequeathed two drawings to the nation ; published 
verse and political pamphlets. [ii. 174] 

ASHPITEL, WILLIAM HURST (1776-1862), archi- 
tect ; concerned as assistant in building of London docks 
and Kennet and Avon canal. [ii. 175] 

ASHTON, CHARLES (1666-1752), divine ; B.A. j 
Queens' College, Cambridge ; fellow, 1687 ; chaplain to 
Bishop Patrick ; held living of Rattenden, Essex, 1699 ; 
chaplain to Chelsea hospital ; prebendary of Ely, master 
of Jesus College, Cambridge, and D.D., 1701 ; vice- 
chancellor, Cambridge, 1702 ; published works on classical 
subjects and made textual emendations. [ii. 175] 

ASHTON, EDWARD (d. 1658), colonel in army; 
executed for complicity in Ormonde's plot against lord 
\ protector, 1658. [ii. 175] 

ASHTON, HENRY (1801-1872), architect ; pupil of 
Sir Robert Smirke ; executed designs for many London 
street improvements, notably Victoria Street, [ii. 176] 

ASHTON, HUGH (d. 1522), archdeacon of York; 
M.A. Oxford, 1607 ; canon and prebendary in St. Stephen's, 
Westminster, 1509 ; prebendary of Strensall, York, 1515 ; 
archdeacon of Winchester, 1511-19, of Cornwall, 1515, 
and of West Riding, York, 1516 ; rector of Grasmere, 
Ambleside (before 1511), of Barnake, Lichfield, and (1522) 
of Burton Latimer, Northamptonshire. [U. 176] 

ASHTON, SIR JOHN DE (/. 1370), military com- 
mander; distinguished himself at siege of Noyon by 
English, 1370 ; knight of shire, 1389. [ii. 177] 

ASHTON, SIR JOHN DE (d. 1428), son of Sir John de 
Ashton (/. 1370) q. v.] ; knight of shire for Lancashire, 
1413 ; seneschal of Bayeux, 1416. [ii. 177] 

ASHTON, JOHN (d. 1691), Jacobite conspirator; 
clerk of closet to Mary of Modena, wife of James II ; pro- 
bably held commission in army ; arrested in 1690 for con- 
spiring to restore James II ; hanged at Tyburn, [ii. tf7] 

ASHTON, PETER (/. 1546), English translator of 
Paulus Jovius's 'Turcicarum rerum Commentarius,' 
1546. [ii. 178] 

ASHTON, Sra RALPH DE (./*. 1460-1483), officer 
of state ; in his seventeenth year page of honour to Beery 
VI ; held various offices under Edward IV ; vice-constable 
of England and lieutenant of the Tower, 1483 ; perhaps 
murdered at Ashton-under-Lyne. [ii. 178] 

ASHTON, SIR ROBERT DR (d. 1385), officer ; M.P., 
1324 ; lord treasurer (1362 and 1373) ; admiral of the 
Narrow Seas, 1369 ; king's chamberlain, 1373 ; constable of 
Dover and warden of Cinque ports, 1380. [ii. 179] 

ASHTON, THOMAS DE (fl. 1346), warrior ; fought 
with great valour under Neville at Neville's Cross, 1346 ; 
accompanied John of Gaunt to Spain, 1385. [U. 179] 

alchemist ; specially licensed by Henry VI to pursue his 
experiments, 1446. [ii. 180] 

ASHTON, THOMAS (d. 1678), schoolmaster ; M.A. 
Cambridge, 1563; and fellow, Trinity College; entered 
orders; first headmaster of Shrewsbury school from 
1562 to c. 1568; subsequently employed by Earl of 
Essex in communications between Elizabeth and privy 
council. [ii. 180] 

ASHTON, THOMAS (1716-1775), divine; educated at 
Eton and King's College, Cambridge, where he made the 
acquaintance of Horace Walpole ; rector of Sturminster 
Marshall, Dorsetshire, 1749, and of St. Botolph, Bishops- 
gate, 1752; D.D., 1759; preacher at Lincoln's Inn, 
1762-4. [ii. 180] 

ASHTTRST, HENRY (16147-1680), merchant; ap- 
prenticed to draper in London ; entered common council, 
and subsequently became an alderman; treasurer to 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel; gave large 
sums in charity, particularly in Lancashire. [ii. 181] 

ASHTJRST, JAMES (d. 1679), divine; vicar of 
Arlesey, c. 1631 ; left the living under Act of Uniformity, 
but continued to conduct services there as noncon- 
formist, [ii. 181] 

(1725-1807), judge; educated at Charterhouse; entered 
Inner Temple, 1750 ; practised as special pleader ; called 
to the bar, 1754; serjeant, 1770; judge of king's bench, 
1770-99 ; one of the commissioners entrusted with great 
seal, 1783 and 1792-3. [ii. 182] 

ASHURST, WILLIAM HENRY (1792-1855), so- 
licitor ; an enthusiastic radical, refusing to pay taxes 
till the Reform Bill should be passed, 1832 ; member of 
common council of London ; under-sheriff of London ; 
supplied funds and procured evidence to support Rowland 
Hill's postal scheme ; a founder of the Society of Friends 
of Italy and of the People's International League, 1851 and 
1852. [ii. 182] 

ASHWARDBY, JOHN (ft. 1392), follower of Wycliffe ; 
fellow of Oriel College, Oxford ; vicar of St. Mary's ; vice- 
chancellor of the university, 1392. [ii. 183] 

ASHWELL, ARTHUR RAWSON (1824-1879), prin- 
cipal of Ohichester Theological College ; entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge, 1843 ; foundation scholar, Caius 
College, 1846 ; fifteenth wrangler, 1847 ; took orders ; 
curate of Speldhurst, 1848,\ and of St. Mary-the-Less, 
Cambridge, 1849; vice-principal, St. Mark's College, 
Chelsea, 1851-3 ; principal, Oxford Diocesan Training 
College, Oulham, 1853 ; minister, Holy Trinity Church, 
Conduit Street, London, 1862 ; principal, Training College, 
Durham, 1865 ; canon-residentiary and principal Theo- 
logical College, Chichester, 1870 ; wrote extensively for 
literary magazines. [iL 183] 

ASHWELL, GEORGE (1612-1695), controversialist; 
scholar, Wadham College, Oxford, 1627 ; M.A. and fellow, 
1635 ; B.D., 1646 ; chaplain to Sir Anthony Cope of Han- 
well, Oxfordshire ; rector of Hanwell, 1658 , published 
Anglo-catholic controversial works. [ii. 184] 

ASHWELL, JOHN (d. 1541 ?), prior of Newnham ; 
B.D. Cambridge I held benefices of Mistley, Littlebury, and 
Halstead ; chaplain to Lord Abergavenny's troops in 
France, 1515 ; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1521 ; prior, 
Newnham Abbey, c. 1527 ; opposed principles of Refor- 
mation, but took oath of supremacy to Henry VHI, 
1534. [it. 186] 

ASHWOOD, BARTHOLOMEW (1622-1680), puritan 
divine ; graduated at Oxford ; held benefice of Biok- 
leigh, Devonshire, and later that of Axmiuster, whence he 
was ejected, 1662 ; published religious works. [iL 186] 

ASHWOOD, JOHN (1657-1706), nonconformist mini- 
ster ; tutor at Axminster and later at Chard ; minister 
at Exeter ; lecturer at Spitalfields ; minister at Peckham. 
iris 'Life,' by Thomas Reynolds, was published 1707. 

[ii. 186] 

ASHWORTH, CALEB (1722-1775), dissenting tutor; 
originally carpenter ; studied for the independent ministry 
under Doddridge, 1739, and became head of Doddridge's 
academy, which he removed to Daveutry, 1752: D.D. 
Scotland, 1759 ; published educational and religious 
works. [ii. 186] 




ASHWORTH, Sm CHARLES (d. 1832), major- 
general; ensign 68th foot, 1798; after successive promo- 
tions stTVf.1 in lYninsulii as brigadier-general' major- 
general, 1825 ; K.O.H., 1831. [ii. 187] 

ASHWORTH, HENRY (1785-1811), navy lieutenant : 
prisoner, 1804 ; escaped, 1808 ; died of wounds received at 
Tarragona. [U. 187] 

ASHWORTH, HKNRY (1794-1880), opponent of 
corn-laws ; of quaker parentage ; educated at Ackworth ; 
a founder of Anti-Corn Law League ; friend and strenuous 
supporter of Cobden from 1837 ; published Recollections 
of Richard Cobden,' 1876, and other works. [ii. 187] 

ASHWORTH, JOHN (1813-1875), preacher, manu- 
facturer, and author ; his parents poor woollen weavers ; 
educated at Sunday school ; founded a chapel for the desti- 
tute of Rochdale, and became its minister, 1858 ; visited 
United States and Palestine; published tracts, which 
achieved vast popularity. [ii. 188] 

ASKE, ROBERT (d. 1537), leader of the ' Pilgrimage 
of Grace' ; attorney and fellow of Gray's Inn ; led York- 
shire insurrection called 'Pilgrimage of Grace,' which 
was a protest against the suppression of the smaller mon- 
asteries, and other oppressive legislative measures, 1536 ; 
came to London at request of Henry VIII to declare 
causes of complaint, and although apparently pardoned, 
was ultimately executed at York. [ii. 189] 

ASKEW, ANNE (1521-1546), protestant martyr; 
married Thomas Kyme, on death of her sister, who was 
to have married him ; turned out of doors by her hus- 
band ; came to London : underwent examinations for 
heresy, 1545, but was befriended by Bishop Bonner ; set 
at liberty, but again arraigned for heresy; refused to 
recant, and was burned at Smithfleld. [ii. 190] 

ASKEW, ANTHONY (1722-1774), classical scholar ; 
M.B. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1745 ; studied at 
Leyden and travelled abroad ; M.D., 1750 ; physician to 
St. Bartholomew's and Christ's hospitals ; registrar of 
College of Physicians ; left extensive library of books and 
manuscripts, chiefly classical; author of a manuscript 
volume of Greek inscriptions. [ii. 192] 

ASKEW, EGEON (&. 1576), divine; B.A. Oxford, 
1597 ; chaplain. Queen's College, 1598 ; M.A., 1600 ; mini- 
ster of Greenwich, Kent, c. 1603 ; published a volume of 
sermons. [ii. 193] 

A8KHAM, JOHN (1825-1894), poet: shoemaker at 
Wellingborough ; librarian of literary institute, Welling- 
borough ; member of first school board there, 1871 ; school 
attendance officer and sanitary inspector, 1874 ; published 
five volumes of poems (1863-93). [Suppl. i. 81] 

ASPINALL, JAMES (d. 1861), divine ; successively 
curate of Rochdale, incumbent of St. Luke's, Liverpool 
(1831), and rector of Athorpe, 1844-61 ; published ser- 
mons and miscellaneous writings. [ii. 193] 

ASPINWALL, EDWARD (d. 1732), divine ; educated 
at Cambridge ; chaplain to Earl of Radnor ; sub-dean of 
Ohapel Royal ; prebendary of Westminster, 1729 ; pub- 
lished theological works. [ii. 194] 

ASPINWALL, WILLIAM (fi. 1648-1662), noncon- 
formist minister ; B.A. Magdalene College, Cambridge ; 
held livings of Maghull. Lancashire, and Mattersey, 
Nottinghamshire, whence he was rejected under Act of 
Uniformity, 1662; formed meeting-housa at Thurnsco, 
Yorkshire, and, later, was perhaps congregational minister 
at Cockermouth ; published religious works. [Ii. 194] 

ASPLAND, ROBERT (1782-1845), Unitarian minister : 
Ward scholar at Bristol academy, where he studied for 
baptist ministry ; proceeded to Marischal College, Aberdeen, 
but left, 1800, his views being considered ' unsound ' ; secre- 
tary, South Unitarian Society, 1803 ; minister, Gravel Pit 
chapel, Hackney, 1805-45 ; established several Unitarian 
periodicals, including the ' Monthly Repository,' which he 
edited 1806-26 ; formed Christian Tract Society, 1809 ; 
set up Hackney academy for training Unitarian ministers, 
1813 ; helped to found and was secretary to Unitarian 
Pond, 1806-18 ; secretary to British and Foreign Uni- 
tarian Association, 1835-41 ; published many religious 
works. [ii. 16] 

ASPLAND, ROBERT BROOK (1805-1869), Unitarian 
divine, sou of Robert Aspland [q. v.] ; Jt.A. Glasgow, 

1822 ; Unitarian minister successively at Chester, Bristol, 
inikinfield, and Huckney ; secretory of Manchester Col- 
lege, York, 1846-67, and of British and Foreign Unitarian 
ition, 1859. [ii. 196] 

ASPLEY, WILLIAM (fl. 1588-1637), stationer and 
printer ; freeman of Stationers' Company, 1597 ; warden, 
1637 ; with Andrew Wise obtained license for publishing 
' Much Ado about Nothing,' and ' 2 Henry IV,' 1600. 

[ii. 197] 

ASPLIN, WILLIAM (1687-1758), theologian ; B.A. \ 
Trinity College, Oxford, 1707; vice-principal, St. Albaus 
Hall ; military chaplain ; successively vicar of Bnnbury, 
Horley, and Burthorpe, Gloucestershire ; published theo- 
logical writings. [ii. 197] 

ASPITLL, GEORGE (1813-1832), musician ; displayed 
extraordinary musical genius at very early age ; played 
piano before George IV, 1824 ; having performed in Paris, 
undertook concert tours in Great Britain and Ireland ; 
wrote songs and pianoforte music. [ii. 197] 

(d. 909 ?), bishop of Sherborne, c. 900 ; monk 
of St. David's, perhaps bishop of St. David's ; entered house- 
I hold of King vElfred, with whom he studied six months 
each year, c. 885 ; received monasteries of Amesbury and 
Banwell, and, Liter, Exeter and its district ; wrote life of 
Alfred, and a chronicle of English history between 849 
and 887. [ii. 198] 


ASSHETON, NICHOLAS (1590-1625), diarist ; wrote 
| a journal extending from May 1617 to March 1619. 

[ii. 199] 

ASSHETON, WILLIAM (1641-1711), divine; B.A. 
I and fellow, Brasenose College, Oxford, 1663 ; M.A., and took 
holy orders ; chaplain to Dnke of Ormonde, chancellor of 
the university ; D.D. : prebendary of York, 1673 ; obtained 
livings of St. Antholin's, London, and Beckenham, Kent ; 
j originated a scheme for providing pensions to widows of 
I clergy and others, which was adopted unsuccessfully by 
the Mercers' Company; published theological works, in- 
' eluding 'The Possibility of Apparitions' (1706), occa- 
sioned by Defoe's fabricated story of the appearance of 
the ghost of Mrs. Veal. [ii. 199] 


ASTBTTRY, JOHN (1688?-1743), potter at Shelton, 
Staffordshire ; introduced use of Bideford pipeclay, and 
was first to use calcined flint in the pottery manu- 
facture (1720). [ii. 201] 

ASTELL, MARY (1668-1731), authoress; settled in 
London, c. 1688, and afterwards at Chelsea ; published 
anonymously in 1694 ' Serious Proposal to Ladies,' in which 
she advocated a scheme of religious retirement for women 
in an establishment 'rather academic than monastic,' 
which should be conducted on Church of England prin- 
ciples. The project elicited much comment, favourable 
and unfavourable, but ultimately fell to the ground. Pub- 
lished other works of a religious and controversial nature. 

[ii. 201] 

ASTELL, WILLIAM (1774-1847), director of East 
India Company, 1800-47 ; several times chairman and 
deputy-chairman ; M.P. for Bridgewater, 1800, and, later, 
for Bedfordshire, of which county he was deputv-lieu- 
tenant. [H. 202] 

A8TLE, THOMAS (1735-1803), antiquary and palaeo- 
grapher ; articled as attorney, but abandoned the pro- 
fession for antiquarian work and came to London ; F.S.A., 
1763 ; gained notice of Hon. George Grenville, who 
obtained him post of commissioner for regulating public 
records at Westminster ; royal commissioner for metho- 
dising state papers at Whitehall, 1704 ; F.R.S., 1766 ; chief 
clerk of record office in the Tower, 1775, and keeper of the 
records, 1783 ; published 'Origin and Progress of Writing* 
(1784), and other archaeological works; conducted 'The 
Antiquarian Repository,' and contributed largely to 
'Arclueologia.' His collection of manuscripts (the ' Stowe ') 
is now in the British Museum. [ii. 203] 

royalist ; served in the Netherlands ; governor of Ply- 
mouth and isle of St. Nicholas, 1638 ; sent as sergeant- 
major to Newcastle to provide against expected Scottish 
invasion, 1639 ; on council of war, 1640 ; joined king at 
Nottingham as major-general, 1042, and served with dis- 



tinction during the civil war: made baron, 1644: his 
force routed, 14G, and himself imprisoned at \Varwick ; 
released on surrender of Oxford. [ii. 205] 

ASTLEY, J >IIN ('/. 1595), master of the jewel house ; 

held n contidriitial position in household of Princess 

Kli/.a!wtli ; in Frankfort during Mary's reign; master of 

it-wrl house on Elizabeth's accession, 1568 ; M.P. for 

roue, 1586 and 1589; published 'Art of Riding' 

[ii. 206] 

ASTLEY, JOHN (17307-1787), portrait painter; 
pupil of Hudson ; visited Rome, where he was a companion 
of (>\r) .1 or- 1 ma Ui'vnolds ; on his return obtained patron- 
age of Horace Walpole; acquired great wealth by his art 
and by judicious marriages. [ii. 207] 

ASTLEY, SIR JOHN DUGDALB (1828-1894), the 
sporting baronet: educated at Winchester, Eton, and 
t'lirist Church, Oxford ; served in Crimea, 1854-5 ; brevet- 
. 1855 : promoted sport throughout armies at Bala- 
clava ; retired as lieutenant-colonel, 1859 ; raced under 
name of Mr. S. Thellussou, 1869 ; succeeded to baronetcy, 
1873 ; conservative M.P. for North Lincolnshire, 1874-80 ; 
published ' Fifty Years of my Life,' 1894. [Suppl. i. 81] 

ASTLEY, PHILIP (1742-1814), equestrian performer ; 
trained as cabinet maker ; joined General Elliott's light 
horse, 1759 ; became breaker-in, and rose to rank of ser- 
geant-major ; opened an exhibition of horsemanship at 
Lambeth, and in 1770 a wooden circus at Westminster; 
nbsequently, with partial success, established in all nine- 
teen equestrian theatres, including buildings at Paris and 
Dublin ; opened Astley's Royal Amphitheatre, London, 
1798 (destroyed by fire, 1803, and rebuilt, 1804) ; died in 
Paris. [ii. 207] 

ASTON, ANTHONY (/. 1712-1731), dramatist and 
actor ; educated as attorney ; said to have played in Lon- 
don theatres, but principally toured in England and Ire- 
land ; delivered a ludicrous speech to House of Commons 
against restriction of number of theatres, 1735. [ii. 208] 

ASTON, SIR ARTHUR (d. 1649), royalist general ; in 
Russia with letters of recommendation from James L, 
e. 1613-18, and in camp of king of Poland during his war 
against Turks, 1618-31 ; attended Gustavus Adolphns in 
the Liitzen campaign; sergeant-major-general at beginning 
of Scottish rebellion, 1640; knighted, 1641; colonel- 
general of royalist dragoons on outbreak of civil war, 
1642 ; governor of Reading, during the siege of which 
town he was wounded ; governor of Oxford, 1643, and 
having met with an accident, 1644, was pensioned ; in 
Ireland, 1646 ; killed at capture of Drogheda by Crom- 
well. ' [ii. 208] 

ASTON or ASHTON, JOHN (/. 1382), follower of 
Wy.-Hffe ; M.A. Merton College, Oxford ; one of the Ox- 
ford Wycliffltes prosecuted by Archbishop Courtney, 
1382; expelled from the university, recanted and was 
readmitted, 1382 ; prohibited from preaching, 1387. 


ASTON, JOSEPH (1762-1844), miscellaneous writer ; 
^tationer, 1803, in Manchester : where, and later at Roch- 

dale, he published and edited newspapers ; pu 
verses, plays, and other works. [ii. 211] 

ASTON, SIR RICHARD (d. 1778), judge ; practised 
as barrister ; king's counsel, 1759 : lord chief-justice of 
common pleas, Ireland, 1761 ; knighted and transferred 
to king's bench. England, 1765 ; member of the court 
which declared faulty the writ of outlawry against 
U'ilkes, 1768 ; one of the commissioners entrusted with 
the great seal, 1770-1. [ii. 211] 

ASTON, SIR THOMAS (1600-1645), royalist; educated 
at Brasenose College, Oxford ; made baronet, 1628 ; high 
sheriff of Cheshire, 1635 ; commanded royalist forces at 
Middlewich, 1643, when he was defeated and captured, but 
rejoined king's army: was afterwards captured in a 
skirmish in Staffordshire, and died of wounds while at- 
tempting to escape from prison at Stafford ; published 
'Remonstrance airainst Presbytery,' 1641. [ii. 212] 

1639), ambassador : K.U., 1603 ; ambassador to Spain, 
1620-5 and 1635-8; raised to Scottish peerage, 1627. 
Patron of the poet Drayton. [ii. 213] 

ASTON, \VILLIAM(1735-1KOO), Jesuit; educated at 
St. Omer ; joined Society of Jesus at Watten, 1761 ; pro- 
fessor of poetry, St. Omer, 1761 ; president, Little College, 
Bruges ; canon, St. John's church, Liege. [ii. 213] 

ASTRY, RICHARD (1632 ?-17l4), antiquary ; B.A. 
Queens' College, Cambridge, 1651 ; M.A., 1654 ; left in 
manuscript historical collections relating to Huntingdon- 
shire (Lansd. MS. 921). [ii. 214] 

ASTY, JOHN (16727-1730), dissenting clergyman; 
minister in family of the Fleetwoods, Stoke Newington ; 
pastor to congregation at Moorflelds, 1713-30. [ii. 214] 

ATHELARD OF BATH (12th century). [See 

ATHELM (<i. 923), probably monk of Glastonbury ; 
first bishop of Wells, 909; archbishop of Canterbury, 
914. [ii. 215] 

ATHELSTAN or JETHELSTAN (895-940), king of 
West-Saxons and Mercians, and afterwards of all the 
English ; son of Eadward the Elder, probably by a mis- 
tress of noble birth; crowned at Kingston, Surrey, 925; 
crushed a coalition of minor kings formed to resist his 
imperial policy, and was acknowledged as overlord at 
Emmet, 926 ; obtained homage of Welsh princes ; con- 
quered Western Devonshire, and conciliated Welsh in 
Wessex ; invaded Scotland, 933 or 934 ; at the battle of 
Brunanburh practically established unity of England by 
routing subject princes and Danish pirate kings, who had 
! united to overthrow the West-Saxon supremacy, 937; 
buried at Malmesbury Abbey. [ii. 215] 

ATHERSTONE, EDWIN (1788-1872), writer in verse 
and prose ; published ' The Fall of Nineveh ' in instal- 
ments, 1828, 1847, and 1868 ; wrote historical romances. 

[it 217] 

ATHERTON, JOHN (1598-1640), Irish bishop; edu- 
cated at Gloucester Hall ( Worcester College) and Lincoln 
College, Oxford ; rector of Huish Comb Flower, Somer- 
set ; prebendary of St. John's, Dublin, 1630 ; chancellor of 
Killaloe, 1634 : chancellor of Christ Church and rector of 
Killaban and Ballintubride, 1635 ; bishop of Waterford and 
Lismore. 1636 ; found guilty of unnatural crime, degraded 
and hanged at Dublin, 1640. [ii. 217] 

ATHERTON, WILLIAM (1775-1850), Wesleyan 
minister ; president of Wesleyan conference, 1846 ; super- 
intendent of Wakefield district, and chairman of Leeds 
district, 1849. [ii. 218] 

ATHERTON, SIR WILLIAM (1806-1864), lawyer : 
special pleader, 1832-9 ; called to bar, 1839 ; advanced 
liberal M.P., Durham, 1852, 1857, and 1859 ; Q.O., 1862 ; 
standing counsel to admiralty, 1865-9 ; solicitor-general 
and knighted, 1859 ; attorney-general, 1861. [ii. 218] 

second EARL, 1668-1719.] 

ATHLTJMNEY, first BARON (1802-1873). [See 


JOHN, first DUKE, 1659-1724 ; MURRAY, JAKES, second 
DUKE, 1690?-1764; MURRAY, JOHN, third DUKE, 1729- 

JOHN, first MARQUIS, 1635 ?-1703 ; MURRAY, JOHN, second 
MARQUIS, 1659-1724.] 


I ALAN, d. 1268 ; STEWART, WALTER, d. 1437 ; STEWART, 

JOHN, first EARL of a new creation, 1440 ?-1512 ; STEWART, 

JOHN, third EARL, d. 1542 ; STEWART, JOHN, fourth EARL, 

d. 1578.] 

ATHONE, JOHN (d. 1350). [See ACTON, JOHN.] 

1687), Scottish bishop ; M.A. Edinburgh, 1636; at Oxford ; 
beneficed successively Birsay (Orkney) and Winifrith 
(Dorset) ; bishop of Moray, 1676, of Galloway, 1680. 

[ii. 219] 


ATKINS, HENRY, M.D. (1558-1635), physician: 
graduated at Oxford ; M.D. Nantes ; president College 
Physicians six times between 1607 and 1625 ; attended 
Henry, prince of Wales, in his last illness, 1618. [ii. 219] 




ATKINS, JOHN (1685-1767), naval surgeon : in 
actions at Malaga (1703) and Viiia Bay (1710) ; sailed to 
Guinea, Brazil, ami West Indies with expedition to put 
down piracy, 1721-3; published 'Navy Surgeon' (1732) 
and an account of his voyage. [ii. 220] 

ATKINS, RICHARD (1559?-1581), protestant 
martyr ; a catholic till nineteen years of age ; in Rome, 

Ifisl, whore his denunciations against the church 
in his torture and death at the hands of the inquisi- 
tion, [ii. 220] 

ATKINS, SAMFEL(/f. 1787-1808), marine painter; 
contributed to Royal Academy, 1787-96 ; in East Indies, 
1796-1804; exhibited till 1808. [ii. 221] 

ATKINS, WILLIAM (1601-1681), Jesuit; entered 
Society of Jesus, 1635 ; rector of College of St. Al<> 
1653 ; died, a victim of Oates's plot, in Stafford gaol. 

[ii. 221] 

ATKINSON, SIR HARRY (1831-1892), prime minister 
of New Zealand ; educated at Rochester and Blackheath ; 
emigrated to New Zealand, 1855 ; captain in Waitara war, 
1860-4; minister of defence in cabinet of Sir Frederick 
Aloysius Weld [q. v.], 1864-5 ; took prominent part in 
struggle between centralism and provincialism, 1874-6 ; 
prime minister of New Zealand, 1876-7, 1883-4, and 1887-91, 
and colonial treasurer, 1875-6, 1876-7, 1879-83, and 1887- 
1891 ; K.O.M.Q., 1888 ; speaker of legislative council, 1891. 

[Suppl. i. 83] 

ATKINSON, HENRY (1781-1829), mathematician: 
assisted his father and sister in management of schools at 
Great Bavington (Northumberland), West Woodburn, 
West Belsay, Stamfordham, and Hawkwell; settled in 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1808; contributed to the Newcastle 
Literary and Philosophical Society many remarkable 
papers on scientific topics. [ii. 221] 

ATKINSON, JAMBS (1759-1839), surgeon, biblio- 
grapher, and portraitist ; senior surgeon to York County 
hospital and to the York dispensary ; surgeon to Duke 
of York ; published 'Medical Bibliography,' 1834. 

[ii. 222] 

ATKINSON, JAMKS (1780-1852), Persian scholar: 
studied medicine in Edinburgh and London ; medical 
officer on an East Indiaman ; assistant surgeon in Bengal 
service, 1805 ; assistant assay master, Calcutta mint, 
1813-28 ; superintendent of ' Government Gazette,' 1817, 
and of ' Press,' 1823 ; surgeon to 55th regiment native 
infantry, 1833 ; superintending surgeon to army of Indus, 
1838-41; member of medical board, 1845; published 
translations from Persian. [ii. 223] 

ATKINSON, JOHN AUGUSTUS (ft. 1775), painter ; 
taken at age of nine to St. Petersburg, where he gained 
patronage of Empress Catherine and Emperor Paul ; re- 
turned to England, 1801 ; exhibited in Royal Academy 
between 1802 and 1829; prepared plates for several 
volumes published in Russia or England. Notable among 
his pictures are 'Battle of Waterloo' (1819) and 'Seven 
Ages ' (1812). [ii. 223] 

antiquary ; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1838 ; 
vicar of Danny, Yorkshire, 1847-1900 ; honorary D.O.L. 
Durham, 1887; prebendary of York, 1891: published 
'Forty Years in a Moorland Parish' (a collection of local 
legends and traditions), 1891, and other antiquarian 
works, besides books for children. [Suppl. i. 83] 

ATKINSON, JOSEPH (1743-1818), dramatist: served 
in army ; wrote and adapted several plays which were 
produced in Dublin, 1785-1800. [ii. 224] 

ATKINSON, MILES (1741-1811), divine; B.A. 
Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1783 ; headmaster of Drighlington 
school, near Leeds ; minister in Leeds and neighbourhood, 
1763 till death. [ii. M4] 

ATKINSON, PAUL (1656-1729), Franciscan friar: 
definitor of English province : condemned on account of 
his priestly character to perpetual imprisonment in 
Hurst Castle, Hampshire, when- he died. [ii. 225] 

ATKINSON, PETER (1725-1805), architect at York ; 
assistant to John Carr, to whose practice be succeeded. 

[it. M5] 

ATKINSON, I'KTKK U776-1822X arbiter: 
Peter Atkinson (1725-1806) [q. v.] ; built bridge over 
Ouse, York, 1810. [ii. 225] 

ATKINSON, STEPHEN (jl. 1619), metallurgist; 

' finer ' in Tower of London, 1686 ; silver refiner in Devon- 

1 shire: obtained leave to search for gold and silver in 

Crawford Muir, 1616, but was unsuccessful. [ii. 225] ' 

ATKINSON, THOMAS (1600-1639), divine ; scholar,! 
i St. John's College, Oxford, 1615; B.D., 1630; senior 
j proctor of the university ; rector of Islip, 1638 ; wrote 
Latin poems and a Latin tragedy. [ii. 225] 

ATKINSON, THOMAS (1801 7-1833), poet and mis- 
cellaneous writer ; bookseller at Glasgow. [ii. 226] 

ATKINSON, THOMAS WITLAM (1799-1861), archi- 
tect ; worked successively as bricklayer's labourer, quarry- 
111:111, and stonemason ; taught drawing at Ashton-under- 
Lyne ; studied Gothic architecture, and in 1827 established 
himself as architect in London ; built St. Luke's Church, 
Cheatham Hill, Manchester ; abandoned architecture for 
art and travel, in the course of which he visited oriental 
Russia, 1848-63 ; published, 1858 and 1860, volumes con- 
taining journals and topographical drawings; F.K.ii.s., 
1868 ; fellow of Geological Society, 1859. [Suppl. i. 84] 

ATKINSON, WILLIAM (rf. 1509), translator ; D.D. 
Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1498 ; canon of Lincoln, 1504, 
and of Windsor, 1507 ; translated from French three books 
(1602) of the ' Imitation of Christ.' [ii. 226] 

ATKINSON, WILLIAM (1773 ?-1839), architect; 
began life as a carpenter ; pupil of James Wyatt ; aca- 
demy gold medallist, 1795. [ii. 226] 

ATKINSON, WILLIAM (1757-1846), poetical writer ; 
B.A. and fellow, Jesus College, Cambridge, 1780; M.A., 
1783 ; rector of Warham All Saints, Norfolk ; published 
' Poetical Essays,' 1786. [ii. 226] 

ATKYNS, SIR EDWARD (1587-1669), judge; stu- 
dent of Lincoln's Inn, 1601; called to bar, 1614; 
governor of the society, 1630; 'autumn reader,' 1632; 
defended Prynue when charged before Star Chamber 
with libels appearing in ' Histriomastix ' ; serjeant, 1640 ; 
created by the Commons baron of exchequer, 1645 ; re- 
moved by the Lords to court of common pleas, 1648 ; 
nominated one of the judges to try disturbers of peace in 
eastern counties, 1650 ; renominated judge, 1659 ; created 
anew baron of exchequer and knighted, 1660. [ii. 227] 

ATKYNS, Sm EDWARD (1630-1698), judge: son 
of Sir Edward Atkyns (1587-1669) [q. v.] ; called to bar 
at Lincoln's Inn, 1653 ; autumn reader, 1675 ; serjeant, 
baron of exchequer, and knighted, 1679 ; lord chief baron 
1686; refused allegiance to William HI and resigned, 
1688. [ii. 2 28] 

ATKYNS, JOHN TRACY (d. 1773), judge ; called 
to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1732 ; cursitor baron of ex- 
chequer, 1755 ; published (1765-8) notes of chancery cases, 
1736-54. [U ?228] 

ATKYNS, RICHARD (1615-1677), writer on typo- 
graphy ; educated at Balliol College, Oxford ; travelled 
abroad with Lord Arundell of Wardour's son for three 
years; raised, troop of horse for king, 1642; after 
Restoration made deputy-lieutenant for Gloucestershire ; 
published, 1660, a broadside by which he hoped to prove 
that the right to printing belonged to the crown alone, 
and to secure for himself the office of patentee for 
printing law books; committed for debt, 1677, to the 
Marshalsea, where he died. [ii. 228] 

ATKYNS, SIR ROBERT (1621-1709), judge; son of 
Sir Edward Atkyns (1587-1669) [q. v.] ; M.A. Oxford ; 
called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1646 ; M.P. for Evesham, 
1659 ; made K.B. at Charles II's coronation ; M.P. for 
Kastlow, bencher of his inn, and recorder of Bristol, 1661 ; 
judge of court of common pleas, 1672 ; retired from bench, 
probably on account of disaffection to Charles II's govern- 
ment, 1679; resigned his recordership ; succeeded his 
brother as chief baron, 1689 : speaker of House of Lords 
(the great seal being in commission), 1689-93 ; retired from 
bench, 1694 ; published legal treatises. [ii. 230] 

ATKYNS, SIR ROBERT (1647-1711), topographer ; 
i, f ^i,* , 1 * 51 * Atkyils ( 1621-1709) q. v.] ; knighted, 
>fi3; M.P. for Oirencester, 1681, and Gloucestershire, 
.s : published topographical work on Gloucestershire! 
ltls " [ii. 232] 

AM 8 t 1817 - 1 ^), bishop of Hereford; 
at Grantham and Oakham : B.A. St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 1840 ; fellow, 1842 ; M.A., 1843 ; B.D., 



185<) ; D.D., 1859 ; tutor, 1846-69 ; vicar of Madingley, 
1847-52 ; Whitehall preacher, 1856 : select preacher at 
'idire, l,sr,H and IK.V.i ; vicar of Leeds, 1869-68 ; canon 
itiary at Uipon, 1861 ; bishop of Hereford, 1868-94. 

[Suppl. i. 85] 

ATMORE, CHARLES (1759-1826), Wesleyan minis- 
ter ; sent out by Wesley as itinerant evangelist, 1781 ; 
successively minister in many English towns; president, 
LII conference, 1811. [ii. 233] 

ATSLOWE, EDWARD (d. 1694), physician ; fellow 
and M.D. New College, Oxford, 1566 ; P.C.P. ; physician 
to Earl of E-sev : twice imprisoned (1579 and 1686) for 
supposed connection with conspiracies in behalf of Mary 
Queen of Scots. [ii. 233] 

ATTAWELL, HUGH (d. 1621). [See ATWKLI,] 

ATTERBURY, FRANCIS (1662-1732), bishop of 
Rochester : sou of Lewis Atterbury (d. 1693) [q. v.] ; 
educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford ; 
tutor at Christ Church ; took part as protestant in the 
controversy resulting from James IPs attempts to force 
his religion on the university, c. 1687 ; took holy orders, 
1687 ; lecturer of St. Bride's, London, 1691 ; chaplain to 
William and Mary, and preacher at Bridewell Hospital ; 
gained considerable repute by his opposition to Erastianism 
in church and state, and was appointed archdeacon of 
Totnes, prebendary of Exeter Cathedral, and D.D., 1701 ; 
chaplain in ordinary to Anne ; dean of Carlisle, 1704 ; 
preacher at Rolls Chapel, 1709 ; dean of Christ Church, 
1712 ; bishop of Rochester and dean of Westminster, 
1713 ; took part in coronation of George I ; leant towanls 
the Jacobite cause ; held direct communications with 
the Jacobites, 1717 ; imprisoned in the Tower for alleged 
connection with an attempt to restore the Stuarts, 1720 ; 
deprived of his offices and banished ; went to Brussels, 
1723, and thence to France : entered the service of 
James IPs son, the old Pretender; died in France; was 
buried privately in Westminster Abbey. [ii. 233] 

ATTERBURY, LEWIS the elder (d. 1693), divine ; 
D.D. Christ Church, Oxford, 1660 ; rector of Great or 
Broad Risingtou, Gloucestershire, 1654 ; received living of 
Middleton- Key nes, Buckinghamshire, 1657 ; chaplain to 
Duke of Gloucester, 1660. [ii. 238] 

ATTERBURY, LEWIS, LL.D., the younger (1656- 
1731), divine; son of Lewis Atterbury (d. 1693) [q. v.] ; 
educated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford- 
B.A., 1679 ; M.A., 1680 ; chaplain to lord mayor of Lon- 
don, 1683; rector of Sywell, Northamptonshire, 1684; 
LL.D., 1687; one of six chaplains to Princess Anne of 
Denmark, at Whitehall ; preacher at Highgate chapel, 
1695 ; successively rector of Shepperton and Hornsey ; 
published religious works. [ii. 238] 

ATTERBURY, LUFFMAN (d. 1796), musician; 
trained as carpenter and builder, but devoted hia leisure 
to music; musician in ordinary to George III; member 
of the Madrigal Society, 1766. [ii. 239] 

ATTERSOLL, WILLIAM (d. 1640), puritan divine ; 
B.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1582; M.A. Peterhouse, 

5 ; occupied living of Isfield, Sussex, 1600-40 ; pub- 
lished biblical commentaries and religious treatises. 

ATTERSOLL, WILLIAM (fl. 1662), puritan divine ; 
probably son of William Attereoll [q. v.] ; ejected from 
living of Hoadley, Sussex, 1662. [ii. 240] 

ATTWOOD, THOMAS (1766-1838), musician; as 
chorister of Chapel Royal attracted attention of Prince 
iles (George IV), who sent him to study music at 
Naples, 1783 ; studied under Mozart at Vienna, 1785 ; 
music master to Duchess of York ; organist of St. Paul's 
and composer to Chapel Royal, 1796. [ii. 240] 

ATTWOOp, THOMAS (1783 -1856), political reformer ; 
son of a Birmingham banker ; entered his father's bank, 
f. 1800 ; captain in volunteer infantry, 1803-5 ; high 

i of Birmingham, 1811 ; agitated successfully for 
Tvpr.d of orders in council restricting British trade with 
continent and United States, 1812-13 ; opposed in several 
pamphlets policy of reducing paper currency when specie 
.-. 1816 : founded, 1830, ' Birmingham Poli- 
tical Union for Protection of Public Rights,' which 
supported Earl Grey's government during passage of ! 
Reform Bill ; returned to parliament as one of two mem- 

tor Birmingham, 1832; supported Daniel O'Connell, i 

1833 ; allied himself with the chartists, and presented 
(1839) their national petition ' to of Commons. 

[Suppl. i. 861 

ATWATER, WILLIAM (1440-1521), bi- 
Lincoln ; probably fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
1480 ; D D., 1493 ; vice-chancellor of the univer.-itv, 1 i:i7 
and 1500; temporarily chancellor, 1500; dean of Chapel 
Royal, 1502 ; canon of Windsor and registrar of order of 
Garter, 1504 ; prebendary, Salisbury Cathedral, I 
chancellor of Lincoln, 1606-12, and prebendary, 1512 ; 
archdeacon of Lewes, 1509-12, and of Huntingdon, 1514 ; 
bishop of Lincoln, 1514. [ii. 241] 

(d. 1621), actor ; played in first representation of Jonson's 
' Epicoeue,' 1609 ; member of Alleyn's company, [ii.241] 

ATWOOD, GEORGE (1746-1807), mathematician: 
educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
third wrangler and first Smith's prizeman, 1769; fellow 
and tutor ; M.A., 1772 ; F.R.S., 1776 ; occupied a post in 
connection with the revenue after 1784 ; published 
mathematical works. [U. 242] 

ATWOOD, PETER (1643-1712), Dominican friar : 
several times imprisoned, and finally executed on account 
of his sacerdotal character. [ii. 242] 

ATWOOD, THOMAS (d. 1793), chief judge of Do- 
minica, and, later, of the Bahamas ; probably author of 
' History of Dominica,' 1791. [ii. 242] 

ATWOOD, WILLIAM (d. 1706 ?), English barrister ; 
chief-justice and judge of court of admiralty, New York, 
1701 ; suspended on charges of corruption and mal- 
administration, 1702, and returned to England ; published 
statement of his ' Case ' (1703), and many political books 
and pamphlets. [it. 242] 

AUBERT, ALEXANDER (1730-1805), astronomer; 
educated for mercantile career in Geneva, Leghorn, and 
Genoa ; director and governor, London Assurance Com- 
pany, 1753; F.R.S., 1772; F.S.A., 1784; built private 
observatory at Loampit Hill, near Deptford, 1786, and at 
Islington, 1788. [ii. 243] 

first SEIGNEUR, 1365 ?-1429 ; STUART, BERNARD, third 
SEIGNEUR, 1447?-1508; STUART, ESMB, sixth SKK;NKI it, 
1542?-1583; STUART, CHARLES, tenth SEIGNEUR, 1640- 

AUBREY, JOHN (1626-1697), antiquary ; grandson 
of William Aubrey [q. v.] ; educated at Trinity College, 
Oxford ; entered Middle Temple, 1646 ; brought to light 
megalithic remains at Avebury, 1649 ; F.R.S., 1663 ; lost 
most of his property through litigation and extrava- 
gance, 1662-77 ; empowered by patent, 1671, to make 
antiquarian surveys under the crown ; formed large topo- 
graphical collections in Wiltshire and Surrey; left in 
manuscript much antiquarian and historical material, 
including ' Minutes of Lives,' which was used largely by 
Anthony a Wood. [ii. 244] 

AUBREY, WILLIAM (1529-1596), civilian: B.C.L. 
Oxford, 1649; fellow of All Souls'; principal, New 
Inn Hall, 1550; professor of civil law, 1553-9; D.C.L., 
1554 ; advocate in court of arches ; chancellor to Arch- 
bishop Whitgift ; master in chancery. [ii. 246] 

AUCHER, JOHN (1619-1700), royalist divine ; edu- 
cated at Cambridge; fellow of Peterhouse, but ejected 
for loyalty ; D.D., 1660 ; rector of All Hallows, Lombard 
Street, London, 1662-86 ; published religious works. 

[ii. 246] 

AUCHINLECK, LORD (1706-1782). [See BOSWELL, 

AUCHINOUL, LORD (15537-1591). [See BELLEN- 

AUCHMUTY, SIR SAMUEL (1756-1822), general :born 
in New York ; volunteer with 45th regiment on outbreak 
of American war, 1775; ensign, 1777; lieutenant, 1778; 
came to England ; adjutant of 52nd regiment in India, 
1783; captain, 1788 ; brigade-major, 1790 ; served against 
Tippoo Sultan and at Seringapatam, 1790-2; deputy- 
quartermaster-general, Calcutta, and brevet-major, 1794 ; 
brevet lieutenant-colonel, 1795 ; military secretary to Sir 
Robert Abercromby, 1795-7; returned to England, 1797 ; 
lieutenant-colonel, 10th regiment, 1800; adjutant-general 
to Abercromby in Egypt; K.B., 1803; commandant in 




Isle of Thanet, and colonel, 103rd regiment, 1806 : in 
Buenos Ayres, 1806-8 ; major-general, 1808 ; and com- 
mander-in-chief at Madras, 1810; colonel, 78th regiment, 
1811; returned to England, 1813; tteotenant-genaral ; 

commander-iu-ehief in Ireland and Irish privy councillor, 
iv.M. ' [ii. 

AUCKLAND, EARL OF (1784-1849). [See EDEN, 

BARON, 1744-1814 , EDEN, GEORGE, second BARON, 1784- 
1849 ; EDKN, ROBKRT JOHN, third BAROX, 1799-1870.] 


AUDINET, PHILIP (1766-1837), line-engraver; ap- 
prenticed to John Hall ; engraved portraits for Harrison's 
'Biographical Magazine ' and other works. [ii. 248] 

BARON, first creation, 1465 ?-1497 ; TOUCHET, JAMES, first 
BARON, third creation, 1617 ?-1684.] 

AUDLEY, EDMUND (d. 1524), bishop of Salisbury; 
B.A. Lincoln College, Oxford, 1463 ; prebendary of Here- 
ford, 1464, of Salisbury, 1467, of Lincoln, 1472, of Wells, 
1475, and of York, 1478 ; canon of Windsor, 1472 ; 
archdeacon of East Riding of Yorkshire, 1475, and of Essex, 
1479 ; bishop of Rochester, 1480 : translated to Hereford, 
1492. and to Salisbury, 1502; chancellor of order of 
Garter. [ii. 248] 

DE (d. 1246), royalist baron ; lord-marcher and constable 
on Welsh borders, 1223. [IL 249] 

AUDLEY, HUGH (d. 1662), moneylender ; held a post 
In court of wards; amassed great wealth between 1605 
and 1662. [ii. 249] 

DE, knight (d. 1272), royalist baron ; son of Henry Audley 
[q. v.] ; lord-marcher ; defeated, along with Prince Ed- 
ward, by Llewelyn and some English barons at Hereford, 
1263 ; opposed Simon de Montfort's government, 1264 ; 
joined Gloucester in royalist cause, 1265 ; justiciary of 
Ireland, 1270. [11. 249] 

AUDLEY or AUDELEY, JAMES UK (1316 ?-1386), 
a 'first founder* of order of Garter, 1344; served with 
Black Prince in France, 1346 ; took part in the naval 
battle off Sluys, 1350 ; again with Black Prince in France, 
1354-6 ; one of commanders of French expedition, 1359 ; 
governor of Aquitaine, 1362 ; grand seneschal of Poitou, 
1369. . [ii. 250] 

(1488-1544), lord chancellor ; probably studied at Magda- 
lene College, Cambridge ; town clerk of Colchester, 1516 ; 
M.P., 1623 ; entered Middle Temple ; autumn reader, 1626 ; 
member of Princess Mary's council, 1526; attorney of 
duchy of Lancaster ; groom of the chamber, 1527; mem- 
ber of Wolsey's household : chancellor of duchy of Lan- 
caster and speaker of House of Commons, 1529 ; serjeant- 
at-law and king's perjeant, 1531 ; knight and keeper of 
great seal, 1632 ; lord chancellor, 1533 ; sanctioned Henry's 
divorce from Catherine of Arragou, 1533; presided at 
trials of Bishop Fisher and More, 1535 ; created peer, 1538 ; 
K.<;., 1540 ; carried through parliament acts for attainder 
<>f Karl of Essex and for dis-olution of Henry's marriage 
with Anne of Cleves, 1540 ; passed judgment on Catherine 
Howard, 1542 ; resigned great seal, 1514. [ii. 261] 

AUFRERE. ANTHONY (1756-1833), antiquary: 
edited the ' Lockhart Letters,' 1817. and published, among 
other works, translations from the German and Italian. 

[ii. 254] 

AUGUSTA SOPHIA (1768-1840), princes.., daughter 
of George III ; born at Buckingham House, London ; on 
death of her father, revived a residence at Frogmore and 
Clarence House, St. James's, where she died. Buried at 
Windsor. [ii. 265] 

AUGUSTINE, ST. (d. 604), first archbishop of Canter- 
bury ; prior of Pope Gregory I's monastery of St. Andrew, 
Rome; sent a > mi^ionary to England with forty monk- : 
received with tolerance by King Kthellx-rt. who wan after- 
wards converted ; consecrated ' bishop of the English ' at 
Aries; found.-.! mona-tt-ry of Ohriitcharch. Canterbury: 
organised mission." into Western Kent and the Ka<t - 
kingdom. [It 2W] ' 

1843), sixth son of George III and Queen Charlotte ; Norn 
at Buckingham Palace, London ; educated at Giittiugen 
University; married, 1793, Lady Augusta Munav, 
subsequently created Duchess of Inverness ; mar- 
riage declared void under Royal Marriage Act, 17.l; 
raised to peerage as Baron Arklow, Earl of Inverness, and 
Duke of Sussex, 1801; strongly supported pros,n 
political policy ; grand master of -i -mi-. isil ; pre- 
sident of Society of Arts, 1816, and of Ho\al So 
1830-9. [ii. 257] 

AULDBON, LORD (d. 1608). [See LYON, SIR 


AURELIUS, ABRAHAM (1575-1632), pastor of 
French protestant church, London ; graduated at 1. 
1596 ; published Latin verses. [ii. 268] 

AUST, SARAH (1744-1811), known, as authoress, by 
name of 'Hon. Mrs. Murray '; published, 1799, a topo- 
graphical work on Scotland and Northern England. 

[ii. 258] 

admiral; brother of Jane Austen [q. v.] ; served in Ka-t 
Indies, 1788-1800, and in North Sea and Baltic, 1811 1 1 : 
rear-admiral, 1830 ; vice-admiral, 1838 ; admiral, 1848 ; 
admiral of the fleet, 1863. [ii. 258] 

AUSTEN, JANE (1775-1817), novelist ; lived succes- 
sively at Steventon, near Basingstoke (where she was 
born), Bath, Southampton, Chawton, near Alton, and 
Winchester (where she died and is buried). Of her novels, 
'Sense and Sensibility' appeared in 1811, 'Pride and 
Prejudice* in 1813, 'Mansfield Park' in 1814, 'Emma' 
In 1816, 'Northanger Abbey* and 'Persuasion' post- 
humously In 1818. [U. 259] 

AUSTEN, RALPH (d. 1676), writer on gardening ; 
studied at Magdalen College, Oxford ; proctor, 1630 ; de- 
puty-registrary to visitors, 1647, subsequently registrary ; 
published books on gardening. [ii. 260] 

AUSTIN, CHARLES (1799-1874), lawyer ; educated 
at Jesus College, Cambridge ; gained Hulsean prize for an 
essay on Christian evidences, 1822 ; B A., 1824 bar- 
rister, Middle Temple, 1827 ; joined Norfolk circuit ; Q.C., 
1841 ; abandoned practice, 1848, and lived in retirement, 
having achieved unprecedented success at the parliamen- 
tary bar. [U. 261] 

AUSTIN, HENRY (/. 1613), author of a poem 
called ' The Scourge of Venus, or the Wanton Lady. With 
the Jlare Birth of Adonis,' 1613. [ii. 262] 

AUSTIN, JOHN (1613-1669), catholic writer, under 
pseudonym, WILLIAM BIRCHLEY; pensioner, St. John's 
College, Cambridge ; entered Lincoln's Inn, but was pre- 
vented by his religious convictions from practising as a 
lawyer ; private tutor in Staffordshire during civil war ; 
published religious works. [ii. 263] 

AUSTIN, JOHN (1717-1784), Irish Jesuit; entered 
Society of Jesus in Champagne, 1735; prefect of Irish 
college, Poitiers ; preacher in Dublin, 1750. [ii. 264] 

AUSTIN, JOHN (./f. 1820), Scottish inventor; pub- 
lished works on systems of stenography and stenographic 
music, devised by himself. [ii. 264] 

AUSTIN, JOHN (1790-1859), jurist; entered army 
and served in Sicily, but sold his commission and studied 
law ; called to bar at Inner Temple, 1818 ; abandoned 
practice, 1825 ; professor of jurisprudence, London Uni- 
versity (now University College), 1826 ; studied law in 
(Jermany, 1826-8 ; resigned his chair, 1832 : member of 
criminal law commission, 1838; commissioned with Sir 
G. 0. Lewis to inquire into state of government of Malta, 
836 ; lived, 1841-3, in Germany, and, 1844-8, in Paris; 
was made corresponding member of the French institute 
of moral and political sciences ; published ' The Province 
of Jurisprudence determined,' 1832. [Ii. 265] 

AUSTIN, ROBERT (fl. 1644), puritan divine; pub- 
iHhed a tract defending parliament's action against the 
king, 1644 ;D.D. [ii. 268] 

AUSTIN, SAMUEL, the elder (fl. 1629), religious 
poet; M.A.Exeter College, Oxford, 1630; received bene- 
fice in Cornwall; published 'Austin's Urania, or the 
Heavenly Mne,' 1639. [" 269] 




AUSTIN, SAMUKL, the younger ( ft. 1658), poetical 
writer: son of Samuel Austin (.ft. 1G29) [q. v.] ; B.A., 
1656, William College, Oxford, where bis self-conceit 
ma.le him the laughing-stock of the university wits; 
published 'Pane?yrick ' on the Restoration, 1661. 

[ii. 269] 

AUSTIN, SAMl'HL (d. 1834), painter; exhibited 
water-colour drawings at Society of British Artists, 
is-ji ;. mid at Society of Painters in Water-colours, of 
whirh he became associate (1827). [ii. 270] 

AUSTIN, SARAH (1793-1867), translator ; nee 
Taylor ; wife of John Austin (1790-1350) [q. v.] ; trans- 
lull'' If rom German and French and edited several works, 
chiet1 v historical, including 'Germany from 1760-1814* 
i ISM'). Hanke'3 ' History of the Popes' (1840), and 'His- 
tory of Reformation in Germany ' (1845). [ii. 270] 

AUSTIN, WILLIAM (1587-1634), miscellaneous 
writer ; barrister of Lincoln's Inn ; his works (prose and 
verse), which were all published posthumously (1636-71), 
show a wide knowledge of patristic literature, [ii. 271] 

AUSTIN, WILLIAM ( ft. 1662), classical scholar ; son 
of William Austin (1587-1634) [q. v.] ; barrister of Gray's 
Inn; wrote poems to celebrate marriage of Charles II, 
lt;62, and a description, in verse, of the plague of London, 
1666. [ii. 272] 

AUSTIN, WILLIAM (1754-1793), physician; B.A. 
Wadbam College, Oxford, 1776 ; lectured on Arabic ; 
studied medicine at St.Bartholomew's Hospital ; M.A.,1780, 
and M.D., 1783 ; practised at Oxford ; professor of chemis- 
try and physician to Radcliffe Infirmary, 1785 ; physician 
to" St. Bartholomew's, 1786 ; F.C.P., 1787 ; delivered (1790) 
Gulstoniau Lectures, which were published 1791. 

[ii. 272] 

AUSTIN, WILLIAM (1721-1820), engraver and 
draughtsman ; his plates, chiefly landscapes, of small 
merit ; during latter years of life taught drawing in 
London and Brighton. [ii. 273] 

AUVERQUERQUE, CoujfT OF (1641-1708). [See 

AVANDALE, first BARON (A. 1488). [See STEWABT, 

minister of Kingsland congregational church, 1838-84; 
chairman of Congregational Union, 1876. [ii. 274] 

AVERELL, ADAM (1754-1847), Irish primitive Wes- 
leyan minister; educated at Trinity College, Dublin; 
ordained by Bishop Cope, 1777 ; adopted evangelical 
views under the influence of Wesley ; curate to Dr. Led- 
wich at Aghaboe, 1789-91 ; president of primitive Wes- 
leyan methodist conference, 1818-41. [ii. 274] 

AVERT, BENJAMIN (d. 1764), presbyterian minister ; 
abandoned ministry in consequence of Salters' Hall con- 
troversy on subscription (1719), and became physician; 
treasurer, Guy's hospital ; trustee, Dr. Williams's Library, 
1728-64 ; LL.D. [ii. 274] 

AVERY, JOHN ? (fl. 1695), pirate ; established him- 
self at Perim and levied a toll on all ships passing through 
Bed Sea ; disbanded his crew in West Indies, and possibly 
lived in hiding in England. [ii. 275] 

AVESBURY, ROBERT OF (fl. 1350). [See ROBERT.] 



AVISON, CHARLES (1710 ?-1770), musician ; studied 
in Italy ; organist of St. Nicholas, Newcastle, 1736-70 ; 
published music and an ' Essay on Musical Expression,' 
1752. [ii.275] 

firstViscou.NT, 1736-1806 ; YKLVERTON, WILLIAM CHARLES, 
fourth VISCOUNT, 1824-1883.] 

AWDELAY, JOHN (fl. 1426), canon of monastery of 
Haghmon, Shropshire ; wrote verses, chiefly devotional. 

AWDELAY or AWDELEY, JOHN, otherwise called 
Jon SAMPSON or SAMPSON AWDELAY (fl. 1559-1577), 
London printer and miscellaneous writer ; freeman of 
Stationers' Company, 1559; printed, 1561-77, ballads, 
news-sheets, and religious tracts, many, including ' Prater- 
nitye of Vacaboudes' (1565), being of hU own corn- 
portion, [ii. 276] 

AXTEL, DAMKL (./. 1600), parliamentarian; of 
good family, but a grocer's apprentice; entered parlia- 
mentary army and rose to rank of lieutenant-colonel ; 
commanded soldiers at king's trial at Westminster; ac- 
companied Cromwell to Ireland: returned to England 
before the Restoration ; executed for being concerned in 
king's death. [ii. 276] 

AYLESBURY, SIR THOMAS (1576-1657), patron of 
mathematical learning; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 
1605; secretary to the Earl of Nottingham, lord high 
admiral of England ; baronet and master of mint, 1627 ; 
cashiered as a royalist, 1642 ; retired to continent, 1652. 

[ii. 277] 

AYLESBURY, THOMAS (/. 1622-1659), theologian : 
M.A. and B.D. Cambridge and Oxford ; published several 
Calvinistic works. [ii. 278] 

AYLESBURY, WILLIAM (1615-1666), translator; 
son of Sir Thomas Aylesbury [q. v.] ; B.A. Christ Church, 
Oxford, 1631 ; travelled in France and Italy, as tutor to 
Duke of Buckingham and his brother, in whose service 
he continued till defeat of royalists ; retired to continent 
on fall of Charles ; returned to England, 1660 ; secretary 
to governor of Jamaica, 1656 ; published, at Charles I's 
request, translation of Da Vila's ' History of French Civil 
Wars.' [ii. 278] 

AYLESFORD, first EARL OF (1647 ?-1719). [See 

AYLETT, ROBERT (1583-1655?), religious poet; 
LL.D. Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 1614 ; published religious 
i verse, including a volume entitled ' Divine and Moral 
Speculations,' 1654. [ii. 279] 

AYLIFFE, JOHN (1676-1732), jurist; educated at 
Winchester and New College, Oxford ; M.A., 1703 ; LL.B. 
and LL.D. 1710 ; proctor in chancellor's court ; published 
' Ancient and Present State of University of Oxford,' 1714, 
and, in consequence of certain allegations contained in 
it, was expelled from the university and deprived of his 
privileges and degrees : published (1726 and 1732) two 
treatises on ' Canon Law ' and ' Civil Law.' His ' New 
Pandect of Roman Civil Law' appeared posthumously, 
1734. [ii. 279] 

AYLMER, CHARLES (1786-1847), Irish Jesuit ; en- 
tered Society of Jesus, Stonyhurst College, Lancashire ; 
rector, Clongowes College, Ireland, 1817; superior of 
Dublin Residence, 1816, 1822, and 1829 ; D.D. [ii. 281] 

AYLMER, JOHN (1521-1594), bishop of London ; B.A. 
Queens' College, Cambridge, 1541 ; chaplain to Henry 
Grey, marquis of Dorset ; tutor to Lady Jane Grey ; arch- 
deacon of Stow, 1553 ; deprived of preferments for oppo- 
sing in convocation doctrine of transubstantiation, and 
fled to continent ; returned to England, 1558 ; archdeacon 
of Lincoln, 1562 ; D.D. Oxford, 1573 ; bishop of London, 
1577 ; became very unpopular owing to his arbitrary and 
unconciliatory disposition ; his published writings are 
chiefly sermons and devotional works. [iL 281] 

naval commander-in-chief ; lieutenant, 1678; captain in 
the Mediterranean, 1679-89 ; commander in battle off 
Beachy Head, 1690 ; commander-in-chief at Barfleur, 
1692 ; rear-admiral, 1693 ; vice-admiral, 1693, and com- 
mander-in-chief, 1698, In Mediterranean ; commauder-in- 
chief of fleet, 1709-11 and 1714-20. [ii. 283] 

AYLOFFE, JOHN (d. 1685), satirist ; wrote Mar- 
veil's Ghost,' a satire against the Stuarte ; possibly exe- 
cuted for complicity in Rye House plot. [ii. 284] 

AYLOFFE, SIB JOSEPH (1709-1781), baronet ; anti- 
quary ; educated at Westminster, Lincoln's Inn, and St. 
John's College, Oxford ; F.S.A. and F.R.S., 1732 ; member 
of ' Gentlemen's Society at Spalding,' 1739 ; secretary for 
commission superintending erection of Westminster 
Bridge, 1736-7 ; one of the three keepers of state papers, 
1763 ; for many years vice-president of Society of Anti- 
quaries, to whose journal, ' Archaeologia,' he contributed 
largely; published 'Calendars of the Ancient Charters,* 
1772, and projected topographical and other works which 

j met with little support. [iL 284] 

AYLOFFE, WILLIAM (rf. 1585), lawyer; called to 
bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1560 ; ' reader ' at his inn, 1671 ; 
serjeant-at-law, 1677 ; was judge of queen's bench in 

i 1579. [U. 286] 




AYLWARD. 730-1801), musician: 

member Royal Society of Mu-icmns 17G3; professor of 
nm.-H-, Cin-sham College, 1771; org;i: orge's 

Chapel, WuuL-or. L788; Mus. Doc. Oxford, 1791 [ii. 286] 

AYLWORTH, WILLIAM (1625-1679). [See HAR- 

or HK Lrsii.NAN (./. 1260), bishop of Winchester; son 
of Isabella, wi.lo.v <.t King John, by Hugh X, Count of La 
Marche ; came to England, 1247 ; received several livings 
from Henry III; elected bishop of Winchester, 1250; 
election confirmed by Innocent IV, 1251 ; incurred 
Henry Ill's anger by refusing to be bound by the grant to 
the king of a tenth of the clergy's income for three years ; 
made himself generally unpopular by his violent be- 
haviour ; sent on an embassy to France, 1257 ; nominated 
by Henry on committee created by parliament of Oxford 
for redress of grievances, 1258 ; his property seized on his 
refusing to swear to provisions there drawn up ; retired 
to France and died in Paris. [ii. 286] 

nephew of Bishop Aymer (d. 1260) [q. v.] ; succeeded to 
earldom, 1296 ; served in Flanders, 1297, and in Scotland, 
1298; guardian of Scotland, 1306-7; led van of Ed- 
ward ITs army against Bruce, 1306 ; defeated Scots at 
Ruthven, 1306, and was defeated at London Hill, 1307 ; 
sided with Lancaster against Edward II, but went over to 
the court party, 1312 ; lieutenant of Scotland ; shared in 
king's defeat at Bannockburn, 1314 ; largely responsible 
for formal peace between Thomas, earl of Lancaster, and 
Edward II, 1318 ; accompanied expedition to Scotland, 
1323 ; died at Paris on embassy to Charles IV. [ii. 288] 

(d. 1340?), diocesan chancellor; keeper of rolls, 1324; 
chancellor of diocese of Norwich, 1325, and of Salisbury, 
1339 ; clerk of privy seal, 1327. [ii. 290] 

(d. 1336), bishop of Norwich ; elder brother of Richard de 
Ayreminne [q. v.] ; master of rolls, 1316-24 ; made guar- 
dian for life of Jewish converts' house, 1317 ; captured by 
Scottish invaders, 1319, but released a few months later ; 
papal nominee to the bishopric of Norwich, and conse- 
crated against King Edward IPs wish, in France, 1325 ; 
treasurer to Edward III, 1331. [ii. 290] 

a.LJLWi, JOHN (./?. 1680-1700), penman : footman to 
William Ashurst, lord mayor of London (1693-4), who 
paid for his education ; became teacher of writing and 
accounts, St. Paul's Churchyard ; introduced the Italian 
hand into England between 1680 and 1700 ; he executed 
and published many caligraphic works, including 'A 
Tutor to Penmanship,' 1698. [ii. 291] 

AYRES, PHILIP (1638-1712), pamphleteer and 
writer ; educated at Westminster and St. John's College, 
Oxford ; private tutor in Buckinghamshire ; published 
many translations and original works in verse and prose. 

AYRTON, ACTON S.MEE (1816-1886), politician ; 
practised as solicitor at Bombay ; called to bar at Mi. 1<1 It 
Temple, 1853 ; liberal M.P. for Tower Hamlets, 1857-74 ; 
parliamentary secretary to treasury, 1868-9 ; privy coun- 
cillor, 1869 ; first commissioner of works, 1869-73 ; judge- 
advocate-general, 1873-4. [SuppL i. 89] 

AYRTON, EDMUND (1734-1808), musician : organist 
of Southwell Minster, 1754 ; gentleman of Chapel Royal, 
vicar choral of St. Paul's Cathedral, and lay vicar of 
Westminster, 1764 ; member Royal Society of Musicians, 
1765- master of children of Chapel Royal, 1780-1806; 
Mus/Doc. [. W2] 

AYRTON, MATILDA CHAI'LIN ( 1846-1883), medi- 
cal student; ne Chaplin ; .-tndi-d at London Medical 
College for Women ; took high honours at extramural 
examinations at Surgf linbnrgh, 1870 and 

1871 ; B. es. Sc. and B. te. L. Paris, 1871 ; opened and 
lectured in a school for i i ves in Japan, 1873 : 

M.D. Paris, 1H7'J; li.-i-ntiat.-. King and Queen's College of 
Physicians, Ireland: \\orki-l at Koyal Free Hospital, 
London, and at Algiers and Monti* lli.-r. [it. 292] 

AYRTON, WILLIAM (1777-1868), musical writer; 
F.R.S., P.S.A.; son of I 

director of the King's Theatre, 1817 and 1821 ; edited the 
' Harmonicon,' 1823-33 : published] ' Musical Library,' 
1834-6. [ii. 293] 

AYSCOUGH, ANNE (1521-1546). [See ASKEW, ANN K.] 

AYSCOUGH, FRANCIS (1700-1766), divine; M.\. 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1723 ; took orders ; 
fellow, 1729 ; D.D., 1735 ; clerk of closet to Prince Fre- 
derick, 1740; preceptor to Prince George (George III); 
dean of Bristol. [ii. 294] 

AYSCOUGH, GEORGE ED WARD (d. 1779), dramatist 
and traveller ; son of Francis Ayscough [q. v.] ; produced 
version of Voltaire's 'Semiramis,' Drury Lane, 1776; 
published account of travels in Italy. [ii. 294] 

AYSCOUGH, SAMUEL (1745-1804), librarian and 
index-maker ; once working miller ; overseer of street 
paviors, 1770 ; bookseller's assistant and assistant in 
cataloguing department of British Museum ; published 
catalogue of undescribed manuscripts in British Museum, 
1782 ; assistant librarian, c. 1785 ; ordained curate of Nor- 
manton-on-Soar, Nottinghamshire ; assistant curate, St. 
Giles's-in-the-Fields ; compiled index to ' Monthly Review,' 
1786 (continued, 1796); joint compiler of catalogue of 
books in British Museum, 1787 ; F.S.A., 1789 ; published 
' Index to Shakespeare,' 1790 ; delivered the annual Fair- 
field Lectures, 1790-1804 ; prepared catalogues (still un- 
published) of ancient rolls and charters in British Museum, 
1787-92 ; vicar of Cudham, Kent, c. 1803. [ii. 294] 

AYSCOUGH, WILLIAM (d. 1450), bishop of Salis- 
bury ; prebendary of Lincoln Cathedral, 1436-8 ; bishop 
of Salisbury, 1438 ; Henry VI's confessor ; lived con- 
tinually at court, and thus caused such discontent in his 
diocese that on visiting it he was murdered at Edington, 
Wiltshire, after saying mass ; LL.D. [ii. 297] 

AYSCU or AYSCOUGH, EDWARD (/. 1633), his- 
torian ; B.A. Christ's College, Cambridge, 1590 ; published, 
! 1607, history of relations between England and Scotland 
from William I to the Union. [ii. 298] 

AYSCUE, SIR GEORGE (/. 1646-1671), admiral: 
knighted by Charles I ; was a captain in 1646 ; appointed 
admiral of Irish seas under parliament, 1649 ; actively 
engaged in relief of Dublin when besieged by Ormonde, 
1649 ; assisted in reduction of Scilly, 1651 ; reduced Bar- 
bados and Virginian settlements, 1651-2 ; defeated Dutch 
in the Downs, and engaged them off Plymouth, the result 
being indecisive, 1652 ; superseded in his command but 
pensioned, 1652 ; commanded Swedish fleet, 1658 ; ap- 
pointed a commissioner of the navy at Restoration ; in 
second Dutch war (1664-6) successively rear-admiral, ad- 
miral of the blue, and admiral of the white ; prisoner in 
, Holland, 1666-7 : probably did not serve again after re- 
turn to England, 1667. [ii. 298] 

AYTON, RICH ARD( 1786-1823), miscellaneous writer ; 
educated for bar, but did not enter the profession ; wrote 
and adapted plays, some of which were produced with 
moderate success ; his essays published 1825. [ii. 299] 

AYTON or AYTOUN, SIR ROBERT (1570-1638), 
l>oet ; M.A. St. Andrews, 1588 ; travelled on continent ; 
studied civil law at Paris; returned to England, 1603; 
gentleman of bedchamber and private secretary to the 
queen : knighted, 1612 ; ambassador to German}' to de- 
liver the king's ' Apology ' ; competed for provostship of 
Eton, which fell to Wotton, 1623 ; master of the royal 
hospital of St. Katherine, 1636 ; buried m Westminster 
Abbey ; wrote poems, of no extraordinary merit, in Latin, 
Greek, French, and English. [ii. 300] 

poet ; educated at Edinburgh Academy and University ; 
s tidied German literature in Aschaffenburg : admitted 
writer of the signet, 1836 ; called to Scottish bar, 1840 ; 

i collaborated with (Sir) Theodore Mart in in 'Bon Gaultier 
Ballads,' published 1845; joined staff of ' Black wood's 

| Magazine,' to which he ,-ontributed largely, 1844 ; pro- 
fessor of rhetoric and belles-lettres, Edinburgh, 1846; 
shirilT of Orkney, 1852; hon. D.C.L. Oxford, 1853; 
published ' Firtnilian,' a dramatic poem, 1854, hi- 

| tated coHK-tion of 'Ballads of Scotland,' 1868, and 
( jointly will. (Sir) Theodore Martin)' Poc-ins and Ballad- <.f 

I Goethe,' 1H5K. [ii. 302] 




BAALUN or BALUN, JOHN DE (d. 1235), justice 
itinerant for Gloucestershire, 1225 ; accompanied John to 
Ireland, 1210 ; lost his lauds for taking part in barons' 
war. [ii- 303] 

BAALTTN or BALTTN, ROGER E (d. 1226), justice 
itinerant appointed by Henry III. [ii. 3o3] 


BABBAGE, CHARLES (1792-1871), mathematician 
and M-irntific mechanician ; M.A. Peterhouse, Cambridge, 
1*17; r.K.S., 1816: took part in foundation of Astro- 
notniiMl Su-ii'ty, 1S20; secretary till 1824, and, later, suc- 
cessively vici'-jircsidcnt, foreign secretary, and member of 
council ; obtained government grant for making a calcu- 
lating machine based on 'method of differences,' 1823, but 
the work of construction ceased, owing to disagreements 
with the engineer ; offered the government (1834) an im- 
proved design, which was refused (1842) on grounds of 
expense : devoted thirty-seven years of his life and a large 
share of his fortune to the perfecting of this machine ; Lu- 
casian professor of mathematics, Cambridge, 1828-39, but 
delivered no lectures ; principal founder of Statistical 
Society, 1834 : published several scientific works, including 
' Economy of Manufactures,' 1832, and ' Table of Loga- 
rithms,' 1827. [ii. 304] 

BABELL or BABEL, WILLIAM (1690?-1723), pri- 
vate musician to George I ; pupil of Dr. Pepuscb ; or- 
ganist, All Hallows, Bread Street ; arranged many popular 
airs for the harpsichord. [ii. 307] 

BABEB, EDWARD COLBORNE (1843-1890), Chinese 
scholar; educated at Christ's Hospital and Magdalene 
College, Cambridge; B.A., 1867; student interpreter at 
Peking, 1866 ; first-class assistant, 1872 ; vice-consul at 
Tamsuy, Formosa, 1872 ; Chinese secretary of legation at 
Peking, 1879 ; consul-general in Korea, 1885-6 ; political 
resident at Bham6. He made and described three journeys 
into the interior of China. [SuppL L 89] 

BABEE, HENRY HERVEY (1775-1869), philologist ; 
M.A. Oxford, 1805 ; keeper of printed books at British 
Museum, 1812-37 ; rector of Stretham, Cambridgeshire, 
1827-69. [ii. 307] 

BABEE, SIR JOHN (1625-1704), physician to 
Charles II ; M.B. Christ's College, Oxford, 1646 ; M.D. 
Leydeu, 1648, and Oxford, 1650; F.C.P., 1657 ; knight 
and physician to the king, 1660. [ii. 307] 

BABINGTON, ANTHONY (1561-1586), catholic con- 
spirator ; page to Mary Queen of Scots, c. 1679 ; came to 
London and made many friends of his own creed at court ; 
assisted in forming a secret society for protection of 
Jesuits in England, 1580 ; travelled on continent, where 
he made acquaintance of Mary Stuart's emissaries; in- 
duced by Ballard, a catholic priest, to organise a catholic 
conspiracy to murder Elizabeth and release Mary, 1586 ; 
detected by Walsingham's spies, and after attempting to 
save himself by giving information, fled in disguise, and 
was finally captured and taken to the 'Tower ; executed 
with Ballard and other conspirators. Mary's complicity 
in this conspiracy brought about her own execution. 

[ii. 308] 

physician and linguist; midshipman, but left navy for 
Indian civil service; appointed to Madras presidency; 
returned from India owing to weak health ; studied 
medicine at Guy's Hospital and Cambridge ; M.D., 1830 ; 
F.O.P., 1831; physician at Guy's Hospital, 1840-58; 
F.R.S. ; president Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, 
1861 ; member of medical council of general board of 
health : published medical works, and works on and trans- 
lations from German and oriental languages. [ii. 311] 

BABINGTON, BRUTE (d. 1610), bishop ; B.A. and 
fellow, Christ's College, Cambridge, 1676 ; incorporated 
at Oxford, 1578 ; prebendary of Lichfleld, 1592 ; bishop of 
Derry, 1610. [ii. 312] 

botanist and archaeologist ; educated at Charterhouse ; 
B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1830 ; M.A., 1833 ; 
fellow, 1882 ; on of the founders of Entomological Society, 

1833 : after many botanical excursions in British Isles he 
published a ' Manual of British Botany,' 1843 ; founder, 
ill for fifty-five years secretary of the Ray Club; 
assisted in founding Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 1840 ; 
edited 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History' from 
1842 ; professor of botany at Cambridge, 1861 ; fellow of 
Linuean and Geological Societies ; F.8.A., 1869 ; F.R.S., 
1861 ; his works include ' Flora of Cambridgeshire,' 1860, 
and ' The British Rubi,' 1869. [Suppl. i. 90] 

BABINGTON, CHURCHILL (1821-1889X archfeo- 
logist ; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1843 ; elected 
fellow and ordained, 1846 ; M.A., 1846 ; B.D., 1863 ; D.D., 
1879 ; honorary fellow, 1880 ; Disney professor of archaeo- 
logy at Cambridge, 1866 ; rector of Cockfield, Suffolk, 1866 ; 
published works on numismatics, botany, and ornithology, 
and edited ' Orations of Hyperides,' 1850-3. 

[Suppl. L 92] 

BABINGTON, FRANCIS (d. 1569), divine; M.A. 
Cambridge, 1552 ; fellow, All Souls, Oxford, and proctor, 
1557 ; master of Balliol, 1559 ; rector of Lincoln College, 
1560 ; vice-chancellor, 1560-2 ; Lady Margaret reader in 
divinity, 1561 ; chaplain to Earl of Leicester ; resigned 
rectorship of Lincoln, being suspected of clandestine 
Roman Catholicism, and fled the country, 1563. [ii. 312] 

BABINGTON, GERVASE (1550 ?-1610), bishop; 
fellow, Trinity College, Cambridge ; M.A. Oxford, 1678 ; 
prebendary of Hereford ; treasurer of Llandaff , 1690 ; 
bishop of Llandaff, 1591, of Exeter, 1595, and of Worces- 
ter, 1597 ; queen's counsel for marches of Wales ; 
summoned to Hampton Court conference, 1604 ; pub- 
lished several religious works. [ii. 313] 

BABINGTON, HUMFREY (1616-1691), divine ; D.D. 
(1669) and vice-master, Trinity College, Cambridge ; rector 
of Boothby Painel, Lincolnshire. [ii. 314] 

BABINGTON, JOHN (fl. 1635), author of a volume 
dealing with geometry and the use of fireworks for mili- 
tary purposes, published in 1635. [ii. 314] 

BABINGTON, Sm WILLIAM (d. 1465), judge; 
king's attorney, 1414 ; serjeant-at-law, 1415, but neglected 
to appear to writ until compelled by parliamentary order, 
1417 ; chief baron of exchequer, 1419 ; justice, 1420, and 
chief-justice, 1423, of common bench ; retired, 1436. 

[ii. 315] 

BABINGTON, WILLIAM (1756-1833), physician and 
mineralogist ; apprenticed to practitioner in Londonderry, 
and subsequently studied at Guy's Hospital, London ; 
assistant surgeon, Haslar Naval Hospital, 1777 ; apothe- 
cary, 1781, and physician, 1795-1811, to Guy's Hospital : 
i M.D. Aberdeen, 1795 ; hon. M.D. Dublin, 1831 ; one of the 
! founders and, in 1822, president of Geological Society ; 
. F.R.S. ; published geological and chemical works, [ii. 315] 

BABYON, or BABYO, or BABION, PETER (/.1317- 
1366), divine ; renowned as writer of elegant verse and 
prose in Edward II's reign ; wrote also religious works. 

[ii. 316] 

BACHE, FRANCIS EDWARD (1833-1858), musician ; 

son of Samuel Bache [q. v.] ; played violin at Birmingham 

i festival, 1846 and 1847 ; organist of All Saints' Church, 

Gordon Square, 1850 ; visited Leipzig, Paris, Algiers, and 

; Rome, 1853-7 ; composed numerous pianoforte pieces. _ 

BACHE, SAMUEL (1804-1876), Unitarian minister; 
minister at Old Meeting, Dudley, 1829-32 ; joint-minister 
in Birmingham at New Meeting, 1832-62, and at Church of 
the Messiah, 1862-8 ; took part in establishing Hospital 
Sunday, 1859 ; published religious works. [ii. 317] 

BACKE, SARAH (17717-1844), hymn- writer ; kept 
Islington school at Birmingham ; author of the hymn 
See how he loved.' [ 318] 

one of the founders (1837) of London Polytechnic Institu- 
; tion, where he lectured on scientific subjects, [ii. 318] 

BACK, SIR GEORGE (1796-1878), admiral and Arctic 

navigator ; midshipman, 1808 : captured by French at 

Deba, 1809 ; returned to England, 1814 ; served against 

1 French on North American station; admiralty mate, 




1817; accompanied Franklin on voyage of discovery to 
Spitsbergen seas, 1818, and in eoqMOlnou to Obpperminfl 

river, 1 Kin 22, and Mackenzie river, 1824-7 ; lieutenant, 
1822 ; commander, 1827 ; It-d exploring expedition to Great 
Fish river, 1833 5 ; captain, and gold medallist, Geographi- 
cal Society, 1836 : commando I an expedition to complete 
coast-line between Regent's Inlet and Cape Turnagaiu, 
183t> ; received in 1837 both medals of Geographical Society, 
of which he was subsequently vice-president and member 
of council ; knighted, 1839 ; admiral, 1857 ; F.R.S. ; pub- 
lished accounts of his voyages. [H. 318] 

BACKHOUSE, EDWARD (1808-1879), quaker ; 
wrote ' Early Church History,' published posthumously 
!** [ii. 320] 

BACKHOUSE, WILLIAM (1593-1662X Roflicradan 
philosopher ; educated at Christ Church, Oxford ; adopted 
Elias Ashmole as his son ; left in manuscript (Ashmol. 
MSS.) translations in verse and prose of French work- 
on occult philosophy. [ii. 320] 

BACKWELL, EDWARD (d. 1683), London goldsmith 
and banker at Unicorn, Lombard Street ; probably chief; 
originator of system of banknotes ; had financial dealings 
with Cromwell ; alderman for Bishopsgate ward, 1657 ; 
sent to Paris to receive money for sale of Dunkirk to 
French, 1662 ; after treaty at Dover, 1670, was a frequent 
intermediary in money transactions between Charles II and 
Louis ; sued by several creditors, a large sum being due to 
him from the exchequer, which Charles II had just closed, 
1672 ; took refuge temporarily in Holland after judgment 
had been given against him ; M.P. for Wendover, 1679 and 
1680. [ii. 321] 

BACON, ANN, LADY (1528-1610), mother of Francis 
Bacon [q. v.] ; associated with her father, Sir Anthony 
Cooke, as governess when he was tutor to Edward VI ; 
married Sir Nicholas Bacon [q. v.] e. 1657 ; won great 
repute for her learning ; translated Bishop Jewel's 
' Apologie for the Church of England,' 1564. [ii. 323] 

BACON, ANTHONY (1568-1601), diplomatist, elder 
son of Sir Nicholas and Ann Bacon [q. v.] ; educated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1573-5; 'ancient' of Gray's 
Inn, 1576 ; at Burghley's suggestion toured on continent in 
search of political intelligence, 1679-92 ; M.P. for Walling- 
ford, 1593 ; entered service of Earl of Essex, 1593, and 
became his private ' under-secretary of state for foreign 
affairs,' in which capacity he was in communication with 
spies and ambassadors in all parts of Europe ; lived with 
Essex at Essex House, by the Strand, 1695-1600 ; M.P. for 
Oxford, 1597 ; he was generous beyond his means, and 
frequently in embarrassed circumstances. [ii. 324] 

BACON, EDWARD (d. 1618), sheriff of Suffolk ; third 
son of Sir Nicholas Bacon [q. v.], 'ancient* of Gray's 
Inn, 1576 ; M.P. successively for Yarmouth, Tavistock, 
Weymouth,and Suffolk ; sheriff of Suffolk, 1601 ; knighted 
1603. [ii. 371] 

COUNT ST. ALBANS (1661-1626), lord chancellor; younger 
son of Sir Nicholas Bacon (1509-1579) [q. v.] : educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1673-5 ; admitted to Gray's 
Inn, 1576 ; attached to embassy of Sir Amias Paulet to 
France, 1576-9 ; utter barrister, 1582 ; M.P., Melcombe 
Regis, 1584 ; wrote ' Letter of Advice to Queen Elizabeth,' 
urging strong measures against catholics, c. 1684 ; M.P., 
Taunton,and bencher of Gray's Inn, 1686 ; M.P., Liverpool, 
1589 ; made acquaintance of Earl of Essex, who subse- 
quently treated him with great generosity, c. 1591 ; M.P., 
Middlesex, 1693 ; queen's counsel, 1696 : published Essays,' 
1597; M.P., Southampton, 1697 ; appointed, among others, 
to investigate causes of Essex's revolt, and was largely 
responsible for the earl's conviction, 1601 ; nominated 
king's counsel and knighted by James I, 1603 ; one of the 
commissioners for arrangement of union with Scotland, 
and confirmed as king's counsel, 16O4 ; published 4 Advance- 
ment of Learning,' 1605 ; married Alice Baruham, 1606 : 
solicitor-general, 1607 ; published ' De Sapientia Veterum,' 
1609 ; supported James's claims in connection with the 
great contract,' by which the king was to receive a fixed 
income in exchange for that derived from feudal 
tenures and other sources, 1610 : attorney-general, 1613 ; 
chief prosecutor at trial of Somerset, 1616: privy 
councillor, 161 6; lord-keeper, 1617 : wrou- New Atl 
between 1614 and 1618; lord-chancellor and raided to 
peerage as Baron Verulam, 1618; took court side in pro- 
secution of Raleigh (1618), of Suffolk (1C10), and of 

Yelverton (1620): published 'Novum Oiganum.' 1620; 
made Viscount St. Albans, 1621 ; charged before House of 
Lord* with bribery; confessed that he was guilty of 
'corruption and neglect'; deprived of great sail, fined, 
condemned to confinement during the king's pleasure, and 
disabled from sitting in parliament ; remained in Tower 
only a few days, the fine being dbeeqaeatty Mdgned by 
the king to trustees for Bacon's own use ; published ' Life 
of Henry VII,' 1622, 'De Augmentis Scientiaruin' (the 
Advancement of Learning' completed and translated 

into Latin), 1623, and an enlarged edition of the ' Essays,' 

_._ of his 


1625 ; engaged on ' Sylva Sylvarum ' at the time 

Bacon's works may be divided into three classes, the 
philosophical (which form by far the greatest portion), the 
literary, and the professional works. The principal and 
best known of the philosophical works are : (1) the ' Ad- 
vancement of Learning,' published in English in 1605 ; 
(2) the 'Novum Organum,' published in Latin in 1620, 
under the general title ' Francisci de Verulamio . . . 
Instauratio Magna,' with a second title (after the preface) 
'Pars secunda operis, quae dicitur Novum Organum sive 
indicia vera de interpretatione natune ' ; and (3) the ' De 
Angmentis,' published in Latin in 1623 with the title 
' Opera F. Baconis de Verulamio . . . Tomus primus, qui 

i continet de Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiaruin libros 
ix.' It was Bacon's ambition to create a new system of 
philosophy, based on a right interpretation of nature, to 

! replace that of Aristotle; the 'Novum Organum' de- 

! scribes the method by which the renovation of knowledge 

| was to be achieved, and is thus the keystone to the whole 

I system. The ' Advancement of Learning,' of which the 
'De Augmentis' may be regarded as an enlarged edition, 
was included in the ' Great Instauration ' as a preliminary 

| review of the present state of knowledge. Of Bacon's 
literary works, the most important are the ' Essays,' first 
published in 1597, and issued in final form, 1625; 'De 
Sapientia Veterum,' published in 1609; 'Apophthegms 
New and Old,' published in 1624; and the 'History of 
Henry the Seventh,' 1622. The largest and most important 
of his professional works are the treatises entitled ' Maxims 
of the Law ' and ' Reading on the Statute of Uses.' 

[ii. 328] 

BACON, SIR FRANCIS (1587-1657), judge; studied 
at Barnard's Inn and Gray's Inn ; called to bar at Gray's 
Inn, 1616; autumn reader, 1634; serjeant at law, 1640; 
knighted and appointed judge of king's bench, 1642 ; sole 
judge at trial of Lord Macguire, 1645; retired after 
Charles's execution. [ii. 360] 

BACON, SIR JAMES (1798-1895), judge ; called to the 
bar at Gray's Inn, 1827 ; member, 1833, and barrister, 

I 1845, of Lincoln's Inn ; bencher, 1846 ; treasurer, 1869 ; 

I took silk, 1846 ; under-secretary and secretary of causes 
to master of rolls, 1859 : commissioner in bankruptcy for 
London district, 1868 ; chief judge under Bankruptcy 

I Act, 1869-83 ; vice-chancellor, 1870-86 ; knighted, 1871 ; 

I privy councillor, 1886. [Suppl. i. 93] 

BACON, JOHN (rf. 1321), judge ; attorney to Queen 
Eleanor, 1279 ; guardian of Ledes Castle, Kent, 1291 ; 
justice of common pleas, 1313 ; served on several legal 
commissions. [u. 361] 

BACON, JOHN (d. 1346). [See BACOXTHORPE.] 

BACON, JOHN, R.A. (1740-1799), sculptor: appren- 
ticed as modeller in china factory, 1754-62 ; Inter in an 
artificial stone factory ; student at Royal Academy, on its 
foundation, 1768, and received the first gold medal awarded 
for sculpture, 1769 ; gold medallist, Society of Arts, and 
A.R.A., 1770. Among his works may be mentioned the 
monuments to Pitt in Westminster Abbey and to Dr. 
: Johnson in St. Paul's Cathedral. [ii. 361] 

BACON, JOHN (1738-1816), junior, and afterwards 
senior, clerk in first-fruits department of Queen Anne's 
Hotmty office; published improved edition of Ecton's 

icsaurus rerum ecclesiasticarum.' [it 362] 

BACON, JOHN (1777-1859), sculptor; son of John 
Bacon, R.A. [q.v.]; gold medallist, Royal Acadeim, 
l? 9 lL e M ecuted monu ment8 in Westminster Abbey and 
St. Paul's Cathedral. [ii. 362] 

BACON, MONTAGU (1688-1749), scholar and critic; 
fellow-commoner Trinity College, Cambridge, 1705 ; M.A. 
per literat rtgicu, 1734 ; rector of Newbold Verdun, 1748 : 
wroto Critical, Historical, and Explanatory Notes upon 
Hudibras; published 1762. [ii. g 6 3] 




BACON, NATHANIEL (d. 1622), f>heriff of Norfolk ; 
..-on ( MIII oi Sir Nicholas Bacon [q. v.] ; 'ancient' of 
m, 157i;; M.!' Iv for Tavistock, Nor- 

folk, mid Lynn; sheriff of Norfolk, 1599; knighted, 
1604. [ii. 371] 

BACON. Six NATHANIEL (fl. 1640), painter ; grand- 
son of Sir Nicholas Bacon [q. v.] ; M.A. Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, 1628 ; studied painting in Italy ; K.B., 
1626. [ii. 364] 

BACON, NATHANIEL (1593-1660), puritan ; half- 
brother of Francis Bacon and son of Sir Nicholas Bacon 
[q. v.] ; eutemi Gray's Inn, 1611 ; bencher ; called to bar, 
1617 ; JJ?. for Ksst-x ; recorder of Ipswich, and perhaps of 
Bury St. (Miuiiiids ; menilxjr of Suffolk committee for 
defence against royaliste ; M.P. for Cambridge University, 
1646, and for Ipswich, 1658 and 1660; master of requests 
during Richard Cromwell's protectorate. Published ' His- 
torical Discovery of the Uniformity of the Government of 
England from Edward III to Elizabeth,' 1647 and 1651, 
am I was possibly author of 'A Relation of the fearful 
Estato of Francis Splra,' 1638. [ii. 364] 

1676). [See SOUTHWELL.] 

BACON, NATHANIEL (1642 ?-1876), Virginian 
patriot ; entered Gray's Inn, 1664 ; emigrated to Virginia 
and settled at Curies ; member of governor's council ; 
chosen general of colonist volunteers, but marched against 
Indians before receiving his commission and was declared 
rebel ; arrested, but set at liberty ; subsequently sat in 
assembly, which passed ' Bacon's Laws.' [ii. 365] 

BACON, Sm NICHOLAS (1509-1579), lord-keeper; 
entered Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1523 ; bible- 
clerk ; B.A., 1527 ; journeyed to Paris ; called to bar at 
Gray's Inn, 1533 ; ' ancient,' 1536 ; bencher, 1550 ; treasurer, 
1552 ; solicitor of court of augmentations, 1537 ; solicitor 
of Cambridge University ; attorney of court of wards and 
liveries, 1546 ; high steward of St. Albaus ; lord-keeper of 
great seal, 1558; privy councillor and knight; received 
patent to exercise jurisdiction of lord chancellor; 1569; 
advocated stringent measures against Mary Stuart, though 
as president of conferences held in 1568 and 1570 to 
consider her relations with England and Scotland he was 
judicially impartial ; opposed her marriage to Duke of 
Norfolk, 1569, and her proposed restoration, 1570 ; sup- 
ported bill for expulsion of all French denizens from 
England, 1572 ; buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, [ii. 366] 

BACON, NICHOLAS (d. 1624), high sheriff of Suffolk ; 
eldest son of Sir Nicholas Bacon [q. v.] ; ' ancient,' Gray's 
Inn, 1576 ; knighted, 1578 ; high sheriff of Suffolk, 1581 ; 
M.P., Suffolk, 1572-83 ; created premier baronet of Eng- 
land, 1611. [it 371] 

BACON, PHANUEL (1700-1783), divine and drama- 
ist ; M.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1722 ; B.D., 1731 ; 
D.D., 1735 ; vicar of Bramber, Sussex, and rector of Balden, 
Jrfordshire ; wrote humorous verse, and five plays. 

BACON, PHILEMON (d. 1666), naval captain 1 ; fought 
in actions with Dutch off Lowestoft and North Foreland, 
in the second of which he was killed. [ii. 372] 

BACON, RICHARD MACKENZIE (1775-1844), musi- 
cian and journalist ; edited ' Norwich Mercury ' from 1816 
till death ; obtained with Bryan Donkin a patent for im- 
provements in printing, 1813 ; proprietor and editor of 
'Quarterly Musical Magazine,' 1818-28; published many 
I'ioLM-aphical, musical, and miscellaneous works, [ii. 372] 

BACON, ROBERT (rf. 1248), first Dominican writer in 
England; brother or uncle of Roger Bacon; studied at 
)xton\ and Paris ; perhaps treasurer of Salisbury Cathe- 
dral, 1233, being a member of the Dominican order and 
lecturer in its schools at Oxford; publicly rebuked 
Henry III for his fondness for foreign favourites, notably 
le Roches, 1233 ; wrote among other works a life of 
Bdmond Rich. [ii. 373] 

BACON, ROGER (1214?-1294), philosopher; studied 
at Oxford and Paris, where he probably graduated doctor ; 
-turned to England c. 1250; and probably remained at 
Oxford till c. 1257, when he incurred the suspicion of 
the Fraiit-ist-Hii order, to which he belonged, and was sent 
r BuperveUlanoe to Paris, where he remained in con- 
n IK -incut ten years ; produced at request of Pope Clement IV 
treatises on the science;- (grammar, logic, mathematics, 

physics, and modern philosophy) 'Opus Majus,' and, per- 
haps, ' Opus Secundum ' and ' Opus Tertium ' ; again in 
confinement for his heretical propo-ition , c. 1278-92; 
said to have died and to have been buried at Oxford ; 
wrote also on chemistry and alchemy. [ii. 374] 

BACON, THOMAS (fl. 1336), justice of common pleas ; 
raised to king's bench, 1332. [IL 378] 

BACON, alias SOUTHWELL, THOMAS (1592-1637), 
Jesuit. [See SOUTHWELL.] 

BACON, THOMAS (yf. 1796), sculptor; brother of 
John Bacon (1777-1859) [q. v.] ; exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, 1793, 1794, and 1796. [ii. 363] 

(d. 1346), the 'Resolute Doctor' ; grandnephew of Roger 
Bacon [q. v.] ; brought up at a Carmelite monastery near 
Walsingham ; graduated at Paris ; returned to Oxford, 
where, c. 1321, he preached the doctrine afterwards incul- 
cated by Wycliffe, that pries-tly power was subordinate to 
the kingly ; head of Carmelite order in England, 1329-33 ; 
went to Rome, 1333 ; returned to England, 1346 ; wrote 
commentaries on the bible, on Aristotle's works and 
treatises, and other subjects. [ii. 379] 

BADBT, JOHN (d. 1410), lollard ; blacksmith or tailor 
in Worcestershire ; condemned before Worcester diocesan 
court for denial of transubstautiation, and burned at 
Smithfield. [ii. 381] 

BADBY, WILLIAM (d. 1380), Carmelite ; doctor of 
theology at Carmelite school, Oxford ; confessor of John 
of Gaunt ; appointed bishop of Worcester shortly before 
his death ; wrote theological works. [iL 381] 

BADCOCK, JOHN (fl. 1816-1830), sporting writer ; 
published, under pseudonyms ' Jon Bee ' and ' John Hindjs,' 
many works on pugilism and the turf, including a dic- 
tionary of slang ; edited also Samuel Foote's works. 

[ii. 381] 

BADCOCK, SAMUEL (1747-1788), theological and 
literary critic ; trained for dissenting ministry ; minister 
at South Molton, Devonshire, his native town, 1778-86 ; 
joined established church ; curate of Broad Clyst, and 
ordained deacon and priest, 1787 ; contributed largely to 
literary magazines, particularly the ' Monthly Review.' 

BADDELEY, ROBERT (1733-1794), comedian ; cook 
to Foote ; valet to a gentleman on ' the grand tour* ; went 
on stage, and in 1763 joined Drury Lane company, win- 
ning reputation as exponent of foreign footmen ; the 
original Moses in ' School for Scandal.' [ii. 383] 

BADDELEY, SOPHIA (1745-1786), actress and 
vocalist ; n&> Snow ; wife of Robert Baddeley [q. v.], who 
introduced her to the stage ; played Ophelia at Drury 
Lane, 1765 ; a popular singer at Ranelagh and Vauxhall ; 
played in Edinburgh, 1783-5. [ii. 383] 

BADDELEY, THOMAS (fl. 1822), Roman catholic 
priest ; author of a tract defending Roman catholic prin- 
ciples, [ii. 384] 

BADELEY, EDWARD LOWTH (d. 1868), ecclesiasti- 
cal lawyer ; M.A. Brasenose College, Oxford, 1828 ; called 
to bar at Inner Temple, 1841 ; published several tracts deal- 
ing with legal proceedings in church matters, [ii. 384] 

1343 ?-1405 ?] 

BADEN-POWELL, SIR GEORGE (1847-1898). [See 

BADEW, RICHARD (fl. 1320-1330), founder of. Uni- 
versity Hail, Cambridge; chancellor of Cambridge, 
1326. [ii. 385] 

BADGER, GEORGE PERCY (1815-1888), Arabic 
scholar; printer; spent youth at Malta; travelled in 
Arabia ; studied at Church Missionary Society's Institu- 
tion, Islington ; priest, 1842 ; sent as delegate to Eastern 
churches, 1842-44 and 1850 ; published * Nestorians and 
their Rituals,' 1852 ; government chaplain on Bombay 
establishment, 1845 ; chief chaplain to force under Sir 
James Outram [q. v.] in Persian expedition, 1856-7 ; re- 
turned to England, 1861 ; secretary to Sir Henry Bartle 
Edward Frere [q. v.] on mission to Zanzibar, 1872 ; created 
D.C.L. by archbishop of Canterbury, 1873. His works in- 
clude an ' English-Arabic Lexicon,' 1881. [SuppL i. 94] 




BADHAM, CHARLES (1780-1845), medical and 

poetical \vr. uluir-h, iWi'J : L.R.C.P. London. 

1803: M.D., 

i.si7: F.:;.s.. :i-ii r.l;.< '.!'.. 1818; censor of College of 
Physician-. 1821; physician to Duke of Sussex and to 
gom-nil dispensary ; travelled exteusively 
in Kurope; professor of physic, Glasgow, 1827; wrote 
Harveian oration, delivered 1840 ; published medical works 
and a verse translation of .huvnul. [ii. 386] 

BADHAM, CHARLES (1813-1884), classical scholar; 
son of Charles Badliam (1780-1846) [q. v.] ; educated 
at Eton and Wadham College, Oxford ; M.A., 1839 ; studied 
in Germany and Italy ; M.A. St. Peter's College, Cam- 
bridge ; ordained priest, 1848 ; D.D., 1862 ; headmaster, 
Lonth grammar school, 1861, and of Edgbaston proprietary 
school, 1854; hon. Litt.D. Leydeu, 1860; examiner in 
classics, London University, 1863 ; professor of classics 
and logic, Sydney University, 1867 ; died at Sydney. He 
published editions with notes of Plato, and some plays of 
Euripides, also critical essays on Shakespeare, [ii. 386] 

BADHAM, CHARLES DAVID (1806-1867), natura- 
list ; educated at Eton and Oxford ; F.R.O.P. ; successively 
held curacies in Norfolk and Suffolk ; published works on 
natural history. [u. 387] 

BADILEY, RICHARD (d. 1667), admiral: parlia- 
mentary captain and commander-in-chief in Downs and 
North Sea, 1649-61 ; in Mediterranean, 1662 : engaged the 
Dutch off Elba with partial success, and again, in con- 
junction with Appleton, off Leghorn, with disastrous re- 
suite ; returned home, 1663, was acquitted of blame and 
made rear-admiral ; served on the northern coast of Africa, 
1664-5 ; vice-admiral of fleet in Downs, 1656. [ii. 388] 

BJEDA (673-735). [See BKDK.] 

BAJTIN, WILLIAM (d. 1622), navigator and dis- 
coverer ; probably native of London ; sailed in expedition 
to Greenland, 1612 ; entered service of Muscovy company, 
and was chief pilot in expeditions to protect Spitzbergen 
fisheries, 1613 and 1614 ; pilot in North- West passage ex- 
pedition, 1615, and on his return gave it as his opinion 
that a passage existed up Davis Strait ; made charts of 
waters north of Davis Strait on a subsequent voyage, 
1616, and declared that there was no North- West passage 
in that direction ; joined service of East India Company, 
1617 ; master's mate in Red Sea and Persian Gulf, 1617- 
1619; master in Persian Gulf, 1620, where he was 
in an engagement with Dutch and Portuguese ; 
killed at siege of Kishm in an expedition, arranged by 
the Persian government, to expel Portuguese from Ormuz ; 
wrote accounts of most of his voyages. [ii. 389] 

BAGARD or BAOGARD, THOMAS (<l. 1644), 
civilian ; canon of Ids college (afterwards Christ Church), 
Oxford, 1525 ; admitted to College of Advocates, London, 
1528; chancellor of diocese of Worcester, 1532 ; canon of 
Worcester, 1541. [ii. 391] 

BAGE, ROBERT (1728-1801 X novelist: educated at 
Derby, and attained proficiency in Latin : trained as 
paper-maker ; founded paper manufactory at Elford, which 
he carried on till his death ; continued his education and 
gained considerable knowledge of modern languages ; he 
published six novels between 1781 and 1796, several of 
which were translated into German. [ii. 891 ] 

BAGEHOT, WALTER (1826-1877), economist and 
journalist ; educated at Bristol and at University College, 
London, under Professors Long and De Morgan ; B.A. 
(London) with mathematical scholarship, 1846; M.A. 
and gold medallist in intellectual and moral philosophy and 
political economy, 1848 ; called to the bar, 1852 ; spent 
some months in Paris ; entered his father's shipowniuLr 
and banking business, 1862 ; contributed essays to ' Pro- 
spective Review,' and, after 1856, to ' National Review,' of 
which he was an editor ; editor of 'Economist,' 1860, till 
death; published 'The English Constitution,' 'Physics 
and Politics,' and works on economical questions. 

[ii. 393] 

BAGFORD, JOHN (1660-1716), shoemaker in London 
and professional collector of book? : formal col: 
broadsides known as the ' Bagford Ballads,' and brought 
together a number of title-pages and engravings, to ob- 
tain which he mutilated many ran- volumes, [ii. 396] 

BAGGALLAY. Sm KH'HAUl) (1X16-1888), judge; 
M.A. lionvillc and Caius College, Cambridge, 1848; 

Frankland fellow, 1845-7 ; honorary fellow, 1880 : called 
to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1843 ; bencher, 1861 ; treasurer. 
1875 ; took silk, 1861 ; counsel to Cambridge University, 
1869; M.P. for Hereford, 1866-8, and for Mid-Surn-V, 
1870-75 ; solicitor-general, 1868 and 1874 ; knighted, 1868 : 
attorney-general, 1874 ; justice (afterwards lord- justice) of 
appeal, and privy councillor, 1875 ; retired from bench, 
1885. [Suppl. i. 95] 

BAGGERXEY, HUMPHREY (ft. 1654), royalist 
captain hi service of James, seventh earl of Derby, of 
whose final hours he wrote a narrative. [ii. 396] 

BAGGS, CHARLES MICHAEL (1806-1845), catholi.- 
bishop and antiquary ; educated at Sedgeley Park, at St. 
Edmund's College, Hertfordshire, and at the English col- 
lege, Rome ; remained at Rome, 1824-44 ; won many aca- 
demic honours; D.D. and ordained, 1830; teacher at 
Kn^lish college; rector, 1840; 'cameriere d'onore' and 
later, monsiguore to Pope Gregory XVI ; bishop of Pella, 
1844 ; vicar-apostolic of western district in England, where 
he arrived 1844 ; acquired great reputation as a contro- 
versialist at Rome ; published works on ecclesiastical 
archwology, and dissertations on points of religious con- 
troversy, [ii. 396] 

BAGNAL, SIR HENRY (15567-1598), marshal of 
army hi Ireland, son of Sir Nicholas Bagnal [q. v.] ; 
educated at Jesus College, Oxford; knighted 1578: held 
command under Arthur Grey, baron Grey de Wilton, 
1580; member for Anglesey hi English parliament, 1586; 
marshal of the army hi Ireland, and privy councillor, 
1690 ; chief commissioner for government of Ulster, 1591 ; 
quarrelled with Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone [q. v.], who 
had married Bagnal's sister Mabel against his wish; 
slain in action with Tyrone's men on Blackwater. 

[Suppl. i. 95] 

BAGNAL, SIR NICHOLAS (1510 7-1590 ?), marshal 
of army hi Ireland : gentleman pensioner of Henry VIII ; 
served in Ireland, 1539-44, and hi France, 1644 ; marshal 
of army in Ireland, 1547-53 ; with lord-deputy, Sir Ed- 
ward Bellingham [q. v.], defeated Irish, 1548 ; knighted, 
1651; M.P. for Stoke-ou-Treut, 1559; reappointed mar- 
shal, 1565, with Sir Henry Sidney [q. v.], as deputy ; chief 
commissioner for government of Ulster, 1584 ; member for 
co. Down in Irish parliament, 1585 : resigned office of 
marshal to his sou, 1590. [Suppl. i. 96] 

BAGNAIL, GIBBONS (1719-1800), poetical writer, 
graduate of Oxford and Cambridge ; vicar of Holm Lacy, 
Herefordshire ; prebendary of Hereford, 1760 : rector of 
Upton Bishop ; vicar of Sellack, 1783 ; published poetical 
writings. t ii 398] 

BAGOT, SIR CHARLES (1781-1843), governor-general 

of Canada ; brother of William Bagot, second baron 

Bagot [q. v.]; educated at Rugby and Christ Church, 

xfo . ni : . M .-A., 1804 ; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1801 ; M.P. for 

Uastle Riding, 1807 ; parliamentary undersecretary for 

foreign affairs, 1807: minister plenipotentiary to France, 

814, and to United States, 18L5-20 : privy councillor, 

i I ' " 1820: ambassador to St. Petersburg, 1820, 

and to the Hague, 1824; governor-general of Canada, 

; inaugurated representative government, for which 

le was censured by Lord Stanley; requested recall, 

?>? 2?U? ^"ada 800U after arrival of his successor, Sir 

Theophilus (afterwards baron) Metcalfe [q. v.] 

BAGOT, LEWIS (1740-1802), bishop Ted P ucatei ] at 
Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1764; 
?fnr l , f , Christ Church, 1771 ; held livings hi Sus-.-v : 
U.C.L. 1772; bishop of Bristol, 1782; translated to Nor- 
wioh, 1783, and to St. Asaph, 1790. [ii. 399] 

BAGOT, RICHARD (1782-1864), bishop; educated at 
Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford ; M.A., 1806 ; D.D., 1829 
fellow of All Souls' ; rector of Leigh, Staffordshire, 1806, 
and of Biithfleld, 1807; canon of Windsor, 1807, and of 
Worcester, 1817 ; dean of Canterbury, 1827-45 ; bishop of 
Oxford, 1829-45, during which period he reluctantly played 
part m the Oxford movement ; bishop of Bath and Wells, 
1846 ; published charges. [u. 399] 

SIR WIMJAM (fl. 1397), minister of 
fi f the ' ""wmiM conseillers ' left in 
tbe kin K dom on Richard's departure for Ire- 
land, 1899 ; committed to Tower uftt-r HiHmrdV resigna- 
lon> [ii. 400] 




1856), I'diu-atfd at Westminster and Magdalen College, 
:. D.r.l,.. is.'j.j; follow of Society <>f Antiquaries 
and of Linnran, Horticultural, and Zoological societies. 

[ii. 400] 

BAGSHAW, CHRISTOPHER (d. 1626?), priest; 
!'..\. and probationer fellow, Balliol College, Oxford, 
M.A., 1575; principal, Gloucester Hall, 1679; went 
tu France, 1 f>sL' : converted to Romanism and made priest ; 
D.I). Paris; came to England to make converts; im- 
prisoned in Tower, 1687: after liberation resided abroad ; 
published controversial work*. [ti. 400] 

BAGSHAW, EDWARD, the elder (d. 1662), royalist ; 
I {.A. Brasenose College, Oxford, 1608 ; entered Middle 
Temple ; as Lent reader, 1639, delivered lectures in favour 
of puritan principles ; M.P., Southwark, 1640 : joined the 
kiii wht-ij lie retired to Oxford ; imprisoned at Southwark 
by parliamentarians, 1644-6 ; published works dealing with 
political and religious questions. [ii. 401] 

BAGSHAW, EDWARD, the younger (1629-1671), 
divine; son of Edward Bagshaw (d. 1662) [q. v.] ; edu- 
cated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford ; M.A. 
and Senior of the Act, 1661; M.A. Cambridge, 1654; 
appointed second master at Westminster, 1656 ; ordained 
1659 ; vicar of Ambrosden, Oxford ; ejected for noncon- 
formity, 1662 ; chaplain to Earl of Anglesey ; imprisoned 
for sedition, 1663-5, and again, later, for refusing to take 
oath of supremacy and allegiance ; a prisoner on parole 
when he died ; published controversial and other religious 
works. [ii. 402] 

BAGSHAW, HENRY (1632-1709), divine; brother of 
Edward Bagshaw (1629-1671) [q. v.] ; educated at West- 
minster and Christ Church, Oxford ; M.A., 1657 ; D.D., 
1671 ; chaplain to Sir Richard Fanshaw, 1663, to arch- 
bishop of York, 1666, and to Lord-chancellor Danby, 1672 ; 
successively prebendary of York and Durham ; published 
sermons. [ii. 403] 

BAGSHAW, WILLIAM (1628-1702), divine ; known 
as the ' Apostle of thy Peak ' ; born at Litton ; educated at 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; assistant minister 
and private chaplain at Sheffield ; held living of Glossop : 
ejected for nonconformity, 1662 ; continued to preach and 
lecture, in spite of the issue of several warrants against 
him, till hia death ; published religious works, [ii. 403] 

BAGSTER., SAMUEL, the younger (1800-1835), 
printer and author; son of Samuel Bagster, the elder 
[q. v.] ; entered his father's business, 1815, and started 
printing business for himself, 1824; subsequently pro- 
duced many learned publications, including some of the 
polyglot bibles issued by Bagster & Sons ; wrote 
'Treasury of Scripture Knowledge,' and a book on 
management of bees. [ii. 404] 

BAGSTER, SAMUEL, the elder (1772-1851), founder 
of publishing firm of Bagster & Son? ; bookseller in 
Strand, 1794-1816, and in Paternoster Row after 1816. 
His principal productions were polyglot editions of the 
bible (including the ' Biblia Sacra Polyglotta Bagsteriana,' 
1817-28), an octoglot edition of the church of England 
liturgy, 1821, ' The English Hexapla,' giving the six most 
important versions in English of the New Testament, and 
an extensively annotated ' Comprehensive Bible,' edited 
by William Greenfield, 1827. [ii. 405] 

BAGWELL, WILLIAM (ft. 1655), a London mer- 
chant who, owing to losses in trade, was almost con- 
stantly in prison for debt, 1634-50, during which time he 
wrote an elaborate astronomical treatise, published in 
simplified form as the 'Mystery of Astronomy made 
Plain,' 1655 ; published also two poems. [ii. 406] 

BAIKIE, WILLIAM BALFOUR (1825-1864), natu- 
ralist and philologist ; M.D. Edinburgh ; entered navy : 
assistant surgeon ; served in Mediterranean and at Haslar 
Hospital, 1851-4 ; surgeon and naturalist to Niger ex- 
pedition, 1854, and again in 1867, when, being left by 
the other explorers, he collected and governed a native 
:. ment at Lukoja ; published works relating to 
natural history of Orkney and to the Hausa and Fulfulde 
languages. [ii. 406] 


BAILEY, JAMES (d. 1864), classical scholar : M.A. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1823 ; Browne medallist for 

Greek ode and epigrams ; members' prizeman, 1816 and 
1816 ; master of Per?e grammar school, Cambridge ; re- 
ceived pension from the queen, 1850 : published classical 
works. [ii. 407] 

BAILEY or BAILY, JOHN (1643-1697), protestant 
dissenting minister ; began to preach in his twenty-second 
year ; ordained, 1670 ; imprisoned in Lancaster for non- 
conformity, and on being released went to Ireland, where 
he was again imprisoned ; liberated on condition of 
leaving the country ; emigrated to New England, 1683; 
minister in Boston, 1684, Watertown, 1686, and again in 
Boston, 1693. [ii. 407] 

BAILEY, JOHN (1760-1819), agriculturist and en- 
graver ; tutor, land surveyor, and subsequently land agent 
to Lord Tankerville at Chillingham. Having cultivated 
a taste for engraving, he executed several topographical 
plates for Hutchinson's works on Cumberland, Durham, 
and Northumberland. [ii. 408] 

BAILEY, JOHN EGLINGTON (1840-1888), anti- 
quary ; in the firm of Ralli Brothers, Manchester, till 
1886 ; admitted to Society of Antiquaries, 1874 ; honorary 
secretary of Chetham Society, Manchester. He contri- 
buted to the ' Dictionary of National Biography ' and pub- 
lished antiquarian and other writings. [Suppl. i. 99] 

BAILEY, NATHAN or NATHANIEL (d. 1742), lexi- 
cographer ; kept a boarding-school at Stepney ; published 
an etymological English dictionary, 1721, and other 
philological works. [ii. 409] 

BAILEY, SAMUEL (1791-1870), philosophical writer ; 
entered office of his father, a master cutler of Sheffield, 
but gradually turned his attention to literary and politi- 
cal pursuits ; elected a town trustee, 1828 ; stood unsuc- 
cessfully as candidate for Sheffield in parliamentary 
elections, 1832 and 1834 ; several times president of Shef- 
field Literary and Philosophical Society; chairman of 
Sheffield Banking Company, which he helped to found, 
1831 ; published many works on political economy and 
philosophy, including ' Letters on the Philosophy of the 
Human Mind,' 1856-63. [ii. 409] 

BAILEY, THOMAS (1785-1856X miscellaneous 
writer ; silk hosier at Nottingham ; member of town 
council, 1836-43 ; proprietor and editor of ' Nottingham 
Mercury,' 1845-52 ; published works relating to topo- 
graphy of Nottinghamshire, besides political and poetical 
writings. [ii.4ll] 

BAILLIF or BAILLY, CHARLES (1542-1625), mem- 
ber of Queen Mary's household; probably a Fleming, 
though by descent a Scot ; arrested at Dover with letters 
relating to a proposed rising in Mary's behalf, 1571 ; im- 
prisoned in Marshalsea and afterwards in Tower; re- 
leased probably in 1573 ; died in Belgium. [ii. 411] 

1879), lord justiciary ; admitted advocate at Scottish bar, 
1830; advocate depute, 1844-6 and 1852; sheriff of 
Stirlingshire, 1853-8; lord-advocate for Scotland, 1868; 
M.P., Linlithgow, 1859 ; raised to rank and precedence of 
earl's son, 1859 ; judge of court of session, 1859 ; lord of 
justiciary, 1862 ; retired, 1874. [ii. 412] 

BAILLIE, CUTHBKRT (d. 1514), lord high treasurer 
of Scotland; successively incumbent of Thankerton, 
commendator of Glenluce, prebendary of Cumnock and 
Sanquhar, aud (1512) lord high treasurer of Scotland^ 

BAILLIE, LADY GRIZEL (1665-1746), poetess ; dis- 
tinguished herself in childhood by heroic services to her 
father, Sir Patrick Hume, and his friend the patriot 
Robert Baillie [q. v.] ; lived with her father in retire- 
ment at Utrecht, and returned to Scotland at Restoration : 
left poems in manuscript. 

BAILLIE, JOANNA (1762-1851), Scottish dramatist 
and poetess ; educated at G'asgow ; published ' Fugitive 
Verses,' 1790; issued first volume of 'Plays on the 
Passions,' 1798, second volume, 1802, third, 1812 ; of these 
'De Montfort' was produced by Kemble and Mrs. Sid- 
dons at Drnry Lane, 1800 ; the series was completed by 
three dramas contained in ' Miscellaneous Plays,' 1836 : 
her most successful play, ' The Family Legend,' was pro- 
duced, at Dniry Lane, 1810. In addition to her plays she 
published several poeme, songs, and dramatic ballads. 




BALLLLE, JOHN (1741-1806), divine; united seces- 
sionist minister in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1767-83, 
where his irregular habits brought about a secession from 
his congregation; assistant schoolmaster and subse- 
quently lecturer in Newcastle ; published historical and 
religious works. [ii. 417] 

BAILLIE. JOHN (1772-1833), colonel ; entered service 
of Bast India Company, 1790 ; director, 1823 ; ensign in 
India, 1793 : lieutenant, 1794 ; professor of Arabic and 
Persian aud of Mohammedan law, Fort William College, 
1801-7 ; captain aud political agent during Mahratta 
war ; resident at Lucknow, 1807-15 ; retired and returned 
to England; M.P., Hedon, 1820-30, Inverness, 1830-2; 
published text of ' The Five Books upon Arabic Gram- 
mar,' 1801. [ii. 418] 

BAILLIE, MARIANNE (1795 ?-1830), traveller and 
verse-writer, nie Wather ; published impressions of a 
continental tour made in 1818, and of a visit to Portugal, 
1821-3, as well as several poetical pieces. [ii. 418] 

BAILLIE, MATTHEW (1761-1823), morbid ana- 
tomist ; brother of Marianne Baillie [q. v.] ; entered 
Balliol College, Oxford, and during vacation studied 
medicine in London under Dr. William Hunter; M.B., 
1787 ; physician to St. George's Hospital, 1787-99 ; M.D. 
and F.C.P., 1789 ; F.R.S. ; published l Morbid Anatomy of 
some of the most important Parts of the Human Body ' 
(thoracic and abdominal organs and the brain), 1795 ; 
physician extraordinary to George III. He is comme- 
morated in Westminster Abbey by a bust and inscription. 


BAILLIE, ROBERT ( 1599-1662), presbyteriau divine : 
M.A. Glasgow ; received episcopal ordination ; regent 
of philosophy, Glasgow University : presented to pres- 
byterian parish of Kilwinning, Ayrshire; member of 
general assembly at Glasgow, 1638 ; chaplain to Lord 
Eglinton's regiment, 1639 ; sent by covenanting lords to 
London to draw up accusations against Laud, 1640 ; with 
covenanters' army at Duuse Law, 1639, and in 1640 : pro- 
fessor of divinity, Glasgow, 1642 ; waited on Charles II 
at the Hague on his being proclaimed in Scotland, 1649 : 
D.D. ; principal, Glasgow University, 1660 ; published con- 
troversial and other theological works. [ii. 420] 

BAILLIE, ROBERT (d. 1684), patriot ; an object of 
suspicion to the ruling episcopal party in Scotland, and 
imprisoned and fined, 1676 ; came to London and asso- 
ciated with Sydney, Russell, and Monmouth to obtain, if 
possible, mitigation of government measures ; arrested, 
though innocent, for alleged complicity in Rye House 
plot; imprisoned, and ultimately hanged in Edin- 
burgh, [ii. 422] 

BAILLIE, THOMAS (</. 1802), navy captain ; lieu- 
tenant, 1745 ; served at Minorca, 1756 ; commander with 
post rank, 1757 ; engaged on convoy service, 1757-60 ; ap- 
pointed to Greenwich Hospital, 1761 ; lieutenant-governor, 
1774 ; having published charges against the internal 
government of the hospital, was deprived of his office 
and brought to trial for libel, 1778 ; defended by Erskine, 
afterwards lord chancellor, and acquitted ; remained un- 
employed till 1782, when be was made clerk of de- 
liveries, [ii. 423] 

Scottish judge of court of session ; president of the court, 
1556-7, and 1568-93. [ii. 424] 

BAILLIE, WILLIAM (/. 1648), Scottish general; 
went to Sweden in early life, and served under Gustavus 
Adolphus as colonel of regiment of Dutch foot, 1632 ; re- 
turned to Scotland, 1638 ; served with covenanters ; 
under Leslie at Dunse Law, 1639, and at Marston Moor, 
1644 ; commanded force against Montrose, and was 
worsted at Alford and Kilsyth, 1645 ; lieutenant-general 
of foot under Duke of Hamilton at Preston, 1648. 

[it 424] 

BAILLIE, WILLIAM (d. 1782), lieutenant-colonel 
under East India Company; entered East India Com- 
pany's army, 1759, as lieutenant in infantry at Madras ; 
brevet-captain, 1763; substantive captain, 1 764 ; major, 
1772 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1775 ; commanded at Pondi- 
cherry during destruction of French works, 1779 ; while 
attempting to join forces with Munro, was defeated by 
Hy.U-r All and taken pri.-om-r, 1780 ; died in captivity at 

H \dlT 


[Ii. 425] 

BAILLIE, WILLIAM (1723-1810), amateur engraver 
and etcher : educated at Dublin ; entered Middle Temple, 
but received commission in army and fought at Culloden 
and Miudi-n : retired with captain's rank, 1761 ; commis- 
sioner of stamps 177:1 !)5 ; etched many plates, chiefly 
after Dutch and Flemish masters, which he published 
himself. [ii. 425] 

Scottish judge, 1793-1811 ; advocate, 1758. [ii. 425] 

first BARON LAMINGTON (1816-1890). [See COCHRANK- 

BALLY, CHARLES (1815-1878), architect ; for some 
years principal assistant to the city architect, London ; 
F.S.A., 1844; contributed to publications of Surrey 
Archaeological Society. [ii. 426] 

BALLY, EDWARD HODGES (1788-1867), sculptor ; 
entered merchant's office at Bristol ; forsook commerce 
and became pupil of Flaxman, 1807 ; A.R.A., 1817 ; R.A., 
1821; executed the statue of 'Eve at the Fountain' for 
British Literary Institution, 1818, and many other cele- 
brated portrait statues and groups. [ii. 427] 

BALLY, FRANCIS (1774-1844), astronomer; appren- 
ticed in a London mercantile house, 1788-95 ; travelled in 
America. 1795-8 ; entered into partnership with a Lon- 
don stockbroker, 1799 ; published successful works on 
annuities and assurances, 1808 and 1810 ; turned his at- 
tention to astronomy, and, 1820, was one of the founders 
of the Astronomical Society, of which he was four 
times president; retired from business, 1825; greatly 
advanced astronomy by his revision of star catalogues, 
including those of Flamsteed, Lalande, and Lacaille, his 
simplified tables for reduction of aberration, nutation, <fec, 
and his reform of the ' Nautical Almanac * ; received the 
Astronomical Society's gold medal, 1843, for a successful 
repetition of ' Cavendish's experiment ' for measuring the 
earth's density ; hon. D.C.L. Dublin, 1835, and Oxford, 
1844 ; permanent trustee of British Association, 1839 ; 
vice-president Geographical Society, 1830; long vice- 
president and treasurer of the Royal Society, [ii. 427] 

BALLY, JOHN WALKER (1809-1873), archaeologist, 
brother of Charles Baily [q. v.] ; master of Ironmongers' 
Company, 1862-3 ; formed collection of Romano-British 
and mediaeval remains excavated in city of London. 

BALLY, THOMAS (d. 1591), catholic divine ; fellow 
and M.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1549 ; master, c. 1557 ; 
on Elizabeth's accession removed to Louvain and thence 
to Douay, where, and at Rheims, he was employed in 
government of the English College ; D.D. Louvain. 

[it 432] 

BAIN. [Sec also BAIXK and BAYNE.] 

BAIN, ALEXANDER (1810-1877), telegraphic in- 
ventor ; apprenticed as clockmaker at Wick ; came as 
journeyman to London, 1837 ; applied electricity to work- 
ing of clocks ; invented electric fire-alarms, and, in 1843, 
the automatic chemical telegraph. [ii. 432] 

BAINBRIDGE. CHRISTOPHER (1 164 ?-15l4), arch- 
bishop of York, and cardinal ; provost of Queen's College, 
Oxford, in 1495 ; prebendary of Salisbury and, later, of 
Lincoln, till 1500 ; treasurer of St. Paul's, 1497 ; arch- 
deacon of Surrey, 1501 ; prebendary and dean of York, 
1503; dean of Windsor, 1605; master of rolls, 1504-7; 
bishop of Durham, 1507 ; archbishop of York, 1508 ; 
ambassador from Henry VIII to pope, 1509 ; cardinal, 
1611 ; LUD. [u. 433] 

BAINBRIDGE, JOHN (1582-1643), physician and 
astronomer ; M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1607 ; 
M.D., 1614 ; L.O.P., 1618 ; first Saviliau professor, Oxford, 
119; M.D., Oxford, 1620 ; junior (1631) and senior(1635) 
reader of Linacre's lecture. He published astronomical 
works and left many mathematical collections iu manu- 
script, [ii. 434] 

BALNBRIOO, REGINALD (1489 ?-1555 ?), pro- 
bably uncle of Reginald Bainbrigg (1546-1606) [q. v.] ; 
M.A. Cambridge, 1509 ; B.D., 1526 ; proctor of university, 
1517 ; master of Catherine Hall, c. 1527 ; prebendary of 
Wells, 1637. [ii. 435] 

600), antiquary ; B.A. Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1577 ; 




headmaster of Appleby Grammar School, 1574-1606. 
Collected stones hearing ancient inscriptions in Xorth- 
mnberland, Cumberland, and Westmoreland, while several 
pap'-r- relating to these counties in the Cottonian MSS. 
are attributed to him. [ii. 434] 

BAINBRIGG, THOMAS (rf. 1646), master of 

Christ's College, Cambridge; master, 1620: vice-chan- | 
cellor of the university, 1627; perhaps authorised Milton's I 
rustication or expulsion from his college. [ii. 435] 

TH'i.MAS (1636-1703), protestant controversialist; M.A. 
Cambridge, 1661 ; proctor, 1678 : D.D., 1684 ; fellow and j 
vice-master of Trinity College ; M.A. Oxford, 1669 : vicar 
of Chesterton ; rector of Orwell ; published protestant ! 
controversial pamphlets. [ii. 436 ] 

BAINBRIGGE, SIR PHILIP (1786-1862), lieutenant- 
general ; entered navy as midshipman, but in 1800 re- 
ceived an ensigncy in 20th regiment ; lieutenant, 1800 ; 
studied at Deptford ; gazetted to company in 18th royal 
Iri-Ii in West Indies, 1805; inspector of fortifications, 
Curaeoa, 1807; entered Royal Military College, High 
Wycombe, 1809 ; deputy assistant quartermaster -general 
in Portugal, 1811 ; rendered important services at several 
engagements in Peninsular war ; major : served in France, 
1815 : brevet lieutenant-colonel, 1817 ; O.B., 1888 ; deputy 
quartermaster-general, Dublin, 1841 ; major-general, and 
commander of Belfast district, 1846 ; commander of forces 
In Ceylon, 1852-4 ; lieutenant-general, and K.O.B., 1854. 

[ii. 436] 

BAINE, JAMES (1710-1790), Scottish divine ; M.A. 
Glasgow ; successively minister at Killearn and Paisley ; 
resigned living of Paisley ; being an ardent supporter of 
evangelical doctrine, joined Gillespie, founder of the 
Relief church, and became minister of the first Relief con- 
gregation in Edinburgh, 1766 ; published a history of 
modern church reformation. [ii. 437] 

BAINES, EDWARD (1774-1848), journalist ; appren- 
ticed as printer in Preston, Lancashire, and in Leeds ; j 
started as printer on his own account ; became proprietor 
of 'Leeds Mercury,' 1801, and entered largely into the 
whig agitations of the day ; M.P. for Leeds, 1834-41 ; 
published works relating to history of George Ill's r ' 
and topography of Yorkshire and Lancashire, [ii. 4* 

BAINES, SIR EDWARD (1800-1890), journalist and 
economist ; son of Edward Baines [q. v.] ; educated at 
the New College, Manchester; entered office of 'Leeds 
Mercury, 1 1815, and was editor, 1818 ; studied sociology 
and economics, and advocated repeal of corn laws ; sup- 
ported catholic emancipation, 1829 ; published ' History of 
Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain,' 1835 ; advocated 
public education independent of state ; served on schools 
inquiry commission, 1865 ; M.P. for Leeds, 1859-74 ; chair- 
man of Yorkshire College, Leeds, 1880-7 ; knighted, 1880 ; 
published writings on political and social subjects. 

[Suppl. i. 100] 

BAINES, FRANCIS (1648-1710). [See SANDERS.] 

BAINES, JOHN (1787-1838), mathematician; con- 
tributed largely to ' Ladies' Diary,' ' Gentleman's Diary,' 
4 York Miscellany,' and similar periodicals. [ii. 439] 

BAINES, MATTHEW TALBOT (1799-1860), poli- 
tician ; son of Edward Baines [q. v.] ; graduated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; called to bar, 1825 ; Q.O., 1841 ; 
M.P. for Hull, 1847, and Leeds, 1852 ; president of poor- 
law board, 1849 ; chancellor of duchy of Lancaster, 1855. 

[ii. 439] 

BAINES, PAUL (d. 1617). [See BAYNES.] 

BAINES, PETER AUGUSTINE (1786-1843), Roman 
catholic bishop ; studied for the church at the English 
Benedictine abbey of Lambspring, Hanover, which was 
seized by the Prussians in 1803, when the students came to 
England, and inaugurated the Benedictine College of St. 
Lawrence, Ampleforth : entered Benedictine order, 1804 ; 
ordained subdeacon, 1807, and priest, 1810 ; teacher at 
Ampleforth till 1817, when he undertook charge of mission 
at Bath ; appointed coadjutor-bishop to Bishop Colling- 
ridge, and, later, bishop of Siga, 1823 ; toured for his 
health on the continent ; preached frequently in Rome, 
1827-9 ; returned to England, and succeeded Bishop Col- 
lingridge as vicar-apostolic of western district, 1829; 
purchased Prior Park, where he founded ecclesiastical and 

lay colleges ; author of numerous controversial writings, 
sermons, lectures, and pastoral charges. [ii. 439] 

BAINES, ROGER (154-1623). [See BAYNES.] 

BAINES, SIR THOMAS (1622-1680), physician; 
friend of Sir John Finch, M.D. ; M.A. Chrises College, 
Cambridge, 1649 ; M.D. Padua and Cambridge : Greaham 
professor of music; knighted, 1672; accompanied Finch 
on embassies to Florence, Tuscany, and Constantinople, 
where he died. [ii. 441] 

BAINES, THOMAS (1822-1875), artist and explorer ; 
artist with British army in Kafir war, 1848-51 ; accom- 
panied exploring expeditions to North-west Australia, 
Zambesi (under Livingstone), Victoria Falls, the Tati 
goldfields, and the Kafir country. [ii. 441] 

BAINES, THOMAS (1806-1881), journalist; son of 
Edward Baines [q. v.] ; editor of ' Liverpool Times,' 1829 ; 
published histories of Lancashire, Cheshire, and York- 
shire, [ii. 442] 

BAINHAM, JAMES (d. 1532), martyr ; member of 
Middle Temple ; practised as lawyer ; accused of protestant 
heresy, 1531 : imprisoned and tortured in Tower ; recanted, 
but withdrew recantation, and was burned at Smith- 
field. [U. 442] 

BAIOCIS, JOHN DE (rf. 1249). [See BAYEUX.] 

BAIRD, SIR DAVID (1757-1829), general: ensign, 
1772; served at Gibraltar, 1778-6: lieutenant, 1778; 
captain of 73rd (afterwards 71st) Highland light infantry 
in India, under Monro, 1780; joined Colonel Baillie's 
force, and, after its defeat by Hyder Ali, was captured ; 
released, 1784 ; major, 1787 ; in England, 1789-91 ; com- 
manded sepoy brigade against Tippoo ; took Poudicherry, 
1793 ; colonel, 1795 ; at the Cape, 1795-8 ; major-general 
in second war against Tippoo, 1798 ; stormed Seringa- 
pat am, 1799 ; commanded Indian force in Egypt against 
French, 1801-2 ; returned to India, and received command 
of northern division of Madras army, 1802 : resigned, and 
returned to England ; knighted ; lieutenant-general in 
expedition to recapture Cape of Good Hope, 1805 ; com- 
manded first division in expedition invading Denmark, 
1807 ; second in command under Moore in Spain, 1808 ; 
wounded at Ooruna ; K.B., 1809 ; created baronet, 1810 ; 
general, 1814; governor of Kinsale, 1819, and of Fort 
George, 1829 ; commander of Irish forces and privy 
councillor, 1820. [ii. 442] 

BAIBD, GEORGE HUSBAND (1761-1840), principal 
of Edinburgh University ; educated at Edinburgh ; pri- 
vate tutor, 1784 ; licensed as presbyterian preacher, 1 786 ; 
presented to parish of Dunkeld, 1787, and to New Grey- 
friars church, Edinburgh, 1792 ; professor of oriental 
languages, Edinburgh ; principal of Edinburgh Univer- 
sity, 1793 ; translated to North parish church, 1799, and 
to the high parish church, 1801 ; did much for education 
of poor in Scottish highlands and islands. [ii. 445] 

BAIRD, JAMES (1802-1876), ironmaster; with his 
father and brothers leased coalfields of Sunnyside, Hol- 
landhirst, and New Gartsherrie, 1826, and the ironstone 
in lands of Cairnhill, 1828 ; assumed, 1830, active manage- 
ment of the business, which was subsequently enlarged 
and included coalmines and ironworks in Ayr, Stirling, 
Dumbarton, and Cumberland ; M.P. for Falkirk burghs, 
1861-7 ; deputy-lieutenant for counties of Ayr and Inver- 
ness. He was a liberal benefactor to the church of 
Scotland. [ii. 446] 

BAIRD, SIR JOHN (1620-1698X Scottish judge ; ad- 
mitted advocate, 1647 ; knighted, 1651 ; lord of session, 
with title of Lord Newbyth, 1664-81, and 1689 till death ; 
M.P. for Aberdeenshire in Scottish parliamente, 1665 and 
1667 ; commissioner for negotiation of treaty of union, 
1670. [ii. 447] 

BAIBD, JOHN (d. 1804), Irish divine ; presbyterian 
minister in Dublin, 1767-77 ; D.D. : conformed, and was 
rector of Cloghran, near Dublin, 1782 ; published Dis- 
sertation on the Old Testament,' 177f . [it 448] 

BAIRD, JOHN (1799-1861), Scottish divine: succes- 
sively minister of Legertwood, Eccles, and Swintou, 
Berwickshire: founded Plinian Society, Edinburgh, 1*23 ; 
evangelical preacher in Ireland, 1826; minister of Yet- 
holm, Roxburghshire, 1829-61 ; worked extensively for 
education of Scottish gipsiea. [IL 448] 




BAIRD, WILLIAM (.1*03-1872), Scottish physician : 
prai-tUi-d in London : employed in zoological department 
of British Muslim, 1841-72 : published ' Natural History 
of British Entoraostraca,' 1850, and ' Cyclopaedia of Natural 
Si-u'iuvs,' 1868. [ii. 448] 

BAKER, ALEXANDER (1582-1638), Jesuit : entered 
Society of Jesus, 1610 : twice visited India as missionary. 

[iii. 1]' 

BAKER, ANNE ELIZABETH (1786-1881), philo- 
logist ; assisted her brother, George Baker [q. v.j, in his ! 
' History of Northamptonshire,' and published 'Glossary 
of Northamptonshire Words,' 1854. [iii. 1] 

BAKER, ANSELM (1834-1885), artist; Oisteroian ! 
monk at Mount St. Bernard's Abbey, Leicestershire, 1857 ; | 
executed mural paintings and designed heraldic and 
other illustrations for several publications. [iii. 1] 

BAKER, AUGUSTINE (1575-1641). [See BAKER, 

BAKER, CHARLES (1617-1679), Jesuit: real name 
DAVID LKWIS ; entered English college at Home, 1638 : 
priest, 1642 ; joined Society of Jesus, 1644 ; professed 
father, 1655 : missioner in South Wales ; victim of Titus 
Oates's plot and executed at Usk. [iii. 1] 

BAKER, CHARLES (1803-1874), deaf and dumb 
instructor : assistant instructor successively at deaf and 
dumb institutions at Edgbaston, Birmingham, and Don- 
caster ; wrote works relating to teaching of deaf and 
dumb. [iii. 2] 

BAKER, DAVID, in religion AUGCSTIXE (1575-1641), 
Benedictine monk ; educated at Christ's Hospital, 
London, and Broadgates Hall (now Pembroke College). Ox- 
ford : member of Lincoln's Inn, and, 1596, of Inner Temple : 
entered Benedictine monastery at Padua, 1605 ; ordained 
priest ; spiritual director of English Benedictine nuns at 
Oambrai, 1624 : conventual atDouay, 1633 : joined English 
mission ; left collections for ecclesiastical history. 

[iii. 2] 

BAKER, DAVID BRISTOW (1803-1852), religions 
writer ; M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1832 ; in- 
cumbent of Clay gate, Surrey. [iii. 5] 

BATTER, DAVID ERSKINE (1730-1767), writer on 
the drama ; grandson of Daniel Defoe ; educated in the 
Tower aa a royal engineer ; joined a company of strolling 
players ; published ' Companion to Playhouse,' 1784 ; 
wrote and translated dramatic pieces. [iii. 5] 

BAKER, FRANKLIN (1800-1867), Unitarian divine ; 
M.A. Glasgow, 1823; minister of Bank Street Chapel, 
Boltou, 1823-64. His works include a history of noncon- 
formity in Bolton (1864). [iii. 6] 

BAKER, GEOFFREY (fl. 1350), chronicler; less 
correctly known as WAI.TKR OK SWIXBROKK; wrote two 
chronicles, of which the earlier and shorter extends from 
the first day of creation to 1326, and the second from 
1303 to 1356. [Iii. 6] 

BAKER, GEORGE (1540-1600), surgeon ; member of 
Barber Surgeons' Company ; master, 1597 ; attached to 
household of Earl of Oxford ; wrote and translated 
several works on surgery and medicine, 1574-97. [iii. 7] 

BAKER, SIR GEORGE (1722-1809), physician ; edu- 
cated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge : graduate 
and fellow, 1746 ; M.D., 1756 ; F.C.P., 1757 ; F.R.H., buronet, 
and physician to king and queen, 177tf ; published medical 
works, including a demonstration that the Devonshire 
colic epidemic was a form of lead-poisoning. [ill. 7] 

BAKER, GEORGE (1773 ?-1847), musician ; studied 
music in London, and performed in public ; Mus. Bac. 
Oxford, e. 1797 : organist at Derby, 1810, and at Rugeley, 
1824-47 ; his best work probably The Storm.' [iii. 8] 

BAKER, GEORGE (1781-1851), topographer; pub- 
lished in parte, between 1822 and 1841, an elaborate 
history of Northamptonshire, which, from want of sub- 
scribers, remained unfinished. [iii. 9] 

BAKER, HENRY (1734-1766), author and lawyer; 
grandson of Daniel Defoe ; left legal writings in manu- 
script, [iii. ] 

BAKER, HENRY (1698-1774), naturalist and poet; 
made a large fortune as a teacher of the deaf and dumb 

by an original system ; married Daniel Defoe's youngest 
daughter, Sophia, 1729; conducted with Defoe the 'Uni- 
versal Spectator and Weekly Journal,' 1728-33; F.S.A. 
ami F.K.S., 1740; took part in establishing Society of 
Arts, 1754 ; published poems, translations, and works on 
natural science. [iii. 9] 

,, HENRY AARON (1753-1836), Irish archi- 
tect ; secretary to Royal Hibernian Academy ; teacher of 
architecture in Dublin Society's school, 1787. [iii. 10] 

1877), hymn writer ; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 
1847 ; vicar of Monkland, near Leomiuster, 1851 ; pro- 
moted and edited 'Hymns Ancient and Modern,' 1861, to 
which collection he contributed many original hymns, 
besides translations from the Latin. [iii. 11] 

HUMPHREY (fl. 1562-1587), arithmetician 
and astrologer; published 'The Wellspring of Sciences,' 
1562, and other mathematical writings. [iii. 11] 

, SIR JOHN (d. 1558), lawyer ; joint ambassa- 
dor to Denmark, 1526 ; speaker of House of Commons, 
attorney-general, and privy-councillor ; chancellor of 
exchequer, 1545-58. [iii. 12] 

BAKER, JOHN (1661-1716), admiral; lieutenant, 
1688 ; captain. 1691 ; served against French in Mediter- 
ranean, 1691-1707; rear-admiral of white, 1708; vice- 
admiral of blue and second in command in Mediterranean, 
1709-13, and 1714 till his death at Port Mahon. [iii. 12] 

,, JOHN (d. 1745), vice-master of Trinity, Cam- 
bridge ; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1702; D.D., 
1717; vice-master, 1722 ; rector of Dickleburgh, Norfolk, 
1731 ; firm supporter of Dr. Richard Bentley. [iii. 13] 

BAKER, JOHN (d. 1771), flower-painter ; an original 
member of Royal Academy. [iii. 13] 

BAKER, JOHN WYNN (d. 1775), agricultural and 
rural economist ; F.R.S., 1771 : promoted agriculture ii 
Ireland ; published works on rural and agricultural 
economy. [iii. 13] 

BAKER, PAOIFIOUS (1696-1774), Franciscan friar ; 
provincial of the English province, 1761 and 1770 ; pub- 
lished religious works. [iii. 13] 

BAKER, PHILIP (fl. 1568-1601), divine ; educated at 
Eton ; M.A. King's College, Cambridge, 1548 ; D.D., 1562 ; 
provost, 1558 ; vice-chancellor of Cambridge University, 
1662 ; compelled to fly to Louvain owing to his Roman 
catholic leanings, 1570. [iii. 14] 

SIR RICHARD (1568-1645), religious and 
historical writer ; probably grandson of Sir John Baker 
[q. v.] ; shared rooms with (Sir) Henry Wotton at Hart 
Hall, Oxford ; studied law in London : travelled abroad ; 
M.A., 1594 ; knighted, 1603 ; high sheriff of Oxfordshire, 
1620 ; died in Fleet prison where he was confined for 
debt, 1635-45; during residence in Fleet he published 
religious writings and (1643) a chronicle of the kings of 
England from the Roman period to 1625. [iii. 14] 

, RICHARD (1741-1818), theological writer ; 
M.A. Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1765 : D.D., 1788 ; 
fellow ; rector of Oawston-with-Portland, Norfolk, 1772 ; 
published religious works. [iii. 16] 

BAKER, ROBERT (fl. 1563), voyager ; made two 
voyages to Guinea, of which he wrote accounts in verse, 
printed in Hakluyt's ' Voyages,' 1589. [iii. 16] 

BAKER, SAMUEL (d. 1660 ?), divine ; M.A. and fel- 
low, Christ's College, Cambridge, 1619 ; D.D., 1639 ; pre- 
teudary of St. Paul's, 1636 ; canon of Windsor, 1638, and 
of Canterbury, 1639 ; sequestered from preferments by 
Long parliament. [iii. 17] 

BAKER, SIR SAMUEL WHITE (1821-1893), traveller 
and sportsman ; brother of Valentine Baker [q. v.] : 
visited Ceylon, 1846 and 1848, and successfully established 
English colony at Newera Eliya ; superintended construc- 
tion of railway connecting Danube with Black Sea, 1859 ; 
travelled in Asia Minor, 1860-1 ; explored Nile tributaries 
of Abyssinia, 1861-2, and rested at Khartoum, 1862; 
started up Nile, and reached Gondokoro, 1863 ; met John 
Hanning Speke [q. v.] and James Augustus Grant [q. v.] 
returning from Upper Nile, and, travelling through the 
Latuka country and Kamrasi's country, arrived at White 
Nile and Karuma fulls, January 1864, and at Mbakoria 




on lake, which he named Albert Nyanza, March 1864 ; i 
explore*! the river from Magungo to Island of Patooan, | 
returning to Khartoum, May 1865 ; received gold medal i 
of Royal Geographical Society ; knipnted, 1866 ; honorary , 
M.A. Cambridge, 1866 ; F.R.S., 1869 ; published account 
of expedition, 1866 ; accompanied Prince of Wales to 
Egypt and Nile, 1869 ; appointed for four years governor- 
general of Equatorial Nile basin with rank of pacha, and 
major-general in Ottoman army, 1869 ; arrived at Gondo- 
koro, his seat of government, 1871, established system of 
administration and vigorously opposed slave trade ; pub- 
lished ' Ismailia,' 1874 ; continued to travel occasionally 
in many parts of the world for purpose of hunting big 
game. [Suppl. i. 101] 

BAKER, THOMAS (1625?-1689), mathematician; 
educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford ; vicar of Bishop's 
Nyuipton, Devonshire, 1681 ; published a work on the 
solution of biquadratic equations, 1684. [iii. 17] 

BAKER, THOMAS (fl. 1700-1709), dramatist; pro- 
bably educated at Oxford; published several comedies, 
which were played at Drury Lane. [ill. 17] 

BAKER, THOMAS (1656-1740), antiquary ; educated 
at Durham ; fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
1680 ; received living of Long Newton, which he resigned 
as a nonjuror, 1690 ; resigned fellowship owing to non- 
compliance with abjuration oath, 1717, but resided in 
college as commoner master till death ; left in manuscript 
a very complete and accurate history of Cambridge, with 
other antiquarian writings. [iii. 18] 

Sm THOMAS (1771 ?-1845), vice-admiral ; 
entered navy, 1781 ; lieutenant, 1792 ; commander, 1795 : 
captain, 1797 ; captured (neutral) Danish merchant 
vessels convoyed by frigate on suspicion that they 
carried contraband, and occasioned coalition of Russia 
and Denmark in armed neutrality, 1800; attached to 
channel fleet, 1803 ; effected important capture of French 
frigate Didon, 1805 ; flag-captain to Rear-admiral (Sir) 
Thomas Bertie [q. v.] in Baltic, 1808 ; C.B., 1815 ; colonel 
of marines, 1819 ; rear-admiral, 1821 ; commander-in- 
chief off South America, 1829-33 ; K.C.B., 1831 ; vice- 
admiral, 1837. [Suppl. i. 106] 

1886), one of the founders of reformatory school system ; 
educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford; entered 
Lincoln's Inn, 1828 ; magistrate for Gloucestershire, 1833 ; 
deputy-lieutenant of Gloucestershire, and high sheriff, 1847- 
1848 ; founded, 1852, with George Henry Bengough (1829- 
1865), Hardwicke reformatory school, and subsequently 
did much work in connection with prevention of 
crime. [Suppl. i. 106] 

BAKER, Sm THOMAS DURAND (1837-1893), lieu- 
tenant-general ; ensign, 18th royal Irish foot, 1854 ; cap- 
tain, 1858 ; major, 1873 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1881 ; major- 
general, 1886 ; served in Crimea, 1854-6 ; in India, 1857-63 ; 
New Zealand, 1863-7 ; quartermaster-general in Ashanti 
expedition, 1873-4; chief of staff, 1874; C.B., 1874; 
deputy assistant quartermaster-general on headquarters 
staff in London, 1874 ; assistant adjutant-general, 1875 ; 
aide-de-camp to the queen, 1877; attached to Russian 
army during Russo-Turkish war, 1877 ; military secretary 
' to Lord Lytton in India, 1878 ; accompanied Sir Frederick 
(afterwards earl) 1 Roberts in Kabul campaign, 1879-80; 
K.O.B., 1881 ; quartermaster-general to forces, 1890 ; tem- 
porary lieutenant-general, 1891. [Suppl. i. 107] 

BAKER, VALENTINE, afterwards known as BAKER 
PACHA (1827-1887), cavalry officer ; brother of Sir Samuel 
Baker [q. v.] ; ensign, 12th lancers, 1852 ; served in Kaffir 
war, 1852-3, and in Crimea, 1854-6 ; major, 10th hussars, 
1859 ; assistant quartermaster-general, Aldershot, 1874 ; 
convicted of criminal offence and dismissed from army, 
1875 ; took service under sultan during Russo-Turkish 
war, 1877-8 ; defended position at Tashkessan, and was 
promoted ferik or lieutenant-general, 1877; entered 
Egyptian service and commanded police, 1882-7 ; on in- 
telligence staff of force under Sir Gerald Graham [q. v.] 
in Egypt, 1884 ; published works on militaiy subjects. 

[Suppl. i. 109] 

BAKER, WILLIAM (1668-1732), bishop of Norwich ; 
fellow, and afterwards warden, Wadham College, Oxford ; 
bishop of Bangor, 1723, and of Norwich, 1727. [iii. 20] 

WILLIAM (1742-1786), printer; appren- 
ticed and subsequently in business in London ; linguist 
and classical scholar; published essays and (1783) a 
volume of extracts from classical authors. [iii. 21] 

general; lieutenant in Bengal engineers, 1826; captain, 
1840 ; served in Sikh war, and was subsequently employed 
in the public works department ; returned to England as 
colonel, 1857 ; military secretary to India Office : K.C.B., 
1870 ; general, 1877. [iii. 21] 

BAKEWELL, ROBERT (1725-1 795), grazier ; greatly 
improved breed of oxen and sheep, produced Dishley or 
'Leicestershire long-horn' cattle, and was first to carry 
on trade of ram-letting on large scale. [iii. 22] 

BAKEWELL, ROBERT (1768-1843), geologist : made 
extensive mineralogical surveys in England and Ireland ; 
published ' Introduction to Geology,' 1813 ; established him- 
self in London as geological instructor, and subsequently 
extended his surveys to the Alps, publishing an account 
of his travels, 1823. [iii. 23] 

BALAM, RICHARD (fl. 1653), mathematician; 
author of a work on ' Algebra,' published 1653. [iii. 24] 

BALATINE, ALAN (fl. 1560), scientist ; probably of 
Scottish origin; his 'Chronicon Universale' used by- 
Ed ward Hall in his 'Chronicle.' [UL 24] 

BALCANQTJHALL, WALTER (1548-1616), presby- 
terian divine; minister of St. Giles, Edinburgh, 1674; 
chaplain of the ' Altar called Jesus,' 1579 ; compelled to 
fly from Scotland to escape arrest for preaching against 
the government, 1584 and 1596 ; publicly rebuked in 
St. Giles by the king, 1586 ; minister of Trinity College 
Church, 1598. [iiL 24] 

BALCANQTJHALL, WALTER (1586 7-1645), royalist ; 
son of Walter Balcanquhall [q. v.] ; M.A. Edinburgh, 1609 ; 
B.D. and fellow, Pembroke College, Oxford, 1611 ; chaplain 
to king ; master of Savoy, London, 1617 ; D.D. Oxford, 
1618 ; sent by James to synod of Dort'; dean of Rochester 
1624, and of Durham, 1639. [iii. 25] 

first EARL, 1618-1659; LINDSAY, COLIN, third EARL, 
1654 ?-1722 ; LINDSAY, ALEXANDER, sixth EARL, 1762- 

BALCARRES, COUNTESS OP (1621 7-1706 ?) [See 

BALCHEN, SIR JOHN (1670-1744), admiral ; attached, 
after holding a commission in West Indies, to Rooke's 
fleet on Spanish coast, 1701-2 ; served in the Channel 
and North Sea, 1703-5, and on coast of Guinea, 1705 ; 
twice captured by French in the Channel, 1708 and 1709 ; 
engaged in suppressing piracy in West Indies, 1715-16 ; 
second in command to Byng in Mediterranean, 1718; 
in Baltic, 1719, 1720, 1721, 1726, and 1727 ; rear-admiral, 
1728 ; second in command in Mediterranean, 1731 ; vice- 
admiral, 1734 ; admiral of the white, 1743 ; governor of 
Greenwich Hospital and knighted, 1744 ; went down with 
his ship in the Channel. [iii. 26] 

BALD, ALEXANDER (1783-1859), poetical writer; 
regularly contributed to 'Scots Magazine'; among the 
first to acknowledge the merits of James Hogg, the 
Ettrick Shepherd. [iii. 28] 

BALDOCK, RALPH DE (d. 1313), bishop of London ; 
held prebendal stall of Holborn, 1271 ; dean of St. Paul's, 
1294; bishop of London, 1304; lord chancellor, 1307; 
wrote a history of England. [iii. 28] 

BALDOCK, ROBERT DE (d. 1327), lord chancellor ; 
prebendary of St. Paul's ; privy seal, 1320 : lord chan- 
cellor, e. 1324 ; died from injuries received in riote attend- 
ing Queen Isabella's invasion of England, 1326. [iii. 28] 

BALDOCK, SIR ROBERT (d. 1691), judge: called to 
bar at Gray's Inn, 1651 ; recorder of Great Yarmouth, 
1671 ; knighted ; ser jeant and autumn reader at Gray's 
Inn, 1677 ; counsel for king in trial of the seven bishops, 
1688 ; king's bench judge, 1688. [Hi. 29] 

BALDRED or BALTHERE (d. 608 ?X saint ; a 
Northumbrian anchorite who lived alone on the Bass 
Rock in Firth of Forth ; feastnlay, 6 March. [iii. 30] 

BALDRED (/. 823-825), kiug of Kent ; deposed by 
1 Ecgberbt, and fled ' northwards over the Thames.' 
| OH. SO] 



BALDREY, JOSHUA KTRBY (1764-1828). i-n-ravr 
and draughtsman ; exhibited portraits at Royal Aca- 
demy, 1793-4 ; executed engravings after Salvator Ko-:i, 
Reynolds, and other artiste. [iii. 30] 

BALDUCHIE, LORD (d. 1608). [See LYOX, SIR 

BALDWIN (d. 1098), abbot and physician : monk of 
St. Denya: prior of Liberau, Alsace; physician to Ed- 
ward the Confessor ; abbot of St. Edmund's, 1065 ; subse- 
quently became a favourite physician of the Conqueror : 
entered into a dispute with Herfast, bishop of Elmhain, 
who asserted his authority over the abbey, and was finally 
successful in obtaining a confirmation of its inde- 
pendence, [iii. SO] 

BALDWIN OF MOELES (d. 1100?), son of Gilbert, 
count of Eu, who was grandson of Richard the Fearless ; 
received at the Conquest large estates in Devon, of which 
county he became sheriff. [iii. 31] 

BALDWIN OF CLARE ( ft. 1141), warrior ; grandson of 
Richard the Fearless ; fought at battle of Lincoln (1141) 
under Stephen, with whom he was captured. [iii. 34] 

BALDWIN OF REDVERB (d. 1155), warrior, grandson 
of Baldwin of Moeles [q. v.] : earl of Devon and lord of 
Okehampton and perhaps of Isle of Wight ; raised revolts 
against King Stephen hi Devonshire and subsequently in 
Normandy ; held Oorfe Castle against king, 1139. [iii. 34] 

BALDWIN (d 1190), archbishop of Canterbury; 
a Cistercian monk of Ford in Devonshire; became 
abbot ; bishop of Worcester, 1180 : archbishop of Canter- 
bury, 1180; employed by King Henry II in negotiations 
with Rhys ap Gruffydd, prince of South Wales ; entered 
into dispute with dissolute monks of Christ Church, who 
were supported by the pope and various European princes 
against the archbishop's authority, but a compromise was 
effected in 1189 : made a legatine visitation to Wales, 
1187, and preached there in favour of the crusades, 1188; 
officiated at Richard I's coronation, 1189 ; died, a crusader, 
in the Holy Land ; wrote religious works. [iii. 32] 

BALDWIN, GEORGE (d. 1818), mystical writer; 
travelled in Cyprus and the East Indies ; in Egypt, 1773 : 
succeeded, 1775, in establishing direct commerce from 
England to Egypt ; consul-general in Egypt, 1786-98 ; 
joined, after adventurous travels in Europe, the English 
commander in the Malta campaign of 1801 : studied 
magnetic cures in Egypt, considering himself possessed 
of magnetic gifts. On this and on political subjects he 
wrote several works and pamphlets. [iii. 35] 

BALDWIN, JOHN (d. 1545), judge: member of 
Inner Temple; M.P. for Hindon, Wiltshire, 1629-36; 
attorney-general for Wales and the marches, 1530-2 ; 
serjeant-at-law. 1531 : knighted, 1634 ; chief-justice of 
common pleas, 1535 ; judge at trials of Hi-hop Fisher, Sir 
Thomas More, Anne Boleyn, and Lord Darcy. [iii. 37] 

BALDWIN, RICHARD, D.D. (1672?-1758), provost 
of Trinity College, Dublin, 1717. [iii. 37] 

BALDWIN, ROBERT (1804-1858), Canadian states- 
man ; admitted attorney and called to bar of Upper 
Canada, 1825 : honorary head of Upper Canada bar, 1847- 
1848 and 1850-8: represented York (now Toronto) in 
legislative assembly, 1830 ; member of executive council 
of Upper Canada, 1836 ; advocated establishment of par- 
liamentary government: solicitor-general for Upper 
Canada, 1840 ; member of Lord Sydenham's executive 
council on union with Lower Canada, 1841 ; member of 
united legislative assembly, 1841 ; submitted resolutions, 
which were passed unanimously, to secure that in local 
affairs local ministers should be answerable to the local 
houses for all acts of the executive authority, 1841 ; 
attorney-general for Upper Canada, in first period of 
cabinet government in Canada, 1842-3 ; inemtxT for 
Rimouski in Lower Canada, 1842 ; again attorney-general 
of Upper Canada, 1848, under Lord Elgin, and Introduced 
many reforms in administration ; resigned, 1851 : C.B., 
1854. [Suppl. I. 110] 

BALDWIN, THOMAS (1760-1820X architect; city 
architect, c. 1775-1800, at Bath ; where he designed many 
public and private buildings. 

BALDWIN, SIR TIMOTHY (1620-1696), lawyer: 
B.A. Balliol College, Oxford, 1638 ; D.C.I*, 1662 ; principal 

of Hart Hall (now Hertford College); knighted, 1670; 
master in chancery, 1670-82 ; clerk in House of Lords, 
1680 ; wrote legal works. [iii. 38] 

BALDWIN, WILLIAM (ft. 1547), author : studied 
at Oxford ; corrector of press to Edward Whitchurch, 
printer ; employed in preparing theatrical exhibitions for 
courts of Edward VI and Mary ; clergyman and school- 
master : superintended publication of and contributed to 
'Mirror for Magistrates,' 1559; published poetical and 
other works. [iii. 38] 

Jesuit: studied at Oxford : joined Society of Jesus in 
Belgium, 1590 : professed father, 1602 ; in Spain, 1595 ; 
captured by English fleet at Dunkirk ; vice-prefect of 
English mission, Brussels, c. 1600-10 ; accused of com- 
plicity in Gunpowder plot: arrested and imprisoned in 
England, 1610-18 ; died at St. Omer. [iii. 39] 

probably last Anglian bishop of Whithern or Candida 
Oasa, Galloway, 791, till death. [iii. 40] 

BALDWYN, EDWARD (1746-1817), pamphleteer; 
M.A. St. John's College, Oxford, 1784 ; rector of Abdon, 
Shropshire. [iii. 40] 

BALE, JOHN (1495-1563), bishop of Ossory ; edu- 
cated at Carmelite convent, Norwich, and Jesus College, 
Oxford : converted to protestantism ; held living of Thorn- 
den, Suffolk ; lived in Germany, 1540-7, on fall of Crom- 
well, who had protected him : vicar of Swaffham, Norfolk, 
1651 ; bishop of Os?ory, 1553 ; fled to continent, 1553 ; 
subsequently prebendary of Canterbury ; wrote several 
religious plays, a history of English writers, and numerous 
controversial works of great bitterness. [iii. 41] 

BALE, ROBERT (A. 1461), chronicler; notary of 
London and judge of civil courts ; wrote a chronicle of 
London, and other historical works. [iii. 42] 

BALE, ROBERT (d. 1503), prior of Carmelite monas- 
tery, Burnham : wrote historical works. [iii. 42] 

(d. 1690), priest ; sent on English mission from Rheims, 
1588 ; executed, 1690, as priest of foreign ordination exer- 
cising sacerdotal functions in England. [iii. 43] 

BALES, PETER, or BALESIUS (1547-1610?), calli- 
graphist: educated at Gloucester Hall, Oxford; resided 
in the Old Bailey, working as a writing-master, and was 
frequently employed in connection with state corre- 
spondence and intercepted letters ; published ' The Writ- 
ing Schootemaster,' 1590. [iii. 43] 

BALFE, MICHAEL WILLIAM (1808-1870X musical 
composer ; first appeared in public as a violinist, 1817 ; 
articled to Charles Edward Horn the singer, 1823 ; 
violinist in Drnry Lane orchestras and at oratorio con- 
certs ; went to Italy under patronage of Count Mazzara ; 
studied singing and composition at Milan and Paris, and 
appeared with great success as Figaro in Rossini's ' Bar- 
blere,' 1827 ; produced his first opera, ' I Rivali di ae 
stessi,' at Palermo, 1830 ; returned to England, 1833 : his 
' Siege of Rochelle' produced at Drury Lane, 1835: pro- 
duced other compositions, including 'Falstaff,' at short 
intervals ; toured hi Ireland and west of England ; pro- 
duced 'Le Puite d'Amour' in Paris and his highly 
successful ' Bohemian Girl ' ; in London, 1843 ; conductor 
of the Italian Opera, Her Majesty's Theatre, 1846 : pro- 
duced the 'Sicilian Bride,' 1862 : wrote several works for 
the Pyne- Harrison company at Oovent Garden, 1857-63. 

BALFE, VIOTOIRE (1837-1871). [See CUAM'I-TON.] 

BALFOTTR, ALEXANDER (1767-1829), Scottish 
novelist ; apprenticed as weaver ; clerk in Arbroath, 1793 ; 
began at an early age to contribute verse and prose to 
newspapers, and finally devoted himself to literature. HiB 
novels include : 'Campbell,' 1819, and ' The Foundling of 
Glen thorn,' 1823. [lit 48] 

BALFOUK, SIR ANDREW (1630-1694), botanist; 
educated at St. Andrews and Oxford ; M.D. Caen, 1661 ; 
practiced as physician successively in London, St. Andrews, 
and Edinburgh : founded botanic gardens, Edinburgh ; 
left botanical writings. [iii. 48] 




BALFOUR, CLARA LUCAS (1808-1878), lecturer 
and autborcss ; c> Liddell : lectured and wrote on tern- 
pemncc and questions relating to women's influence, from 
1841 ; wroto, with a subsidiary theological aim, in smpport 
of temperance, [iii. 49] 

BALFOUR, EDWARD GREEN (1813-1889), surgeon- 
general and writer on India ; L.R.O.S. Edinburgh. 1833 ; 
entered medical department of Indian army. 1834 ; assist- 
ant-surgeon, 1836 ; full surgeon, 1H52: formed Govern- 
ment Central .Museum, Madras, 1850, and was superinten- 
dent till 1869; published ' Encyclopaedia of India,' 1857; 
political agent at court of nawab of Carnatic ; surgeon- 
general and head of Madras medical department, 1871-6 ; 
returned to England, 1876 : largely responsible for the 
opening of the Madras Medical College to women, 1876 ; 
published works chiefly relating to India. [Suppl. i. 113] 

BALFOUR, FRANCIS (/. 1812), Anglo-Indian ; pro- 
bably M.D. of Edinburgh ; surgeon in East India Com- 
pany's service, 1777 : retired. 1807 ; intimate with Warren 
Hastings ; published works on medicine and oriental 
languages. [iii. 50] 

naturalist; educated at Harrow and Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; B.A., 1873 ; fellow ; lecturer on animal 
morphology at Cambridge, 1876 ; published a monograph 
on the embryonic history of the elasmobranch fishes, 
1878, and a complete treatise on embryology, 1880-1 ; 
F.K.S., 1878; 'royal medallist, 1 1881; obtained a special 
professorship of animal morphology at Cambridge, 1882 ; 
killed while climbing in Switzerland. [iii. 50] 

BALFOUR, SIR GEORGE (1809-1894), general and 
politician ; brother of Edward Green Balfour [q. v.] ; 
educated at Military Academy, Addiscombe ; . entered 
royal artillery, 1826 ; served with Malacca field force, 
1832-3, and with Madras forces in China, 1840-2 ; consul 
at Shanghai, 1843-66; captain, 1844; C.B., 1864; mem- 
ber of military finance commission, 1859-60 ; chief of 
military finance department, 1860-2 ; assistant to con- 
troller-in-chief at war office, London. 1868-71 : K.C.B., 
1870 ; major-general, 1865 ; general, 1877 ; liberal M.P. 
for Kincardiueshire, 1872-92. [Suppl. i. 114] 

1583), Scottish judge; educated for the priesthood; 
served in galleys for complicity in plot for assassination 
of Cardinal Beaton, 1547-9 ; chief judge of consistorial 
court of archbishop of St. Andrews, and, on its abolition, 
one of the commissaries of the court appointed in its 
stead : probably connected with murder of Darnley ; go- 
vernor of Edinburgh Castle ; president of court of session 
till 1568 : gained the reputation of having served, deserted, 
and profited by all parties ; probably author of part of 
'Balfour's Practicks' (published 1774), the earliest text- 
book of Scottish law. [iii. 52] 

BALFOUR, SIR JAMES (1600-1657), historian; de- 
voted himself to study of Scottish history and antiquities ; 
studied heraldry in London, and, on his return to Scot- 
land, 1630, was knighted and made Lyon king-of-arms 
and king's commissioner; created baronet, 1633. Most 
of his historical, heraldic, and other manuscripts are pre- 
served in the Advocates' Library. His 'Annals of Scot- 
land from Malcolm III to Charles II' was printed, 1837. 

[iii. 53] 

BALFOUR, JAMES (1705-1795), philosopher; studied 
at Edinburgh and Leyden ; called to Scottish bar ; trea- 
surer to faculty of advocates ; professor of moral philo- 
sophy, Edinburgh, 1754, and of law of nature and nations, 

1764 ; published philosophical works. [iii. 55] 

LKKJH (d. 1688); educated in France; has been tradi- 
tionally and erroneously styled ' Covenanter,' John Balfour 
the ' Covenanter ' being ' of Kinloch.' [iii. 55] 

BALFOUR, JOHN BUTTON (1808-1884), botanist ; 
M.A. Edinburgh ; M.D., 1832 ; F.R.C.S. Edinburgh, 1833 ; 
professor of botany at Glasgow, 1841, and at Edinburgh, 
1845 ; retired as emeritus professor of botany, 1879 ; as- 
sisted in establishing Botanical Society and Botanical 
Club, Edinburgh ; F.R.S. (Edinburgh and London) ; LL.D.; 
wrote botanical text-books. [iii. 56] 

iTr? ALFOUR> NISBET (1743-1823), general ; lieutenant, 

1765 ; captain, 1770 ; served in American war : lieutenant- 
colonel, 1778 ; commandant at Charleston, 1779 ; colonel 

and king's aide-de-camp ; served in Flanders, 1794 ; 
general, 1803 ; M.P. for Wigton Burghs and Arundel be- 
tween 1790 and 1802. [iii. 56] 

BALFOUR, ROBERT (1550 7-1625 ?), Scottish philo- 
sopher and philologist ; educated at St. Andrews and 
Paris ; professor of Greek at, and, c. 1586, principal of, 
college of Guienne, Bordeaux ; published commentary on 
Aristotle (1618), and other works. [iii. 57] 

BURLEIOH (d. 1663), by royal patent having married the 
heiress of the title ; president of the ' estates ' of Scottish 
parliament, 1640 ; served against Montrose ; commissioner 
of treasury and exchequer, 1649. [iii. 58] 

LEIGH (d. 1757) ; Jacobite : condemned to death for shoot- 
ing his former sweetheart's husband, but escaped, 1710 : 
estates forfeited for his share in rebellion, 1715. [iii. 68] 

BALFOUR, THOMAS GRAHAM (1813-1891), phy- 
sician ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1834 ; assistant surgeon in 
grenadier guards, 1840-8 ; inspector-general in charge of 
new statistical branch of army, 1859-73; F.R.S., 1858: 
F.R.C.P., 1860 ; surgeon-general, 1876. [SuppL i. 115] 

BALFOUR, SIR WILLIAM (d. 1660), parliamentary 
general ; in Dutch service till 1627 ; lieutenant-colonel ; 
governor of Tower, 1630; employed by king on uii.-.-imi 
in Netherlands, 1631 ; lieutenant-general of parliamentary 
horse at Edgehill, 1642, and other engagements in civil 
war. [iii. 59] 

BALFOUR, WILLIAM (1785-1838), lieutenant- 
colonel ; served in Mediterranean, at Copenhagen, and in 
Peninsular war. [iii. 60] 

BALGUY, CHAULES (1708-1767), physician; M.D. 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 1750 ; published, besides 
medical treatises, a translation of Boccaccio's ' Decameron.' 

[iii. 60] 
; M.A. 

BALGUY, JOHN (1686-1748), divine; M.A. St. 
John's College, Cambridge, 1726 ; incumbent of Lamesby 
and Taufield, 1711 ; took part in the Bangorian contro- 
versy, 1718; prebendary of Salisbury, 1727; published 
tracts defending Dr. Clarke's metaphysical and ethical 
principles. [iii. 60] 

BALGUY, THOMAS (1716-1785), divine; son of 
John Balguy [q. v.] ; M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 
1741 ; D.D., 1768 ; vicar of Alton, Hampshire, 1771 ; 
prebendary of Winchester, 1758 ; archdeacon of Salisbury, 
1759 ; published and edited religious works, in which he 
followed the principles of Warburton. [iii. 61] 

1246 ?-1309 ?) ; perhaps son of Henry de Baliol (d. 1246) : 
served in Edward's Welsh wars, 1277 ; one of the Scot- 
tish barons who bound themselves to receive Margaret of 
Norway as queen in the event of failure of male issue of 
Alexander III, 1284 ; chamberlain of Scotland, 1287-96 ; 
fought on English side in wars with Scotland, [iii. 61] 

BALIOL, BERNARD DE, the elder (A 1136-1167), 
did homage with David I of Scotland to the Empress 
Matilda, daughter of Henry I, 1136, but joined King 
Stephen's party, 1138 ; taken prisoner at Lincoln, 1141. 

BALIOL, BERNARD DE, the younger (fl. 1167), has 
been identified with Benrnrd de Baliol (Jt. 1136-1167) 
[q. v.] ; joined the northern barons who captured William 
the Lion, 1174. [iii. 63] 

BALIOL, EDWARD DE (</. 1363), king of Scotland : 
eldest son of John de Baliol, king of Scotland [q. v.], and 
Mabel, daughter of John de Warenne, earl of Surrey : suc- 
ceeded to his French fiefs, 1314 ; invaded Scotland at head 
of barons displaced by Bruce, 1332 ; crowned at Scone ; 
did homage to Edward III, to whom he subsequently sur- 
rendered ancient Lothian ; compelled to take refuge in 
England from Scottish patriots under Sir Andrew Murray 
and Earl of Moray, 1334 ; restored by Edward Ill's aid, 
1335 ; left almost entirely in Edward's hands the wars 
which followed ; retired to England, 1338 ; surrendered 
kingdom of Scotland to Edward III, 1356, in return for 
pension of 2,(XXM. 

BALIOL, HENRY DE (d. 1246), chamberlain of Scot- 
land, 1219-c. 1231 ; probably supported barons against 
John ; attended Henry III in Gascon war, 1241. [iii. 66] 




BALIOL, JOHN DK (d. 1269), founder of Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford; one of the repents of Scotland during 
Alexander Ill's minority till 1256, when he wan deprived 
for treason ; founded Balliol College, Oxford, 1263 ; sided 
with Henry III in barons' war, 1258-65. [iii. 66] 

BALIOL, JOHN DE (1249-1315), king of Scotland; 
third sou of John de Baliol (rf. 1269) [q. v.] ; on death, in 
1290, of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, grandchild of 
Alexander III, claimed throne of Scotland in right of his 
maternal grandmother, Margaret, eldest daughter of 
David, brother of William the Lion ; his only serious 
rivals were Robert Bruce and John Hastings, though there 
were thirteen claimante in all ; settlement of the dispute 
entrusted to Edward I, who obtained recognition as 
superior lord of Scotland and selected Baliol ; crowned at 
Scone, 1292 ; condemned for contumacy on declining to 
appear in Scottish suit before judges at Westminster, 1293, 
but yielded and attended parliament held in London, 1294 ; 
determined, on being treated with haughtiness, to brave 
Edward's displeasure, and, on his return to Scotland, re- 
fused to send men to the French war ; allied himself with 
Philip of Prance, 1295 ; invaded England, 1296 ; formally 
renounced homage and fealty ; brought to submission by 
Edward and taken captive to England : liberated, 1299 ; 
died in retirement at Castle Galliard, Normandy, [iii. 66] 

BALL, SIR ALEXANDER JOHN (1757-1809), rear- 
admiral ; lieutenant, 1778 ; commander, 1783 ; on home 
station, 1790-3, and Newfoundland station, 1793-6; 
served in Mediterranean under Nelson, with whom he 
formed a close friendship, 1798 ; at Aboukir Bay, 1798 ; 
reduced Malta, 1798-1800 ; commissioner of navy at Gib- 
raltar ; made baronet and governor of Malta; rear- 
admiral, 1805. [iii. 70] 

BALL, ANDREW (d. 1653), navy captain ; captain, 
1648 ; served with Captain Penn in Mediterranean, 1650- I 
1652; commanded squadron at Copenhagen, but being i 
caught in a storm returned, 1652 ; as captain of the fleet 
encountered Dutch off Portland and was killed, [iii. 72] 

BALL, FRANCES (1794-1861), founder of convents ; 
called Mother Frances Mary Theresa ; joined institute of 
Blessed Virgin Mary at Micklegate Bar convent, York, 
and in 1821 introduced the institute into Ireland, whence 
it spread to various parts of the world. [iiL 72] 

BALL, HANNAH (1734-1792), Wesleyan methodist i 
attracted at High Wycombe by methodist preachers, in- i 
eluding Wesley, with whom she corresponded : opened 
a Sunday school, 1769 ; extracts from her diary (begun in 
1766) and letters have been published. [iii. 73] 

BALL, JOHN (d, 1381), priest: probably attached to 
abbey of St. Mary's, York ; frequently reprimanded and I 
imprisoned for preaching at Colchester doctrines which 
were in great part those of Wycliffe, and which in 1381 
brought about Tyler's rebellion ; released by rebels from 
the archbishop's prison, Maids tone, where he was con- 
fined ; captured at Coventry ; executed at St. Albaus. 

[iii. 73] 

BALL, JOHN (1585-1640), puritan divine : M.A. St. 
Mary's Hall, Oxford ; obtained ordination without sub- 
scription, 1610 : presented to living of Whitmore, Stafford- 
shire ; ' deprived,' and more than once imprisoned for 
nonconformity ; published religious works. [iii. 74] 

BALL, JOHN (1665 V-1745), presbyterian ; son of 
Nathanael Ball [q. v.] ; minister at Houitou, 1705-45 ; 
opened seminary which, on account of his learning, was 
not suppressed under Toleration Act ; published religious 
works. [lit 75] 

BALL, JOHN (1818-1889), man of science and poli- 
tician ; son of Nicholas Ball [q. v.] ; educated at Christ's 
College, Cambridge ; honorary fellow, 1888 ; travelled on 
continent and made series of observations of glaciers ; 
called to Irish bar, 1845 : assistant poor law commissioner, 
1846-7, 1849-51 ; M.P. for co. Carlow, 1852 ; under-secre- 
tary for colonies, 1856-7 : first president of Alpine Club, 
1867; published 'The Alpine Guide,' 1863-8: joined 
bot anical expedition to Morocco, 1871 ; F.R&, 1868 ; fellow 
of Liunean, Geographical, and Antiquarian societies. Hi 
publications include treatises on physical and geographical 
science, and the botany of the Alps. [SuppL 1. 115] 

BALL, JOHN THOMAS (1815-1R98), lord chancellor 
of Ireland ; educated at Triuty College, Dublin ; LL.D., 

1844 ; called to Irish bar, 1840, and to inner bar, 1854 ; 
vicar-general of province of Armagh, 1862; benc-her of 
King's Inns, 1863 ; queen's advocate in Ireland, 1865 ; 
solicitor-general for Ireland, 1868 ; attorney-general, 1868 
and 1874 ; M.P. for Dublin University, 1868 ; opposed Irish 
Church Act ; honorary D.O.L. Oxford, 1870 ; assisted in 
framing future constitution of disestablished Church of 
Ireland ; opposed Gladstone's Irish land bill, 1870, and Irish 
university bill, 1873 : lord chancellor of Ireland, 1875-80 ; 
vice-chancellor of Dublin University, 1880 ; published ' Re- 
formed Church of Ireland,' 1886, and ' Historical Review 
of Legislative Systems operative in Ireland,' 1888. 

[Suppl. i. 118] 

BALL, NATHANAEL (1623-1681), divine; M.A. 
King's College, Cambridge ; vicar of Barley, Hertfordshire ; 
ejected, 1669 : minister at Royston ; resigned under Act 
of Uniformity ; licensed as 'general presbyterian preacher 
in any allowed place,' 1672 ; assisted Walton in his great 
Polyglot,' and left religious writings. [iii. 75] 

BALL, NICHOLAS (1791-1865), Irish judge ; educated 
at Trinity College, Dublin ; called to Irish bar, 1814 : 
bencher of King's Inn, 1836 ; M.P. for Clonmel, 1835 ; 
attorney-general and privy councillor for Ireland, 1837 ; 
judge of common pleas (Ireland), 1839. [iii. 76] 

BALL or BALLE, PETER (d. 1675), physician ; doctor 
physic, Padua, 1660 ; hon. F.R.O.P., 

of philosophy and 
1664 ; original F.R.S. 

[iii. 77] 

BALL, ROBERT (1802-1857), naturalist ; in under- 
secretary's office, Dublin, 1827-52 ; president of Geological 
Society of Ireland ; director of Trinity College Museum, 
1844 ; hon. LL,D. Trinity College, 1860 ; secretary of the 
Queen's University, Ireland, 1851. [iii. 77] 

BALL, THOMAS (1590-1659), divine : M.A. Qt 
College, Cambridge, 1625 ; fellow ; weekly lecturer at 
Northampton from c. 1630 ; published a religious treatise 
called 'Pastorum Propugnaculum,' 1666, and was joint 
editor of Dr. John Preston's works. [iii. 78] 

BALL or BALLE, WILLIAM (d. 1690), astronomer ; 
joined meetings of the 'Oxonian Society' at Gresham 
College, 1659 ; joint founder and first treasurer of Royal 
Society, 1660 ; acquired some celebrity for his observations 
of the planet Saturn. [iii. 78] 

BALLANCE, JOHN (1839-1893), prime minister of 
New Zealand ; born in Ireland ; emigrated to New 
Zealand, where he founded 'Wanganui Herald'; served 
in Maori war, 1867 ; entered House of Representatives, 
1875; treasurer, 1878-9; minister for lands and native 
affairs, 1884 ; leader of liberal opposition, 1889 : prime 
minister, 1891. adopting a bold and successful progressive 
policy. [Suppl. i. 120] 


BALLANTDfE, JAMES (1898-1877), artist and 
author ; originally a house-painter in Edinburgh ; one of 
the first to revive art of glass-painting, on which he pub- 
lished a treatise ; executed stained-glass windows for 
House of Lords ; published poetical and other works. 

[iiL 79] 

BALLANTDTE, WILLIAM (1812-1887), serjeant-at- 
law ; educated at St. Paul's School ; called to bar at Inner 
Temple, 1834 ; honorary bencher, 1878 ; serjeant-at-law, 
1856; conducted prosecution at trial of Franz Muller, 
1864 ; appeared for the Tichborue claimant at the first 
stage of legal proceedings, 1871 [see OKTON, ARTHUR] ; 
successfully defended Mulhar Rao, Gaekwar of Baroda, 
on a charge of attempted murder, 1875 ; published remi- 
niscences. [Suppl. i. 120] 

BALLANTYNE, JAMES (1772-1833), printer of Sir 
Walter Scott's works ; attended with Scott Kelso gram- 
mar school ; solicitor in Kelso. 1795 ; undertook printing 
and editing of ' Kelso Mail,' 1796 ; printed Scott's 'Min- 
strelsy of Scottish Border,' 1802, and thenceforth con- 
tinued to print Scott's works ; received loan from Scott 
for establishment of a printing business in Edinburgh, 
1802, and took with his brother John [q. v.] half share in 
bookselling business (started, 1808) ; proprietor, with his 
brother, of Weekly Journal,' 1817 ; ruined by bankruptcy 
of Constable* Co., 1826 ; thenceforth employed in editing 
'Weekly Journal.' nnd in literary management of the 
printing-house tor the creditor.*' trustees. [iii. 80] 




BALLANTYNE, JAMES ROBERT (rf. 186 1), oricn- 
talif superintended reorganisation of government San- 
akrit colk-'e at Benares, 1845 ; librarian to India Office, 
London, 1H61 ; published oriental works with object of 
making Indian philosophies accessible to Europeans 

[HI. 81] 

BALLANTYNE, JOHN (1774-1821), publisher; 
brother of Jame* Ballantyne (1772-1833) [q.v.] ; partner 
in his father's business as general merchant, Kelso, 1795 ; 
clerk in his brother's printing establishment, 1806 ; 
manager of publishing firm established by Scott, 1808 ; 
auctioneer, 1813; the ' Novelist's Library' edited gratui- 
tously for his benefit by Scott, 1820. [iii. 82] 

BALLANTYNE, JOHN (1778-1830), divine; edu- 
cated at Edinburgh ; secessionist minister at Stouehaveii, 
Kincardineshire, 1805 ; published controversial pamph- 
lets. [i- 83] 

author ; brother of James Robert Ballantyne [q. v.] ; 
apprcntici-d as clerk in service of Hudson Bay Fur Com- 
pany, and spent seme time in trading with Indians ; in 
printing and publishing firm of Thomas Constable, Edin- 
burgh, 1848-55; published, from 1855, many novels for 
boys ; exhibited watercolour paintings at Royal Scottish 
Academy. [Suppl. i. 122] 

BALLANTYNE, THOMAS (1806-1871), journalist; 
successively editor of ' Bolton Free Press,' ' Manchester 
Guardian,' 'Liverpool Journal,' and 'Mercury'; asso- 
ciated with Cobdeu and Bright in corn-law agitation; 
edited ' Leader,' ' Old St. James's Chronicle,' and ' States- 
man ' (which he started), and was connected with ' Illus- 
trated London News ' ; published selections from Carlyle 
and other writers. [iii. 83] 

BALLANTYNE, WILLIAM (1616-1661). [See 

BALLARD, EDWARD GEORGE (1791-1860), mis- 
cellaneous writer ; employed in the stamp office, 1809, and, 
later, in excise office till 1817. [iii. 88] 

BALLARD, GEORGE (1706-1755), antiquary ; appren- 
ticed as staymaker ; studied Anglo-Saxon and proceeded 
to Oxford, 1750, having received an annuity from various 
gentlemen interested in his work ; clerk at Magdalen Col- 
lege, and, later, one of the university bedells ; assisted 
Ames in his 'History of Printing.'; left archaeological 
writings. [iii. 84] 

BALLARD, JOHN (d. 1586), Roman catholic priest ; 
probably educated at Rheims ; joined English mission, 
1581 ; travelled to Rome, 1584, with Anthony Tyrrell, and 
obtained pope's sanction for plot to assassinate Elizabeth ; 
instigated Anthony Babiugton [q. v.] to organise the plot, 
1686, and on its discovery was racked and executed. 

BALLARD, JOHN ARCHIBALD (1829-1880),' gene- 
ral : joined Bombay engineers, 1850 ; went to Constanti- 
nople, being ordered to Europe on medical certificate, and 
received rank of lieutenant-colonel in Turkish army ; 
distinguished himself at sieges of Silistria and Giurgevo ; 
commanded under Omar Pasha in campaign to relieve 
Kars ; returned to India as C.B., 1856 ; afisistant-quarter- 
master-general in Persian campaign and Indian mutiny ; 
lieutenant-general, 1879. [iii. 85] 

BALLARD, SAMUEL JAMES (1764 ?-1829), vice- 
admiral ; entered navy, 1776 ; commander, 1794 ; post- 
captain, 1795 ; employed in convoying trade for Baltic, 
Newfoundland and Quebec, 1796-8; attached to Medi- 
terranean fleet, 1799-1801 ; at reduction of Guadeloupe, 
1810 ; rear-admiral, 1814 ; vice-admiral, 1825. [iii. 86] 

BALLARD, VOLANT VASHON (1774 ?-1832), rear- 
admiral ; lieutenant, 1796 ; captain, 1798 ; in West Indies, 
1809-10 ; rear-admiral, 1825. [UL 87] 

1661), Roman catholic divine ; educated at Edinburgh ; 
converted to Catholicism at Paris : became priest at Rome ; 
returned to Scotland on catholic mission, 1649 ; first 
prefect-apostolic of the mission, 1653. [iii. 87] 

BALLINGALL, SIR GEORGE (1780-1855), surgeon ; 
studied atSt. Andrews ; military surgeon in India, 1806-18 ; 
professor of military surgery, Edinburgh, 1825 ; knighted, 
183U ; F.R.S. London and Edinburgh ; published medical 
works. [iii. 88] 


B ALLOW or BELLEWE, HENRY (1707-1782), 
lawyer ; held post in the exchequer ; friend of Akenside 
the poet ; left legal manuscript*. [iii. 88] 


BALMER, GEORGE (d. 1846), painter; son of a 
house-painter; attracted attention by his pictures at 
Newcastle ; painted continental scenes during a tour in 
Europe. [iii. 89] 

BALMER, ROBERT (1787-1844), minister; educated 
at Edinburgh and Selkirk ; licensed preacher by secession 
church, 1812; minister at Berwick-on-Tweed, 1814-44; 
professor of pastoral, and, later, of systematic, theology 
in secession church ; D.D., Glasgow, 1840. [iii. 89] 

first BARON, 15537-1612; ELPHINSTONK, JOHN, second 
BARON, d. 1649 ; ELPHINSTONH, JOHN, third BARON, 1623- 
1704 ; ELPHINSTONE, JOHN, fourth BARON, 1682-1736 ; 
ELPHINSTONE, ARTHUR, sixth BARON, 1688-1746.] 

BALMFORD, JAMES (ft. 1556), divine ; published 
religious works, including a ' Dialogue concerning the un- 
lawfulness of playing at Cards,' 1594. [ill. 89] 

BALMFORD, SAMUEL (d. 1669?), pnritan divine. 

fiii. 901 

BALMTJTO, LORD (1742-1824). (.See BOSWELL, 

chancellor of Scotland ; educated as clerk in monastery of 
Arbroath ; temporarily executed functions of archbishop 
of St. Andrews, 1297; chancellor of Scotland, 1301-7; 
bishop of Dunblane, c. 1307. [iiL 90] 

BALNAVES, HENRY (d. 1579), Scottish reformer ; 
educated at St. Andrews and Cologne ; became acquainted 
with Swiss and German reformers ; lord of session, 1538 ; 
secretary of state to the regent ; depute-keeper of privy 
seal, 1542 ; deprived of offices, 1643 ; confined in Black- 
ness Castle ; transported to Rouen, 1546 ; reinstated lord 
of session, 1563 ; took prominent part in behalf of protes- 
taut reformers. [iii. 91] 

BALNEA, HENRY DE (ft. 1400 ?), English Carthusian 
monk ; author of ' Speculum Spiritualium.' [iii. 92] 

BALSHAM, HUGH DE (d. 1286), bishop of Ely and 
founder of Peterhouse, Cambridge ; subprior of monastery 
of Ely; elected by the monks bishop of Ely on death 
of William de Kilkenny, 1256 ; his election displeasing to 
Henry III, who allowed John de Walerau, to whom he 
had committed the temporalities of the see, to do much 
harm to the diocese ; confirmed as bishop by the pope, 
1257 ; obtained charter to introduce ' studious scholar.- ' 
into his hospital of St. John, Cambridge, in lieu of the 
secular brethren already residing there, 1280 ; obtained 
charter to separate his scholars from the brethren of the 
hospital. 1284, and founded and endowed Peterhouse for 
them. [iii. 92] 

BALTHER (d. 756), saint ; presbyter of Lindisfarne ; 
probably lived as an anchorite at Tyningham in Scotland. 

first EARL, 1590 ?-1642 ; CALVERT, FREDERICK, seventh 
EARL, 1731-1771.] 

BALTINGLAS, third VISCOUNT (d. 1586). [See 

BALTRODDI, WALTER DE (d. 1270), bishop of 
Caithness, 1261 ; doctor of the canon law. [iii. 98] 

BALTZAB,, THOMAS (1630 ?-1663), violinist: born 
at Liibeck ; settled, 1656, in England, where he became 
famous ; one of the king's musicians. [iii. 98] 

BALTJN, JOHN DE (d. 1236). [See BAALUN.] 

BALVAIRD, first BARON (1597 ?-1844). [See 


BALY, WILLIAM (1814-1861), physioian ; studied at 
University College, London, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
Paris, Heidelberg, and Berlin ; M.D. Berlin, 1836 ; 



physician to Millbank Penitentiary, 1841 ; physician to the 
queen, 1859 : F.R.O.P., 1846 ; F.R.S., 1847 ; published works 
on the hygiene of prisons and other medical subjects. 

[ill. 99] 

BAMBRIDGE, CHRISTOPHER (1464 ?-l514). [See 

BAMBRIDGE, THOMAS (fl. 1729), attorney and 
warden of the Fleet ; joint-warden to Fleet prison, 1728 ; 
taken into custody for cruelty, 1729: twice tried for 
murder of a prisoner and acquitted ; was latterly himself 
imprisoned in the Fleet [in. 99] 

BAMFORD, SAMUEL (1788-1872), poet and weaver ; 
actively interested in welfare of labouring classes : un- 
justly imprisoned for connection with the gatherings 
dispersed by the Peterloo massacre, 1819 ; obtained post 
as messenger at Somerset House, but subsequently re- 
turned to trade as weaver ; published poems and other 
writings. [iii. 100] 

BAMPFIELD, Sin OOPLESTONE (1636-1691), jus- 
tice : educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford ; active 
in promoting Charles II's restoration ; M.P. for Tiverton, 
1659, and for Devonshire, 1671-9 and 1685-7. [iii. 101] 

BAMPFIEID, FRANCIS (d. 1683), divine: M.A. 
Wadham College, Oxford, 1638 ; prebendary of Exeter ; 
held living of Sherborne : ejected from prefermente, 1662 : 
repeatedly imprisoned for preaching ; died in Newgate ; 
published religious works. [iii. 101] 

BAMPFIELD, JOSEPH (ft. 1639-1685), royalist 
colonel ; ensign under Lord Ashley, 1639, in Scottish war ; 
colonel diirinfj civil wnr, in west of England : frequently 
employed by Charles I in secret negotiation* : dismissed as 
untrustworthy by Charles II ; acted as Cromwell's agent 
in Paris after 1654 : commanded English regiment in Hol- 
land after Restoration. [iii. 101] 

BAMPFIELD, THOMAS (fl. 1658), speaker of House 
of Commons, 1658-9 ; recorder of Exeter ; M.P. for 
Exeter, 1654, 1656, and 1660. [iii. 103] 

landscape painter ; exhibited at Society of Artiste, Free 
Society of Artists, and Royal Academy, 1763-83. 

[iii. 103] 

poet; educated at Cambridge; published sonnets, 1778; 
led a dissipated life, and was confined in private asylum. 

[iii. 103] 

BAMPTON, JOHN (/. 1340), Carmelite at Cam- 
bridge ; D.D. ; wrote theological treatises. [iii. 103] 

BAMPTON, JOHN (d. 1751), founder of Bampton 
lectures ; M.A. Trinity College, Oxford, 1712 ; prebendary 
of Salisbury, 1718; left legacy for foundation of the 
Bamptou divinity lectures at Oxford. [Hi. 104] 

BANASTRE, ALARD (ft. 1174), sheriff of Oxford- 
shire, with judicial powers, 1174-5. [iii. 104] 


BANCHINIJS (.ft. 1382). [See BANKYN, JOHN.] 
BANCK, JOHN VAN UKR (1694 V-1739). [See VAN- 


BANCK, PETER VAN DEK (1649-1697). [See VAN- 


BANCK8, JOHN (1709-1761). [See BANKS.] 

BANCROFT, EDWARD (1744-1821), naturalist and 
chemist : frequently visited America, and published- Natu- 
ral History of Guiana,' 1769 ; made important discoveries 
In dyeing aiid calico-printing. . [iii. 105] 

physician ; son of Edward Bancroft [q. v.] ; M.B. St. 
.1 iii in'.- College, Cambridge, 1794 ; physician to forces in the 
Windward Islands, Portugal, Mediterranean, and Egypt; 
M.D., 1804 ; fellow and Oulatoniau lecturer, 1806, and 
censor. 1808,(bllegeof Physicians physician to St. George's 
Hospital, 1808-11; physician, 1811, to forces in Jamaica, 
where he reinaiued till death, being ultimately deputy 
inspector-general of army hospitals ; identified yellow with 
malarial fever in his 'Essay,' 1*1 1. [iii. 106] 

BANCROFT, GEORGE (ft. 1548), translator : pub- 
lished ' Answere that Preachers at Basile made for defence 
of the Lord's Supper,' 1548, a heated attack on the 
catholics, translated from Latin. [iii. 107] 

BANCROFT, JOHN (1674-1640), seventh bishop of 
Oxford ; nephew of Archbishop* Bancroft ; educated at 
Westminster ; M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1599 ; rector 
of Finchley, 1601-8 ; B.D.,.1607; D.D. and prebendary of 
St. Paul's, 1609; master of University College, Oxford, 
1610-32 ; bishop of Oxford, 1632 ; built an episcopal resi- 
dence at Ouddesdon, Oxfordshire, 1635. [iii. 107] 

BANCROFT, JOHN (d. 1696), dramatist and sur- 
geon ; published several plays, 1679-91. [UL 108] 

BANCROFT, RICHARD (1544-1610), archbishop of 
Canterbury : B.A. Christ's College, Cambridge, 1667 ; pre- 
bendary of St. Patrick's, Dublin ; D.D., 1585 ; treasurer of 
St. Paul's, 1585 : ecclesiastical commissioner ; canon of 
Westminster, 1587 ; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1590 ; largely 
responsible for detection of printers of the Mar prelate 
tracts ; chaplain to Archbishop Whitgift, 1592 ; bishop of 
London, 1597 ; archbishop of Canterbury, 1604 ; laid before 
the privy council his ' Articles of Abuses,' in which he pro- 
tected, in name of the clergy, against ' prohibitions ' by 
civil judges of proceedings in ecclesiastical courts, 1605 ; 
I supported scheme of new translation of bible ; D.D. and 
chancellor of university of Oxford, 1608 ; his works chiefly 

directed against puritans. 

[iii. 108] 

BANCROFT, THOMAS (ft. 1633-1658), poet ; edu- 
cated at Catherine Hall, Cambridge. His publications 
Include ' Two Bookes of Epigrammes and Epitaphs ' (1633), 
which celebrated many men of letters of the time ; con- 
tributed to Brome's ' Lachrymte Musarum ' (1649). 

[iii. 112] 

BANCROFT, THOMAS (1756-1811), divine; B.A. 
Brasenose College, Oxford, 1781 ; Craven scholar, 1780 ; 
head-master, Henry VIII's school, Chester; vicar of 
Bolton-le-Moors, 1793 : one of the four " king's preachers' 
of Lancashire ; published sermons. [iii. 113] 

BANDINEL, BULKELEY (1781-1861), librarian of 
Bodleian ; educated at Winchester and New College, Ox- 
ford ; chaplain to Sir James Saumarez in Baltic ; Bodley's 
librarian, 1813-60; honorary curator. 1860; published 
catalogue, 1843. [iii. 113] 

BANDINEL, DAVID (d. 1645), dean of Jersey, 1623 ; 
took the side of the parliament during the civil war, 
chiefly owing to his animosity to Sir Philip de Carteret, 
lieutenant-governor of Jersey. Carteret died from the 
rigours of a siege directed by Baudinel ; and his son, Sir 
George Oarteret, arrested and imprisoned Bandiuel and his 
son, who died after attempting to escape. [iii. 114] 

BANDINEL, JAMES (1783-1849), clerk in foreign 
office ; brother of Bulkeley Bandinel [q. v.] ; published a 
work on the African slave trade, 1842. [iii. 115] 

BANIM, JOHN (1798-1842), novelist, dramatist, and 
poet, the ' Scott of Ireland ' ; studied at drawing academy 
of Royal Dublin Society ; teacher of drawing at Kilkenny ; 
removed to Dublin and took up literature ; wrote ' The 
Celt's Paradise,' a poem ; produced ' Damon and Pythias,' 
performed at Coveiit Garden Theatre, with Macready and 
Kemble in principal parts, 1821 ; settled in London, con- 
tributed largely to periodicals, and wrote, in conjunction 
with his brother Michael [q. v.], several successful novels 
in a series called 'O'Hara. Tales': went abroad for his 
health, and soon found himself in straitened circumstances, 
but was relieved by public subscription. The ' O'Hara 
Tales' (first series), 1825, to some extent fulfilled the 
author's object of doing for the Irish what the ' Wuverley 
Novels ' had done for the Scottish people. [iii. 116] 

BANIM, MICHAEL (1796-1874), novelist; brother of 

John H; mi in [q. v.] ; studied for bar, but abandoned the 

] law for commerce; began to assist his brother in the 

O'Hara Tales,' 1822, several of which he wrote; met with 

! serious financial misfortunes, c. 1840 ; postmaster of Kil- 

| keuuy, c. 1852-73. [iii. 117] 

BANISTER or BANE8TER, JOHN (1540-1610), sur- 

I geon to Earl of Warwick's forces at Havre, 1563 ; studied 

1 at Oxford : served in Leicester's expedition to Low 

Countries, 1585 ; wrote, compiled, aud edited medical 

| works. [iii. 118] 




BANISTER, JOHN (1630-1679), musician ; sent by 
Charles II to study in France, having attracted his atten- 
tion by his violin playing, and on his return made leader 
of the kind's hand, 1663; produced several compositions, 
inoludin:,' IMUMC for the 'Tempest '(written in con junction 
with IVlham Humphrey). [iii. 119] 

BANISTER, JOHN (d. 1692 ?), naturalist ; travelled 
in Kasr Indies and Virginia as missionary, and wrote on 
natural history of those countries. [iii. iy>] 

BANISTER, RICHARD (d. 1626), oculist; pub- 
lished, It!-':?, a second edition, with additions, ofGuille- 
mau's treatise on diseases of the eyes (Paris, 1686). 

[iii. 120] 

BANISTER, Sm WILLIAM (d. 1721), one of the 
' South Wales ; baron of exchequer and knighted, 
1713 : removed, 1714. [iii. 120] 

BANKE, RICHARD ( ft. 1410), judge ; baron of ex- 
chequer, 1410 ; reappoiuted, 1414. [iii. 120] 

BANKES, GEORGE (1788-1866), last of cursitor 
barons of exchequer ; appointed, 1824 ; educated at West- 
minster and Trinity Hall, Cambridge ; called to bar, 1815 ; 
chief secretary of board of control, 1829 ; junior lord of trea- 
ory, 1830 ; M.P. for Corfe Castle, 1816-23 and 1826-32, 
and for Dorset, 1841-66 ; judge-advocate-general and privy 
councillor, 1862. [iii. 120] 

BANKES, HENRY (1767-1834), politician and au- 
thor : M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1781; M.P. for 
Corfe Castle, 1780-1826 ; published a history of Rome. 

[iii. 121] 

BANKES, SIR JOHN (1589-1644), chief justice of 
common pleas, 1641 ; educated at Queen's College, Oxford ; 
called to bar at Gray's Inn, 1614 ; bencher, 1629 ; trea- 
surer, 1G32 ; M.P. for Morpeth, 1628 ; attorney-general, 
1634 ; represented crown against John Hampden, 1637 : 
privy councillor, 1641 ; impeached by parliament and his 
property confiscated ; continued to perform duties of his 
office at Oxford. [iii. 121] 

BANKES, MARY, LADY (d. 1661), heroine of Corfe 
Castle : wife of Sir John Bankes [q. v.] ; occupied the 
family residence of Corfe Castle for royalists at outbreak 
of civil war ; besieged in 1643 by Sir Walter Earle, who 
was unsuccessful, and again, 1645-6, when the castle was 
betrayed by an officer of the garrison. [iii. 123] 

BANKES, WILLIAM JOHN (d. 1855), traveller; 
M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1811 ; M.P. successively 
for Truro, Cambridge University, Marlborough, and Dor- 
setshire ; travelled widely in the East. [iii. 124] 

BANKHEAD, JOHN (1738-1833), Irish presbyterian 
minister ; minister at Ballycarry, co. Antrim, 1763-1833 ; 
moderator of synod, 1800 ; published catechism, based on 
Westminster Shorter Catechism, 1786. [iii. 124] 

BANKS, (ft. 1688-1637), Scottish showman, to 

whose ' dancing horse,' Morocco, allusion is made by all 
the best authors of his day ; originally served the Earl 
of Essex ; went to Paris, 1601, where he was imprisoned 
on suspicion that the horse's tricks were performed by 
magic ; returned to England, 1608 ; probably became a 
vintner in Oheapside. [iii. 125] 

BANKS, BENJAMIN (1750-1795), violin maker; 
pupil of Peter Walmsley ; subsequently copied the instru- 
ments of Nicholas Amati. [iii. 126] 

BANKS, SIR EDWARD (1769 ?-1835), builder, of 
humble origin ; knighted, 1822. His works include Water- 
loo, South wark, and London bridges. [UL 126] 

BANKS, GEORGE LINNJEUS (1821-1881), miscel- 
laneous writer ; apprenticed as cabinet maker ; advo- 
cated social advancement of the people ; between 1848 
and 1864 edited successively several journals in England 
and Ireland. His writings include poems and dramatic 
pieces. [iii. 127] 

BANKS (1821-1897), novelist; i\6t Varley ; schoolmistress 
at Cheetham. near Manchester; married, 1846, George 
Liniueus Banks [q.v.], whom she assisted in his journ- 
alistic work ; published poetical works and novels, in- 
cluding the Manchester Man,' 1876. [Suppl. i. 123] 

BANKS, JOHN (ft. 1696), dramatist ; studied law, 
and was a member of the Society of New Inn; wrote, 

1677-96, seven plays, in verse, chiefly on historical sub- 
jects, of which the 'Unhappy Favourite* and 'Virtue 
Betrayed,' were very successfully produced. [iii. 127] 

BANKS or BANCKS, JOHN (1709-1751), miscella- 
neous writer ; weaver's apprentice ; came to London and 
entered service of a bookseller and bookbinder : published 
poems (2 vols. 1738) and other work.", including a ' Life of 
Christ ' and an account of Oliver Cromwell. [iii. 128] 

BANKS, JOHN SHERBROOKE (1811-1857), major ; 
cadet in Bengal native infantry, 1829 ; quartermaster and 
interpreter, 1833 ; served at Cabul, 1842 : military secre- 
tary to Lord Dalhousie ; succeeded Sir Henry Lawrence 
as chief commissioner of Luckuow, 1857: [iii. 128] 

BANKS, Sm JOSEPH (1743-1820), president of the 
Royal Society, 1778-1820 ; educated at Harrow, Eton, and 
Christ Church, Oxford ; studied natural history ; F.R.S., 
1766 ; travelled in Newfoundland ; accompanied Cook in 
his expedition round the world in the Endeavour, 1768- 
1771, making valuable natural history collections ; on his 
return created hou. D.O.L. of Oxford ; visited Iceland, 
1772 ; baronet, 1781 ; O.B., 1795 ; P.O., 1797. His collec- 
tions and library are preserved in the British Museum. 

[iii. 129] 

BANKS, SARAH SOPHIA (1744-1818), virtuoso; 
sister of Sir Joseph Banks [q. v.] ; collected objects of 
natural history, books, and coins, which were presented to 
the British Museum. [iii. 133] 

BANKS, THOMAS (1736-1805), sculptor; appren- 
ticed as ornament carver ; studied under Scheemakers ; 
obtained medals from Society of Arts for classic bas- 
reliefs and statues, 1763-9 ; Royal Academy gold medal- 
list, 1770 ; obtained a travelling studentship and studied 
in Italy, 1772-9 ; executed several works at St. Peters- 
burg, 1781 ; exhibited at Royal Academy, 1780-1803 ; 
R.A., 1786 ; friend of Home Tooke, and arrested on the 
charge of high treason about the same time as Tooke. 
Works by him are in Westminster Abbey, St. Paul's 
Cathedral, and the Royal Academy. [iii. 133] 

genealogist ; educated for the law ; practised largely 
in cases of disputed inheritance ; published many genea- 
logical books, including the 'Dormant and Extinct 
Baronage of England ' (1807-9), a similar work on the 
J peerage (1812), and pamphlets in support of spurious 
claims to peerages, among which were the dukedom of 
Norfolk, 1812, and the earldoms of Stirling and Salisbury, 
1830. [UL 134] 

BANKS, WILLIAM STOTT (1820-1872), antiquary ; 
attorney, 1851; clerk to Wakefield justices, 1870; pub- 
lished ' Walks in Yorkshire ' (1866-72). [iii. 136] 

BANKTON, LORD (1685-1760). [See MACDOWELL, 



QTJELLE, JOHN DE (d. 1308), judge ; justice itinerant 
for Kent, 1299 ; baron of exchequer, 1307. [iii. 136] 

BANKWELL, ROGER DE (ft. 1340), judge ; appointed 
justice of king's bench, 1341. [iii. 136] 

BANKYN or BANEKYNE, JOHN (ft. 1382), friar 
of Augustinian monastery, London ; D.D. Oxford ; op- 
posed Wycliffe at Blackfriars council, 1382. [iii. 136] 

BANNARD, JOHN (ft. 1412), Augustiniau friar at 
Oxford ; according to Wood, professor of theology, and 
afterwards chancellor of the university. [iii. 137] 

BANNATYNE, GEORGE (1545-1608 V), collector of 
Scottish poems ; burgess of Edinburgh, 1587 ; made, in 
1568, a manuscript collection of poems by fifteenth and 
sixteenth century poets. The ' Bauuatyue MS.' has been 
printed by the Hunterian Club. [iii. 137] 

BANNATYNE, RICHARD (d. 1605), secretary to 
John Knox ; subsequently clerk to the advocate Samuel 
Cockburn ; wrote ' Memorials of Transactions in Scot- 
land from 1569 to 1573.' , [iii. 138] 

1833), Scottish judge; admitted advocate, 176 ; promoted 
to bench aa Lord Bannatyne, 1799; knighted, 1823; 
original member of Highland Society and Bannatyue 
Club, and a projector of and contributor to the ' Lounger ' 
and ' Mirror.' [iii. 138] 




BAN1IERMAN, ANNE (d. 1829), Scottish poetical 
writer; published 'Poems,' 1800, and 'Tales of Supersti- I 
tion and Chivalry, 1 1802. [Hi. 139] 

BANNERMAN, JAMES (1807-1868), theologian: 
educated at Kdinhureh : professor of apologetics and I 
pastonil theolinr.v. New College (Free church), Edinburgh, 
1849-68: published theological works. [iii. 139] 

BANNERMANN, ALEXANDER( ft, 1766), engraver : 
member of Incorporated Society of Artists, 1766: exe- j 
cuted several portraits for Walpole's 'Anecdotes of 
Painters,' [iii. 139] 

BANNISTER, CHARLES (17387-1804), actor and 
vocalist : performed first in London at Haymarket 
Theatre, 1762; appeared at Ranelagh as imitator of 
popular vocalists : acted or sang at the Haymarket, the 
Royalty, Oovent Garden, and Drury Lane. [iii. 140] 

BANNISTER, JOHN ( 1760-1836), comedian : son of 
Charles Bannister [q. v.] : student at Royal Academy ; 
appeared at Haymarket as Dick in Murphy's ' Apprentice,' 
1778; engaged as stock actor at Drnry Lane, 1778-9: 
created Don Whiskeraudoe in the 'Critic,' Drury Lane, 
1779, and subsequently numbered amonir his parts Charles 
Surface, Parolles, Georsre Barnwell, Brisk (Congreve's 
'Double Dealer'), Speed ('Two Gentlemen of Verona'), 
Sir Anthony Absolute, Bob Acres, and Tony Lumpkin ; 
acting-manager of Drnry Lane, 1802-3 : retired, 1815. 

[iii. 140] 

BANNISTER, JOHN (1816-1873), philologist ; M.A. 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1853 : LL.D., 1866 ; perpetual 
curate of Bridgehill, Derbyshire, 1846-57, and of St. Day, 
Cornwall, 1857-73 ; published works on Cornish language. 

[iii. 141] 

BANNISTER, SAXE (1790-1877), miscellaneous 
writer ; M.A. Queen's College, Oxford, 1815 : called to 
bar at Lincoln's Inn ; attorney-general of New South 
Wales, 1823-6: bedel to Royal College of Physicians, 
1848 ; published pamphlets and legal and historical works. 

[iii. 142] 

BANSLEY, CHARLES (./?. 1548), poet : published a 
rhyming satire on feminine love of dress, 1540. [iii. 143] 

BANTING, WILLIAM (1797-1878), writer on corpu- 
lence : undertaker in London ; published ' A Letter on 
Corpulence,' 1863. [iii. 143] 

BANTER, HENRY (/. 1739), medical writer; 
physician at Wisbeach ; extraordinary L.C.S., 1736; 
published medical works. [iii. 143] 

BAPTIST, JOHN CASPARS (d. 1691), portrait and 
tapestry painter ; pupil of Bossaert. [iii. 144] 

BARBAR, THOMAS ( fl. 1587), divine: M.A. St. 
John's College, Cambridge, 1567 : B.D., 1676 : preacher at 
St. Mary-le-Bow, c. 1576 : suspended for refusing to take 
the ex-offlcio oath, 1684. [iii. 144] 

BARBATJLD, ANNA LETITIA (1743-1825), miscel- 
laneous writer : wV Aikin ; acquired considerable learning 
at an early age; published poems, 1773, and, with her 
brother, prose essays ; married Rev. Rochemont Barbauld, 
1774 ; established boys' school at Palgrave, Suffolk, where 
were written her ' Hymns in Prose for Children ' ; gave up 
the school, 1785 ; published selection of English prose and 
poetry, entitled ' The Female Speaker,' and' Eighteen Hun- 
dred and Eleven,' a poem, 1811 (original of Macaulay's 
4 New Zealander '). [iii. 144] 

BARBER, CHARLES (>l. 1854), landscape painter; 
teacher of drawing at the Royal Institution, Liverpool, 
where he helped to found the Architectural and Archaeo- 
logical Association. [iii. 146] 

BARBER, CHAKLKS CHAPMAN (d. 1882), barris- 
ter; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge', 1H33: called to 
bar at Lincoln's Inn ; acted for defendants in Tichborne 

trials, 1867 and 1872, and for crown in subeequent proseo 
tioti for perjury. [iii. 146] 

BARBER, CHRISTOPHER (1736-1810), miniaturist; 
exhibited at Royal Academy from 1770. [iii. 146] 

BARBER, EDWARD (d. 1674 ?), baptist minister in 
the Spital, Bishopsgate Street, London ; originally clergy- 
man of established church ; wrote controversial and 
other religious works. [iii. 146] 

BARBER, JOHN (d. 1549), clergyman and civilian ; 
D.C.L. All Souls' College, Oxford, and member of CV 
of AdvocaU-s, 1532 ; joined a plot against Cranmer, 1543; 
probably identical with John Harbour, proctor for Anne 
Boleyn on occasion of her divorce. [iii. 147] 

BARBER, JOHN VINCENT ( ft. 1830), painter ; son 
of Joseph Barber [q. v.] : exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, 1812, 1821, 1829, and 1830. [iii. 148] 

BARBER, JOSEPH (1757-1811), landscape painter; j 
established drawing-school at Birmingham. [iii. 148] 

BARBER, MARY (1690 7-1757), poetess ; wife of a 
tailor in Dublin ; attracted by her poems the attention of 
Swift, who provided her with introductions in England, 
where she published with some success, by subscription 
(1734), ' Poems on Several Occasions.' Being in pecuniary 
distress she obtained from Swift his unpublished ' Polite 
Conversations,' the publication (1738) and sale of whiofc I 
placed her in comfortable circumstances. [iii. 148] 

BARBER, SAMUEL (1738 7-1811), Irish presbyterian 
minister at Rathfriland, co. Down, 1763-1811 ; licensed, I 
1761 ; colonel of Rathfriland volunteers, 1782 : urged 
sweeping civil and ecclesiastical reforms in volunteer 
conventions, 1782, 1783, and 1793 ; moderator of general 
synod, 1790 ; imprisoned on charge of high treason, 1798: I 
published, 1786, vigorous 'Remarks' on the bishop of 
Clovne's ' Present State of the Church of Ireland.' 

[iii. 149] 

BARBON, NICHOLAS (d. 1698), writer on money; 
probably son of Praisegod Barbon [q. v.] : M.D. Utrecht, 
1661 ; hon F.C.P., 1664 ; M.P. for Bramber, 1690 and 1695 ; 
erected many buildings in London after fire of 1666 ; first | 
instituted fire insurance in England ; wrote two treatises 
on raising value* of coinage. [iii. 150] 

: GOD (1596 7-1679), anabaptist and politician ; leather- 
seller in Fleet Street ; freeman of Leathersellers' Com- 
: pany, 1G23 ; warder of yeomanry, 1630 ; third warder, 
i 1648; chosen minister by paedo-baptist members of a 
i divided congregation in Fleet Street, 1630 : published 
! defence of paado-baptism, 1642 ; M.P. for City of London, 
1653 ; opposed restoration of Charles II by circulating 
an account of Charles's life in Holland and petitioning 
I parliament, 1660 ; confined, after the Restoration, for 
some time in the Tower. [iii. 151] 

BARBOTIR, JOHN (1316 7-1396), Scottish poet : arch- 
' deacon of Aberdeen ; probably studied and taught at Ox- 
i ford and Paris : one of auditors of exchequer, 1372, 1382, 
, and 1384 ; clerk for audit of king's household, 1373 : com- 
posed his poem 'Brus,' celebrating the war of indepen- 
dence and deeds of King Robert and James Douglas, 1375. 
i Other poems which have with reasonable certainty been 
ascribed to him are the ' Legend of Troy,' and ' Legends of 
, the Saints,' being translations from Guido da Colonua'a 
I ' Historia Destructions Troise ' and the ' Legenda Aurea.' 

BARCAPLE, LORD (1803-1870). [See 

BARCHAM, JOHN (1572 7-1642). [See BARKHAM.] 

BARCLAY, ALEXANDER ( 1476 7-1552), poet, scholar, 
and divine ; probably of Scottish birth ; travelled on the 
continent ; priest in college of Ottery St. Mary, Devou- 
I shire; translated Brant's Narrenschiff* into English 
J verse as ' The Shyp of Folys,' 1508 ; became a Benedictine 
; monk at Ely, where he wrote his ' Eclogues ' and trans- 
lated a 'Life of St. George' from Baptist Mantuau : left 
Ely before dissolution of the monasteries and joined 
Franciscan order at Canterbury ; rector of All Hallows, 
I Lombard Street, London, 1552. His works include a 
translation of Sallust's ' Bellum Jugurthinum.' [iii. 156] 

BARCLAY, ANDREW WHYTE (1817-1884), physi- 
I cian ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1839, and Cambridge, 1852 ; phy- 
sician, St. George's Hospital, 1862-82; wrote medical 
i works. [iii. 161] 

BARCLAY, DAVID (1610-1686), Scottish soldier and 
politician ; served under Gustavus Adolphus ; com- 
manded with Middleton before Inverness, 1646 ; member 
of Scottish and (1664-6) Cromwell's parliaments; arrested, 
1666 ; released : quaker, 1666. [iii. 167] 

[iii. 153] 





BARCLAY, SIR GEORGE (fl. 1696), principal agent 
In assassination plot against William III, 1696 ; of Scottish 
descent ; commanded under M'Douald at Killiecrankie ; 
lieutenant in James's horse-guards ; commissioned, 1696, 
to stir up a rising in James's favour in England, but de- 
tected, [iii. 161] 

BARCLAY, HUGH (1799-1884), Scottish lawyer; 
member of Glasgow faculty of law, 1821 ; sheriff substitute 
of wf-tcrn IVrthshire, 1829, and of Perthshire, 1833 ; pub- 
lished legal works, including 'Digest of Law of Scot- 
land' (1852-3). [iii. 162] 

BARCLAY, JOHN (1582-1621), author of the 'Argenis,' 
born at Pont-a-Moussou ; perhaps educated by Jesuits ; 
lived in London, 1606-16, and in Rome, 1616-21 : published 
' Sutyrii'ou,' 1603-7, ' Sylvae ' (Latin poems), 1606, 'Icon 
Auimorum,' 16 14, and 'Argenis,' a Latin satire on political 
faction and conspiracy, 1621. [iii. 162] 

BARCLAY, JOHN (1734-1798), minister of church 
of Scotland ; M.A. St. Andrews ; assistant minister at 
Brrol, whence he was dismissed for inculcating obnoxious 
doctriiH-s ; assistant minister at Fettercairn, Kincardine- 
shire, 1763 ; published religious treatises, including ' With- 
out Faith, without God ' (1769), and was inhibited from 
preaching at Fettercairn, 1772 ; appealed unsuccessfully 
to synod ; formed with his disciples (who designated 
tbi'nistlves Bereans) congregations at Sauchyburn and 
Edinburgh, teaching in the main the doctrines of Calvin ; 
subsequently founded a church of Bereans in London. 

[iii. 164] 

BARCLAY, JOHN (1741-1823), general ; lieutenant in 
marines, 1756 ; served throughout seven years' war and 
American war ; captain, 1762 ; brevet- major, 1777 : brevet- 
licutenant-colonel, 1783 : employed on staff in England ; 
general, 1813 ; retired, 1814. [iii. 166] 

BARCLAY, JOHN (1758-1826), anatomist : nephew 
of John Barclay (1734-1798) [q. v.] ; educated at St. 
Andrews ; licensed minister ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1796 ; 
lectured on anatomy in Edinburgh, 1797-1825 ; F.O.P. Edin- 
burgh, 1806 ; published works on anatomy. [iii. 166] 

BARCLAY, JOSEPH (1831-1881), bishop of Jerusalem, 
1881 ; M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1867 ; missionary at 
Constantinople for Society for Promoting Christianity 
among Jews, 1858 ; incumbent of Christ Church, Jerusa- 
lem, 1861-70; returned to England and received living 
of Stapleford ; D.D. Dublin, 1880 ; published translations 
from Talmud. [iii. 167] 

BARCLAY, ROBERT (1648-1690), quaker apologist : 
son of David Barclay [q. v.] ; educated at Scottish college, 
Paris ; joined quakers, 1667 ; published ' Catechism and 
Confession of Faith,' 1673, and ' The Apology,' 1676, up- 
holding quaker doctrines ; travelled in Holland and Ger- 
many, and made acquaintance of Elizabeth, princess Pala- 
tine ; several times imprisoned, but by 1679 was enjoying 
favour at court ; received, with Penn and other quakers, 
proprietorship of East New Jersey, 1683, of which he was 
appointed nominal governor ; died at Ury, where he had 
resided for many years. ' The Apology ' is the standard 
exposition of the tenets of his sect, of which the essential 
principle is that all true knowledge comes from divine 
revelation to the heart of the individual [iii. 167] 

BARCLAY, ROBERT (1774-1811), lieutenant-colonel ; 
served with distinction in East Indies, 1789-95; with 
Moore in Sweden and Portugal as lieutenant-colonel, 1806 ; 
died from effects of wound received at Busaco. [iii. 170] 

BARCLAY, CAPTAIN ROBERT (1779-1854). [See 

BARCLAY, ROBERT (1833-1876), ecclesiastical 
historiographer; educated at Friends' schools; opened 
stationery manufacturing business, London, 1855 ; fre- 
quently preached at quaker meetings and missions, 
though not a minister ; published ' Inner Life of Reli- 
gious Societies of Commonwealth,' 1876. [iii. 170] 

BARCLAY, THOMAS (fl. 1620), scholar; studied 
at Bordeaux ; professor of ancient and modern law, Tou- 
louse, at Poitiers, and finally again at Toulouse. 

[iii. 171] 

BARCLAY, THOMAS (1792-1873), principal of Glas- 
gow University : M.A. King's College, Aberdeen, 1812 ; 
reporter for ' Times,' London, 1818-22 ; minister of Dun- 
rossucss, Shetland, 1822, and of Lerwick, 1827 ; clerk of 

synod of Shetland, 1831 ; D.D. Aberdeen, 1849 ; principal 
of Glasgow University, 1858-73. [iii. 172] 

BARCLAY, WILLIAM (1546 or 1547-1608), Scottish 
jurist : educated at Aberdeen ; emigrated to France, 1671 ; 
studied at Paris and Bourges, where he taught law ; pro- 
fessor of civil law at Pont-a-Mousson University, council- 
lor of state, and master of requests ; LL.D. ; resigned chair 
and came to England, 1603 ; returned to France, 1604, and 
became professor of civil law and dean of faculty of law 
at Angers, 1605 ; died at Angers ; his most important work, 
' De Regno et Regali Potestate,' 1600. [iii. 173] 

BARCLAY, WILLIAM (1670?-! 630?), Scottish mis- 
cellaneous writer M.A. and M.D. Louvain ; professor of 
humanity, Paris University ; practised medicine in Scot- 
land, and subsequently settled at Nantes ; his works in- 
clude 'Nepenthes, or theVertues of Tobacco,' 1614. 

[iii. 174] 

BARCLAY, WILLIAM (1797-1859), miniature 
painter ; exhibited at Royal Academy and at the Salon. 

[iii. 174] 

BARCROFT, GEORGE (d. 1610), musician ; B.A. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1574 ; minor canon and 
organist at Ely Cathedral, 1679-1610. [iii. 175] 

1660). soldier and diplomatist : educated at Eton 
and King's College, Cambridge; D.C.L. Oxford, 1643; 
fought for king during civil war ; captured by parliamen- 
tarians and exiled, 1647 ; killed in sandstorm while on 
embassy from Charles II to Persia. [iii. 175] 

BARDELBY, ROBERT DE (fl. 1323), judge ; one of 
keepers of great seal, 1302-21 ; pauon of Chichester ; jus- 
tice, 1323. [iii. 175] 

BARDNEY, RICHARD OF (fl. 1503), Benedictine of 
Bardney, Lincolnshire ; B.D. Oxford ; wrote a metrical 
life of Grosstete, 1503. [iii. 176] 

BARDOLF, HUGH (d. 1203), justiciar of curia regis ; 
itinerant justice, 1184-9 ; associated in the charge of the 
kingdom in Henry's absence, 1188 ; justiciar with Puiset 
and Lougchamp, 1189. [iii. 176] 

BARDOLF (1368-1408), warrior ; succeeded to barony, 1386 ; 
supported the Percies during Richard II's reign ; accom- 
panied Henry IV on invasion of Scotland, 1400 : implicated 
in Hotspur's rebellion, 1403 ; joined Northumberland, 1405, 
and suffered confiscation of lands ; assisted Owen Glen- 
dower [q. v.] in Wales, 1405-6 ; invaded north of England 
with Northumberland, and was defeated by Sir Thomas 
Rokeby [q. v.] at Bramham Moor, where he died of wounds. 
Lord Bardolf figures in Shakespeare's 'Henry IV.' 

[Suppl. i. 123] 

BARDOLF, WILLIAM (d. 1276), baronial leader; 
made constable of Nottingham by provisions of Oxford ; 
surrendered Nottingham to the king, 1264; joined 
Henry III and was captured at Lewes. [iii. 176] 

BARDSLEY, SIR JAMES LOMAX(1801-1876), physi- 
cian ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1823; president, Royal Medical 
Society ; physician to Manchester Infirmary, 1823-43 ; 
knighted, 1853 ; published medical writings, [ill 176] 

BARDSLEY, SAMUEL ARGENT (1764-1851), physi- 
cian ; educated at London, Edinburgh, and Leyden; M.D., 
1789 ; physician to Manchester Infirmary, 1790-1823 ; pub- 
lished medical and other writings. [iii. 177] 

BARDWELL, THOMAS (d. 1780 ?), portrait painter ; 
well-known copyist ; published ' Practice of Painting and 
Perspective made easy,' 1756. [iii. 177] 

BAREBONES, PRAISEGOD (1596 ?-1679). [See 

BARENGER, JAMES (1780-1831), animal painter ; 
exhibited at Royal Academy, 1807-1831. [iii. 177] 

BARET or BARRET, JOHN (d. 1580?), lexicogra- 
pher ; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1558 : fellow ; 
M.D., 1577 ; published ' An Alvearie, or Triple Dictionarie 
in English, Latin, and French,' 1574. [iii 177] 

1789), miscellaneous writer; born at Turin; keeper of 
stores of new fortifications, Cuneo, 1743-5; at Turin 
1747-51 ; led by his impetuous disposition into literary con- 
troversy with Bartoli, professor of literature at Turin, who 
appealed to the authorities ; came to England, obtained 




an engagement in Italian Opera House and opened school 
for teaching Italian, 1751 : made acquaintance of Dr. 
Johnson and Thrale; published 'italian and English Dic- 
tionnry,' 1760; returned to Italy after visiting PortuuMl 
and Spain, 1760, and at Johnson's suggestion published 
account of his travels, 1762 : undertook publication of 
4 La Frusta Letteraria ' (' The Literary Scourge '), which 
Italian writers resented, 1765 ; returned to London, 1766 ; 
F.S.A.: travelled with Thrale in France and Flanders; 
tried at Old Bailey for killing ruffian who attacked him in 
Haymarket, and acquitted, 1769 ; accompanied theThrales 
and Johnson to France, 1775 ; published in French a ' Dis- 
course on Shakespeare,' 1777. His portrait was painted 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds. [iii. 178] 

BARFF, SAMUEL (1793 7-1880), phil-hellene ; born 
presumably in England : banker and merchant at Zante, 
1816, where he took part with Byron In Greek struggle for 
independence. [iii. 182] 

BARFORD, WILLIAM, D.D. (d. 1792), scholar and 
divine; educated at Eton; D.D. King's College, Cam- 
bridge, 1771 ; public orator, 1761-8 : chaplain to House 
of Commons, 1769; prebendary of Canterbury, 1770; 
vicar of All Hallows, Lombard Street, 1773-92 ; published 
poems and dissertations in Latin and Greek, [iii. 182J 

BARON, d. 1658 ; HAMILTON, JOHN, second BARON, d. 1693.] 

BARGRAVE, ISAAC (1586-1643), dean of Canter- 
bury ; M.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge ; M.A. Oxford, and 
rector of Eythorne, 1611; 'taxor' at Cambridge, 1612; 
chaplain to Wotton at Venice ; D.D. Cambridge, a nd 
prebendary of Canterbury, 1622; received living of St. 
Margaret's, Westminster ; chaplain to Prince Charles ; 
dean of Canterbury, 1625 ; became very unpopular among 
clergy, and at beginning of civil war was arrested and con- 
fined three weeks in the Fleet, 1642 ; published sermons. 

[iii. 183] 

BARGRAVE, JOHN (1610-1680), divine : nephew of 
Isaac Bargrave Fq- v.] ; fellow of St. Peter's College, Cam- 
bridge ; ejected, 1643 : travelled on continent till Resto- 
ration ; canon of Canterbury, 1662 ; went on mission to 
ransom English captives at Algiers. [iii. 184] 

cian ; M.B. Cambridge, 1827 ; M.D., 1860 ; successively 
senior physician and consulting physician at Royal Corn- 
wall Infirmary ; wrote scientific papers. [iii. 184] 

(1726-1813). [See MIDDLKTON, CHARLES.] 

BARHAM, FRANCIS FOSTER (1808-1871), the 
'Alisf; son of T. F. Barham (1766-1844) [q. v.] ; en- 
rolled attorney, 1831 ; joint editor and proprietor of 
New Monthly Magazine,' 1839-40; originated Alism,' a 
system which ' included and reconciled all divine truths ' 
wheresoever found ; formed society of Alists. His publi- 
cation? include a revised version of the bible (1848) and 
an edition of Jeremy Collier's ' Ecclesiastical History of 
Great Britain ' (1840). [iii. 185] 

BARHAM, HENRY (1670 ?-1726), naturalist; ap- 
prenticed as surgeon ; master-surgeon in navy ; visited 
Spain, Madras, and Jamaica, where he became surgeon- 
major of the military forces : publisheVl treatise on silk 
manufacture, 1719 : F.R.S., 1717 : returned to Jamaica, 
1720, and died there. His works include a 'History of 
Jamaica,' and a treatise entitled 4 Hortus Americanus,' 
containing much information on natural history. 

[iii. 186] 

BARHAM, NICHOLAS (d. 1577), lawyer : called to 
bar at Gray's Inn, 1542 ; ' ancient,' 1562 ; Lent reader, 
1558 : serjeant-at-law, 1567 : M.P. for Maidstone, 1563 ; 
conducted prosecution of Duke of Norfolk for conspiring 
with Mary Queen of Scots against Elizabeth, 1572, and of 
the duke's secretary, Higford ; died of gaol fever con- 
tracted at trial of Jencks, a malcontent Roman catholic. 

BARHAM, RICHARD HARRIS (1788-1845), author 
of 4 Ingoldsby Legends ' ; educated at St. PaulV School 
and Brasenose College, Oxford ; incumbent of Snargate, 
1817; minor canon of St. Paul's 1821 ; appointed priest- 
in-ordinary of chapels royal, 1824 : divinity lecturer at 
St. Paul's and vicar of St. Faith's, 1842. The ' Ingoldsby 
Legends' were printed in ' Bentley's Miscellany ' and the 
4 New Monthly Magazine ' and were published collectively, 
1840 ; second and third series appeared, 1847. [ill. 188] 

BARHAM, THOMAS FOSTER (1766-1844), musician : 
B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1792 ; engaged in 
mercantile pursuits ; published original musical composi- 
tions and miscellaneous works. [iii. 189] 

BARHAM, THOMAS FOSTER (1794-1869), physician 
and classical scholar ; son of Thomas Foster Barham 
[q. v.] ; M.B. Queens' College, Cambridge, 1820 ; prac- 
tised at Penzance; physician to Exeter dispensary and 
institution for blind, 1830 ; actively supported Unitarian 
congregations at Exeter ; published theological and classi- 
cal works. [ill. 190] 

BARHAM, WILLIAM FOSTER (1802-1847 ?), poet ; 
son of Thomas Foster Barham (1766-1844) [q. v.] ; B.A. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1824 ; Person prizeman, 1821 
and 1822 ; M.A., 1827 ; author of an unpublished poem 
on ' Moskow.' [ill. 190] 


(1774-1848), financier and statesman ; son of Sir Francis 

Baring [q. v.] , whose financial house he entered ; spent 

some time in United States : M.P. for Taunton, 1806-26. 

I Callington, 1826-31, Thetford, 1831-2, and North Essex, 

' 1833-5 ; opposed measures against American commerce ; 

president of board of trade and master of mint, 1834 ; 

raised to peerage, 1835 ; commissioner at Washington for 

settlement of boundary dispute, 1842 ; published political 

and economic pamphlets. [iii. 190] 

BARING, CHARLES THOMAS (1807-1879), bishop 
of Durham : grandson of Sir Francis Baring [q. v.] ; gra- 
duated at Christ Church, Oxford, first-class classics and 
mathematics, 1829; incumbent of All Saints, Marylebone, 
1847 ; chaplain in ordinary to the queen and select preacher 
at Oxford, 1850 ; bishop of Gloucester and Bristol, 1856, 
of Durham, 1861. [iii. 191] 

BARING, Sm FRANCIS (1740-1810), London mer- 
chant ; founder of financial house of Baring Brothers & 
Co. ; a director of East India Company, 1779, chairman, 
1792-3; baronet, 1793: M.P., 1784-90 and 1794-1806; 
published financial treatises. [ill. 192] 

NORTHBROOK (1796-1866), statesman; grandson of Sir 
Francis Baring [q. v.] ; M.P. for Portsmouth, 1826-65 : 
lord of treasury, 1830-4, and joint secretary, 1834 and 
1835-9 ; chancellor of exchequer, 1839-41 ; first lord of 
admiralty, 1849-52 ; peer, 1866. [iii. 193] 

nte Montagu ; daughter of sixth Earl of Sandwich ; mar- 
ried William Bingham Baring, second baron Ashburton 
[q. v.], 1823 ; of literary tastes ; friend of Carlyle. 

[iii. 193] 

BARING, THOMAS (1799-1873), financier : grandson 
of 6ir Francis Baring [q. v.] : M.P. for Great Yarmouth, 
1835-7, and Huntingdon, 1844-73 ; chancellor of exchequer, 
1852 and 1858. [iii. 193] 

BURTON (1799-1864), statesman ; son of Alexander Baring, 
first baron [q. v.] : M.P. from 1826 to 1848 ; secretary to 
board of control, 1841-5 : paymaster, 1845-6 ; president of 
j Geographical Society, 1860-4. [iii. 193] 

BARKER, ANDREW (<f . 1577), merchant of Bristol ; 
engaged in trade with Spanish settlements ; fitted out ex- 
pedition, 1576, and was killed by Spaniards. [iii. 194] 

BENJAMIN (1776-1838), landscape 
painter ; brother of Thomas Barker (1769-1847) [q. v.] ; 
exhibited at Royal Academy, 1800-21. [iii. 194] 

BARKER, SIR CHRISTOPHER (d. 1649), Garter 
king-of-arms : Lysley pursuivant and, later, Suffolk herald 
in Duke of Suffolk's service ; successively Calais pur- 
suivant extraordinary, Rougedragon pursuivant, Rich- 
mond herald (1522),Norroy king-of-arms and Garter king- 
of-arms (1536) ; knighted, 1548. [HI. 194] 

1599), queen's printer : originally member of Drapers' 
Company : Genevan bible first printed in England by him, 
1675 ; printed two different versions of bible, 1576 ; pur- 
chased patent including right to print Old and New 
Testament in English, thereby becoming queen's printer, 
1677 ; warden of Stationers' Company, 1582 : obtained ex- 
clusive patent for all state printing and for religious books, 




1589. He produced thirty-eight editions of the bible or 
parts thereof between 1575 and 1588, and his deputies pro- 
duced thirty-four between 1588 and 1599. [iii. 195] 

BARKER, COLLET (1784-1831), explorer ; captain in 
39th ntriment in Peninsula and iu Ireland : sailed for 
Australia, 1828 : successively commandant of settlements 
at llaflies Bay and King George's Sound : lost his life while I 
exploring neighbourhood of St. Vincent's Gulf. [iii. 197] 

BARKER, EDMOND (1721-1780?), physician: M.D. 
Leyden. 1747 : member of Ivy Lane Club, founded by 
Dr Johnson ; librarian to College of Physicians, 1760. 

[iii. 197] 

BARKER. EDMUND HENRY (1788-1839), classical 
scholar : educated at Trinity College, Cambridge ; im- 
prisoned in Fleet owing to financial losses arising from an 
unsuccessful lawsuit to prove his father's legitimacy; 
edited many editions of Greek and Latin authors and 
compiled with Professor Dunbar of Edinburgh a Greek 
and English lexicon. [ill. 198] 

BARKER, FRANCIS (rf. 1859 ?), Irish physician ; 
established first fever hospital in Ireland, at Waterford ; 
professor of chemistry, Dublin ; M.D., 1810 ; secretary to 
Irish board of health, 1820-52. [iii. 199] 

BARKER, FREDERICK (1808-1882), Australian 
bishop ; M.A. Jesus College, Cambridge, 1839 ; bishop of 
Sydney and metropolitan of Australia, 1854 ; D.D., 1854 ; 
formed general synod with authority over church in Aus- 
tralia and Tasmania ; died at San Eemo. [iii. 199] 

t, GEORGE (1776-1845), solicitor of Birming- 
ham, where he founded Philosophical Society, and greatly 
improved general hospital; member of Royal Society, 
1839. [iii. 200] 

Sm GEORGE ROBERT (1817-1861), 
colonel royal artillery ; served as captain in Crimean war, 
and as colonel during Indian mutiny ; K.C.B. [iii. 200] 

BARKER, HENRY ASTON (1774-1856), panorama 
painter ; son of Robert Barker (1739-1806) [q. v.] ; pupil 
at Royal Academy, 1788 ; between 1802 and 1822 prepared 
and exhibited panoramas including Constantinople, Malta, 
Venice, and battle of Waterloo. [iii. 201] 

BARKER, HUGH (d. 1632), lawyer ; master of school 
attended by Selden at Ohichester ; D.L. Oxford, 1605 ; 
dean of court of arches. [iii. 201] 

BARKER, JAMES (1772-1838), navy captain ; lieu- 
tenant, 1795 ; at battles of L'Orient, St. Vincent, and the 
Nile ; commander, 1798 ; post captain, 1812. [iii. 201] 

BARKER, JOHN (fl. 1464), scholar; educated at 
Eton and King's College, Cambridge ; wrote ' Scutum 
Inexpugnabile,' a work on logic. [iii. 202] 

BARKER, JOHN (rf. 1653), navy captain ; London 
ship-owner ; obtained, with others, letters of marque for 
vessel, which he commanded in Mediterranean ; captain 
of one of his own ships in Dutch war, 1652 ; confirmed as 
captain in navy, 1653 ; killed in fight off Portland. 

[iii. 202] 

BARKER, JOHN (1708-1748), medical writer ; M.D. 
Wadham College, Oxford, 1743 ; M.O.P., 1746 ; physician 
to his majesty's forces in Low Countries, 1747; pub- 
lished works on epidemic fever of 1740-2. [iii. 203] 

BARKER, JOHN (1682-1762), presbyterian divine; 
minister to congregation at Mare Street, Hackney, 1714- 
1738; pastor of Salters' Hall congregation, 1741-62; 
published sermons. [iii. 202] 

BARKER, JOHN (1771-1849), British consul-general 
in Egypt, 182 9-33 ; born in Smyrna ; entered London 
banking house ; private secretary to John Spencer Smith, 
British ambassador to the Porte, 1797-9 ; British consul at 
Alexandria, 1825 : retired to Suediah, near Antioch, 1833. 

[iii. 204] 

BARKER, JOSEPH (1806-1875), preacher and con- 
troversialist ; wool-spinner at Bramley, near Leeds, 
and Wesleyan preacher and home missionary ; joined 
Methodist New Connexion ; travelling preacher succes- 
sively on Hanley, Halifax, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Sun- 
derland circuits, 1829-33: preacher on Chester circuit, 
1835-7; expelled from Methodist New Connexion for 
denying the 'divine appointment of baptism,' 1841 ; pastor 
at Newcastle-on-Tyue ; imprisoned for connection with 
Chartist agitation, 1848 ; went to Central Ohio, 1851 ; 

lecturing tours, 1857-8 ; returned to England, 1860 ; joined 
primitive inethodists at Bilston and Tunstall, and was 
local preacher, 1863-8 ; died at Omaha. Published contro- 
versial and religious works ; conducted printing business, 
issued 'Barker's Library,' a cheap series of theological, 
philosophical, and ethical works, and founded several 
periodicals, including ' The People,' to propagate his ex- 
treme opinions. [iii. 204] 

BARKER, MATTHEW (1619-1698), nonconformist 
divine; M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge: conducted 
school at Banbury till 1641 ; incumbent of St. Leonard's, 
Eastcheap, 1660 ; ejected, 1662 : preached at meeting- 
house in Miles Lane, 1666 ; published religious works. 

[iii. 207] 

BARKER, MATTHEW HENRY (1790-1846), writer 
of sea tales ; served on East Indiaman and in navy ; 
naval editor of ' United Service Gazette.' [iii. 207] 

BARKER, ROBERT (d. 1645), king's printer ; son of 
Christopher Barker [q. v.] : freeman of Stationers' Com- 
pany, 1589 ; liveryman, 1592 : received reversion of his 
father's patent for English bibles, prayer-books, statutes, 
and proclamations, 1589; specially licensed 'to print all 
statutes and libels for life,' 1603, and 'all books in Latin, 
Greek, and Hebrew, Trimelius's Latin bible, and all charts 
and maps, 1604 ; his most important publication was the 
first edition of the authorised version of the English bible, 
1611, and the ' Wicked ' bible, 1631. [iii. 207] 

BARKER, Sm ROBERT (1729 ?-1789), officer of East 
India Company in India, 1749; captain of artillery at 
Chandernagore and Plassey, 1758; major in Draper's 
expedition from Madras to Philippine islands, 1762 ; 
K.B., 1763: provincial commander-in-chief in Bengal, 
1770 ; concluded treaty with the Rohillas, 1772 ; quar- 
relled with Warren Hastings and returned to England ; 
M.P. for Wallingford ; published scientific treatises. 

[iii. 208] 

BARKER, ROBERT (1739-1806), reputed inventor of 
panoramas ; portrait painter and teacher of drawing in 
Edinburgh ; exhibited panorama at Edinburgh, Holy- 
rood, and Glasgow, and in London, 1789 : subsequently 
exhibited in London other panoramas, including a view 
of fleet at Spithead, 1794. [iii. 209] 

BARKER, SAMUEL (1686-1759), hebraist; wrote a 
Hebrew grammar, published 1761. [iii. 210] 

BARKER, THOMAS (ft. 1651), author of ' The Art 
of Angling,' 1651 ; probably gained a living by accom- 
panying gentlemen on fishing expeditions. [iii. 210] 

BARKER, THOMAS (1722-1809), scientist and mis- 
cellaneous writer ; published ' An Account of Discoveries 
concerning Comets,' 1757, and other works. [iii. 211] 

. THOMAS (1769-1847), painter ; attracted 
attention of a wealthy coachmaker of Bath, who provided 
him with means of studying in Rome : painted chiefly 
landscapes and rustic scenes ; exhibited occasionally at 
Royal Academy, 1791-1829, and at British Institution, 
1807-47 ; ' The Woodman ' and ' Old Tom ' are two of his 
best-known pictures. [iii. 211] 

BARKER, THOMAS JONES (1815-1882), painter; 
son of Thomas Barker (1769-1847) [q. v.] ; studied in 
Paris, 1834-45, and exhibited frequently at the Salon ; 
returned to England, 1845, and became known as painter 
of portraits and military subjects ; made many sketches at 
seat of hostilities during Franco-German war, 1870 ; his 
works include 'Meeting of Wellington and Blucher' and 
' Nelson on board the San Josef.' [iii. 212] 

BARKER, THOMAS RICHARD (1799-1870), inde- 
pendent minister ; educated at Christ's Hospital : pastor 
at Alresford, Hampshire, 1822, Harpenden, 1824, and 
Uxbridge, 1833-8 : tutor in classics and Hebrew, Spring 
Hill College, Birmingham, 1838-70. [Iii. 213] 

BARKER, WILLIAM (/. 1572), translator; M.P. 
for Great Yarmouth ; secretary to Duke of Norfolk, for 
complicity in whose plots he was confined in Tower, 
1571 : probably author of translations from Italian and 
Greek, including Xenophon's ' Cyropsedia.' [iii. 213] 

orientalist, son of John Barker (1771-1849) [q. v.] ; born 
at Aleppo : in England, 1819 ; journeyed to sources of the 
Orontes, Syria : for many years official resident at Tarsus, 
and subsequently professor of Arabic, Turkish, Russian, 



and Hindustani, Eton College : during the Crimean war, 
chief superintendent of land transport at Sinope, where 
he died ; published oriental works. [iii. 213] 

BARKER. WILLIAM HIGGS (1744-1815), hebraist ; 
B.A.- Trinity College, Cambridge, 1765 : Perry exhibi- 
tioner, 1764-7 ; master of Carmarthen grammar school, 
1767; published Hebrew grammar (1771) and lexicon 
(1812). [iii. 214] 

BARKHAM or BARCHAM, JOHN (1572?-1642), 
antiquary ami historian : M.A. Corpus Christi College, 
1594 ; B.D., 1603 : chaplain to Bancroft and Abbot, arch- 
bishops of Canterbury ; prebendary of St. Paul's, 1610, 
assisted Speed in ' History of Britain,' and left in manu- 
script a treatise on coins. [iii. 214] 

BARKING, RICHARD DB (d. 1246), judge; prior 
and, 1222, abbot of Westminster ; successively privy coun- 
cillor, baron of exchequer, and treasurer ; lord justice 
during king's absence in Welsh wars, 1245. [iii. 215] 

colonial governor ; sou of Sir Henry Barkly [q. v.] : lieu- 
tenant-governor of Falkland Islands, 1886-7, and of Heli- 
goland, 1888-90. [Suppl. i. 126] 

BARKLY, Sm HENRY (1815-1898), colonial go- 
vernor: M.P. for Leominster, 1845-8; governor and 
commander-in-chief of British Guiana, 1848-53 : K.O.B., 
1853; governor of Jamaica, 1853-6, Victoria, 1856-63, 
Mauritius, 1863-70, and Cape Colony, 1870-7 ; high com- 
missioner for settling affairs of territories adjacent to 
eastern frontier of Cape Colony, 1870 : proclaimed Griqna- 
land West a British dependency, 1871 : G.O.M.G., 1874 ; 
opposed Lord Carnarvon's attempt to force federation on 
Cape Colony, though considering it ultimately desirable ; 
commissioner on defence of British possessions and com- 
merce abroad, 1879 ; F.R.S., 1864 ; F.R.G.S., 1870. 

[Suppl. i. 124] 

BARKSDALE, CLEMENT (1609-1687), author : edu- 
cated at Merton College and Gloucester Hall (afterwards 
Worcester College), Oxford : chaplain of Lincoln College ; 
vicar of Hereford and master of the free school, 1 1637; 
chaplain to Chaudos family during civil war ; published 
works chiefly of religious character. [iii. 215] 

BARKSTEAD, JOHN (d. 1662), regicide: goldsmith 
in London ; captain of parliamentary infantry under 
Colonel Venn; governor of Reading, 1645: commanded 
regiment at siege of Colchester ; one of the king's judges, 
1648; governor of Yarmouth, 1649, and of the Tower, 
1652 ; M.P. for Colchester, 1654, and Middlesex, 1656 ; 
knighted, 1656 : escaped to continent, 1660 ; arrested, 1661 ; 
brought to England and executed. [iii. 216] 

BARKSTED, WILLIAM (fl. 1611), actor and poet ; 
one of the company known as ' children of the chapel ' 
and later as ' children of the queen's revels ' ; author of the 
poems, Mirrha, the Mother of Venus' (1607), and 'Hiren, 
or the Faire Greeke,' 1611. [iii. 217] 

BARKWORTH or LAMBERT, MARK (d, 1601), Bene- 
dictine monk ; laboured on English mission ; hanged at 
Tyburn, as catholic priest unlawfully abiding in Eng- 
land, [iii. 218] 

BARLING, JOHN (1804-1883), dissenting minister, 
joined Unitarians, and was minister in Halifax, 1854-8 ; 
published religious treatises. [iii. 218] 

BARLOW, EDWARD, known as AMBROSE (1587- 
1641), Benedictine monk : worked on English mission in 
Lancashire ; executed at Lancaster as catholic priest un- 
lawfully abiding in England. [iii. 218] 

BARLOW, alia* BOOTH, EDWARD (1639-1719), 
priest and mechanician ; educated at Lisbon ; worked on 
English mission) in Yorkshire and Lancashire; invented 
repeating clocks, c. 1676, and, later, repeating watches ; 
wrote works on meteorology, published posthumously. 

[iii. 219] 

BARLOW, FRANCIS (1626?-1702), animal painter 
and engraver ; executed plates for ^Esop's fables, published 
with Mrs. Behn's translation, 1666. [iii. 219] 

governor-general; appointed to Bengal civil service, 
1778 ; sub-secretary in revenue department, 1788 ; chief 
secretary to government, 1796 : member of supreme coun- 
cil, 1801; baronet, 1803; governor-general, 1805-7; 

governor of Madras, 1807 ; caused great discontent by his 
economical reforms in the army, an unsuccessful mutiny 
being the result ; recalled, 1812. [iii. 220] 

BARLOW, HENRY CLARK (1806-1876), writer on 
Dante : educated a*d architect ; student at Royal Academy ; 
relinquished the profession in consequence of an accident, 
1827 ; studied medicine at Edinburgh : M.D., 1837 ; devoted 
himself to scientific pursuits ami arti-tic criticism in Paris ; 
studied Italian ; in Italy, 1841-6 : spent many years in 
research and in collation of manuscripts relating to Dante, 
in various countries of Europe ; published ' Critical, Histori- 
cal, and Philosophical Contributions to Study of " Diviua 
Oommedia,"' 1864; author of many works relating to 
Dante and Italy. [iii. 221] 

BARLOW, PETER (1776-1862), mathematician, 
physicist, and optician ; began life in obscure mercantile 
position ; schoolmaster ; assistant mathematical master 
(1801), and subsequently, till 1847, professor in Royal 
Military Academy; honorary M.I.O.E., 1820; received 
Society of Arts' gold medal for scheme for correcting ships' 
compasses, 1821; F.R.S., 1823; published 'Mathematical 
and Philosophical Dictionary,' 1814, and ' Essay on Strength 
of Timber,' 1817. [iii. 222] 

BARLOW, PETER WILLIAM (1809-1885), civil en- 
gineer ; associate M.I.O.E., 1827 ; resident engineer under 
Sir William Oubitt [q. v.] of various sections of London 
and Dover railway, 1836-40, and of the whole line, 1840 ; 
engineer-in-chief ; F.R.S., 1845 ; employed in connection 
with several railways in Ireland from 1850 ; investigated 
construction of bridges of great span, 1858 ; engineer for 
Lambeth bridge, 1860-2 ; constructed Tower subway, 1869- 
1870. [Suppl. i. 126] 

BARLOW, SIR ROBERT (1757-1843), admiral; 
lieutenant, 1778; captain, 1793; attached to fleet under 
Lord Howe ; knighted, 1801 ; flag-captain to Lord Keith 
in Downs, 1805-6 ; commissioner of Chatham dockyard, 
1808; K.O.B., 1820; rear-admiral, 1823; admiral, 1840; 
G.O.B., 1842. [Suppl. i. 127] 

BARLOW, RUDESIND (1585-1656), Benedictine 
monk ; superior of St. Gregory's at Douay. [iii. 224] 

BARLOW, THOMAS (1607-1691), bishop of Lincoln : 
M.A. Queen's College, Oxford, 1633 ; metaphysical reader to 
university, 1635 ; strongly supported views then considered 
orthodox at Oxford, but on its surrender to Fairfax, and 
again at the Restoration, accommodated himself to cir- 
cumstances and escaped ejection ; provost of Queen's, 1657 ; 
librarian of Bodleian, 1642-60 ; D.D., Lady Margaret pro- 
fessor of divinity, and prebendary of Worcester, 1660; 
bishop of Lincoln, 1675 ; displayed strong anti-popish prin- 
ciples in publication of controversial and other tracts ; he 
was one of first to declare his loyalty to James II, and 
turned whig at William Ill's accession. In addition to 
published works, which were chiefly religious, he left many 
learned treatises in manuscript. [iii. 224] 

BARLOW, THOMAS OLDHAM (1824-1889), mezzo- 
tint engraver ; articled as engraver at Manchester, where 
he studied designing ; established himself independently in 
London, 1847 ; executed plates after John Phillips, Millais, 
Turner, Landseer, and others; R.A., 1881; director of 
etching class at South Kensington, 1886. [Suppl. i. 127] 

antiquary and naturalist ; F.L.S., 1848 ; called to bar at 
Gray's Inn, 1848 ; practised at Manchester ; queen's advo- 
cate, Sierra Leone, 1856 ; published work so nnatural his- 
tory and the antiquities of Cheshire. [iii. 229] 

BARLOW, WILLIAM (d. 1568), bishop of Ohichester ; 
D.D. Oxford ; canon of St. Osyth's, Essex ; prior of Black- 
more, Tiptree, 1509, Lees, 1615, Bromehill, c. 1524 ; wrote, 
on suppression of Bromehill by Wolsey, a series of heretical 
pamphlets which were prohibited, 1529, the author subse- 
quently recanting; attached to embassy to France and 
Rome, 1530 : successively prior of Haverfordwest and 
Bisham ; bishop of St. Asaph and, later, of St. David's, 
1536 ; founded Christ College and grammar school, Brecon, 
1542 ; bishop of Bath and Wells, 1548 : resigned see on 
Mary's accession; imprisoned in Tower, but having re- 
canted succeeded In reaching Germany ; bishop of Chiches- 
ter, 1559, and prebendary of Westminster, 1560. [iii. 229] 

BARLOW, WILLIAM (d. 1613), bishop of Lincoln ; 
M.A., St. John's College, Cambridge, 1587; fellow of 
Trinity Hall, 1590 ; D.D., 1699 ; chaplain to Wbitgift ; 




of St. I'liul's, 1507. \\Yst minster, 1601-13, and 
Canterbury, 1606-8 : dean of ( Chester, 1602-6 : chapluin to 
Kli/.:ibcth : took part in and drew up report of Hampton 
Court conference, 1604 ; bishop of Rochester, 1605 : one of 
the preachers of the controversial sermons commanded by 
James at Hampton Court, 1606 ; bishop of Lincoln, 1608 ; 
published biography of Richard Cosin (1598) and other 
works. [iii. 231] 

divine : B.A. Balliol College. Oxford, 1564 : prebendary of 
Winchester, 1581; prebendary and, later, treasurer of 
Lid i til-Id, 1588 ; chaplain to Prince Henry, son of 
James I : published works relating to ships' compasses 
and the loadstone. [iii. 233] 

BARMBY, JOHN GOODWYN (1820-1881), Christian 
socialist ; joined group of revolutionists in London, 1837 ; 
visited Paris, 1840 : founded Communist Propaganda 
Society, 1841 ; Unitarian minister successively at South- 
ampton, Topsham, Lympstone, Lancaster, and Wake- 
field : published religious works, and contributed to com- 
munist journals. [iii. 234] 

general ; ensign, 1794 ; captain, 1794 ; served at St. 
Domingo, 1795, and subsequently in West Indies, under 
Sir Ralph Abercromby ; accompanied expedition to 
Helder, 1799 ; lieutenant-colonel, and inspecting field 
officer of militia in Canada, 1808-9 ; served in Peninsula, 
1810-14; colonel and K.C.B., 1813: present at Quatre 
Bras and wounded at Waterloo ; lieutenant-governor of 
Chelsea Hospital, 1849 ; general, 1851. [iii. 235] 

BARNARD, ANNE, LADY (1750-1825), authoress of 
1 Auld Robin Gray ' ; daughter of James Lindsay, fifth 
earl of Balcarres ; wrote, 1771, ballad, 'Auld Robin Gray' 
(published anonymously) ; married Andrew Barnard 
(1793), with whom, when appointed colonial secretary to 
Macartney, she went to the Cape of Good Hope ; returned 
to England, 1807, and lived in Berkeley Square, where her 
house became a literary centre. [iii. 236] 

ballad- writer ; between 1858 and 1869, under pseudonym of 
OLAHIBEL, wrote about one hundred ballads, [iii. 237] 

BARNARD, EDWARD (1717-1781), provost of Eton ; 
educated at Eton ; M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 
1742 ; D.D., 1756 ; fellow, 1744-56 ; headmaster of Eton, 
1764 ; provost, 1764 ; canon of Windsor, 1761. [iii. 237] 

divine and poet ; educated at Harrow ; M.A. Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, 1817; held living of Brantingthorp, 
Yorkshire ; published imitations of Meleager (1817) and 
translations from Marc-Antonio Flamiuio (posthumously), 
1829. [iii. 237] 

BARNARD, FREDERICK (1846-1896), humorous 
artist; executed many cuts for household edition of 
Dickens's works, 1871-9, and issued series of 'Character 
Sketches from Dickens,' 1879-84; exhibited at Royal 
Academy : contributed to many periodicals, including 
'Punch* and Mr. Harry Furniss's 'Lika Joko,' 1894-5. 

[Suppl. i. 128] 
M (1799-1857), 

lieutenant-general ; nephew of Sir A. F. Barnard [q. v.] ; 
educated at Sandhurst ; obtained commission in grenadier 
guards, 1814 ; served on his uncle's staff at Paris, and on 
Keane's staff in Jamaica ; major-general in Crimea, 
1864-5 ; Simpson's chief of staff, 1855 ; on staff in Bengal 
during Indian mutiny, 1857 ; died of pestilence at Delhi. 

[iii. 238] 

BARNARD, JOHN (ft. 1641), musician; minor 
canon of St. Paul's ; published collections of church music, 
1641. [iii. 238] 

BARNARD or BERNARD, JOHN (d. 1683), bio- 
grapher ; B.A. and fellow, Lincoln College, Oxford, 1648 ; 
M.A., 1651 ; prebendary of Lincoln, 1672 ; D.D., 1669 ; 
published life of Dr. Heylyn, 1683. [iii. 239] 

BARNARD, JOHN (/. 1685-1693), supporter of 
James II : B.A. and fellow, Braseuose College, Oxford, 
1682 ; took orders in church of England, but afterwards 
declared himself papist, and supported James II ; lecturer 
in moral philosophy, Queen's College, 1687-8 ; corrected 
and enlarged Bohuu's 'Geographical Dictionary.' 

[Iii. 239] 

BARNARD, Sm JOHN (1686-1764), merchant and 
politician ; alderman of London, 1728-56 ; sheriff, 1735 ; 
lord mayor, 1737 ; knighted, 1732; M.P. for city of Lon- 
don, 1722-61 ; recognised as a high authority on financial 
questions ; a statue to him was erected on the Royal 
Exchange by his fellow citizens, 1747 ; his publications 
include 'A Present for an Apprentice,' 1740. [iii. 240] 

BARNARD, THOMAS (1728-1806), bishop; educated 
at Westminster; M.A. Cambridge, 1749; archdeacon of 
DerryandD.D. Dublin, 1761 ; dean of Derry, 1769 ; bishop 
of Killaloe and Kilfenora, 1780, and of Limerick, Ardfert, 
and Aghadoe, 1794 ; F.R.S., 1783 ; member of the Literary 
Club, to which Johnson and his friends belonged. 

[iii. 241] 

BARNARD, WILLIAM (1697-1768), bishop of Derry ; 
D.D. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1740 ; vicar of St. Bride's, 
Fleet Street, 1729 ; prebendary of Westminster, 1732 ; 
dean of Rochester, 1743 ; bishop of Raphoe, 1744, and of 
Derry, 1747. [iii. 241] 

BARNARD, WILLIAM ^(1774-1849), mezzotint en- 
graver ; for some years keeper of British Institution. 

[iii. 242] 

puritan ; knighted, 1618 ; -M.P. for Sudbufy, Suffolk, 
1626-6 ; refused to act as commissioner for collection of 
loan enforced without parliamentary consent, 1625, and 
was imprisoned, 1627-8; M.P. for Suffolk, 1628, and in 
1640 in both Long and Short parliaments : took covenant 
and became parliamentary assessor for Suffolk, 1643 ; ap- 
parently took no active part in Great Rebellion. 

[iii. 242] 

BARNARDISTON, Sm SAMUEL (1620-1707), whig 
politician ; son of preceding : knighted, 1660 ; baronet, 
1663 ; deputy-governor of East India Company, 1668 : 
fined and imprisoned for protesting against ruling of 
House of Lords in trading dispute, 1668 ; stood as whig 
M.P. for Suffolk, 1672, and, though gaining more votes, 
his opponent was returned with him by Sir William 
Soame, the sheriff ; declared duly elected by the Commons ; 
brought an action for malice against Soame in the king's 
bench, and recovered damages ; verdict reversed by the 
exchequer chamber on appeal, and reversal confirmed 
against Barnardiston's suit by the House of Lords ; M.P. 
for Suffolk, 1678-1702 ; fined and imprisoned for expressing 
openly dissatisfaction at proceedings following discovery 
of Rye House plot, 1684-8 ; judgment against him reversed, 
1689. [iii. 244] 

BARNARDISTON, SIR THOMAS (d. 1669), parlia- 
mentarian ; son of Sir Nathaniel Barnardiston [q. v.] ; 
knighted, 1641 ; M.P. for Bury St. Edmunds, 1645 ; fought 
on side of parliament ; M.P. for Suffolk, 1654, 1G56, and 
1659 ; supported Restoration ; created baronet, 1663. 

[iii. 246] 

BARNARDISTON, THOMAS (d. 1752), legal re- 
porter ; serjeant-at-law, 1735 ; published reports of chan- 
cery and king's bench cases. [iii. 247] 

BARNATO, BARNETT ISAACS (1852-1897), finan- 
cier ; real name ISAACS ; went to South Africa, 1873 ; 
assumed name of Barnato and traded as diamond dealer 
at Kimberley; established in London firm of Barnato 
Brothers, 1880; floated Barnato Diamond Mining Com- 
pany, Kimberley, 1881 : amalgamated with De Beers com- 
pany, controlled by Mr. Cecil Rhodes, 1868 ; member of 
Kimberley divisional council from l&O; member for 
Kimberley in Cape Assembly, 1888 and 1894 ; invested in 
mining and other property in Rand ; chief manipulator 
of ' Kaffir boom ' in London, 1895, suffering heavy losses ; 
drowned himself during voyage from Cape Town. 


BARNBY, Sm JOSEPH (1838-1896), composer and 
conductor ; chorister in York minster ; studied at Royal 
Academy of Music; organist and choirmaster at St. 
Andrew's, Wells Street, London, 1863-71, and at St. Anne's, 
Soho, 1871-86 ; musical adviser to Messrs. Novello, 1861-76 ; 
formed, 1867, and conducted ' Mr. Joseph Baruby's Choir,' 
which gave many successful 'oratorio concerts' till 1872, 
when it was amalgamated with M. Gounod's choir as 
Royal Albert Hall Choral Society (now Koyal Choral 
Society) ; precentor of Eton, 1875-92 ; second principal 
of Guildhall School of Music, 1892-6 ; knighted, 1892 ; 
composed chiefly sacred vocal music. [Suppl. i. 130] 




BARNES, AMBROSE (1627-1710), nonconformist; 
merchant-adventurer, 1655 : mayor of Newcastle, 1661 ; 
did much to alleviate suflYrinns of nonconformists in 
Charles II 'u reign ; wrote social and political treatises. 

[iii. 247] 

BARNES, BARN ABE (1569 ?-1609), poet ; educated at ' 
Brasenose College, Oxford ; accompanied Earl of Essex to j 
join French against Parma, 1591 ; issued (perhaps i 
privately) Parthenophil and Partheiioplir, Sonnrtttv. 
Madrigals, Elegies, and Odes,' 1593, and' A Divine Oen- I 
tune of Spirituall Sonnets,' 1595. In his play ' The Devil's I 
Charter,' parallels have been found to passages in ' The ' 
Tempest ' and ' Oymbeline.' [iii. 247] 

BARNES, SIR EDWARD (1776-1838), lieutenant- 
general ; ensign, 1792 : colonel, 1810 ; on staff in Peninsula, 
1812-14, and as adjutant-general in campaign of 1816, 
being wounded at Waterloo ; K.O.B. : lieutenant-general, 
1825 ; governor of Ceylon, 1824-31 ; commander-in-chief i 
in India, and G.O.B., 1831 ; M.P. for Sudbury, 1837. 

[iii. 249] 

BARNES, JOHN (d. 1661), Benedictine monk ; edu- 
cated at Oxford, and, being converted to Catholicism, at 
Salamanca, entered Benedictine monastery at Valladolid, 
and was professed, 1604 ; ordained priest, 1608 : assistant 
of English mission, 1613 ; banished from England ; di- 
vinity lecturer at Douay ; raised suspicious of his order, 
and was imprisoned by inquisition at Rome, where he 
died ; published religious works. [iii. 249] 

BARNES, JOSHUA (1654-1712), Greek scholar and 
antiquary; educated at Christ's Hospital and Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge ; fellow, 1678 : M.A., 1679 ; 
B.D., 1686 ; professor of Greek, 1695. His works include 
'Sacred Poems,' dramatic pieces in English and Latin, 
a 'Life of Edward III' (1688), an edition of Homer 
(1710), and various religious treatises. [iii. 250] 

BARNES, JULIANA (6. 1388 ?). [See BURNERS.] 

BARNES, RICHARD (1532-1687), bishop of Durham ; 
fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford, 1552 ; M.A., 1567 ; 
D.D., 1579 ; chancellor, 1561, and, later, canon-residentiary 
and prebendary oT York ; sutfragau-bishop of Nottingham, 
1567 ; bishop of Carlisle, 1570, and of Durham, 1577. 

[iii. 252] 

BARNES, ROBERT (1495-1540), protestaut divine 
and martyr ; joined convent of Austin friars, Cambridge, 
and subsequently became prior of the house ; D.D., 1523 ; 
brought before vice-chancellor of Clare Hall for preaching 
sermon of puritanical character, and, having been examined 
by Wolsey and four bishops, was called upon (1526) to 
abjure or burn ; abjured ; committed to the Fleet, and 
afterwards to the custody of the Austin friars ; escaped 
to Antwerp, 1528 ; became acquainted with Luther and 
other reformers ; returned to London on Cromwell's invi- 
tation, 1631 ; sent to Germany to procure from Lutheran 
divines approval of King Henry's divorce and second mar- 
riage, 1535, and was also employed in negotiating marriage 
with Anne of Oleves, 1539 ; attacked Gardiner with much 
scurrilous abuse at St. Paul's Cross ; subsequently asked 
and received the bishop's pardon, but, returning to his 
old doctrines, was imprisoned under bill of attainder and 
ultimately burned ; published religious tracts in German 
and English. [iii. 253] 

BARNES, THOMAS (1747-1810), Unitarian divine 
and educational reformer ; minister at Cockey Moor, 1768, 
and at Cross Street chapel, Manchester, 1780-1810 ; mainly 
instrumental in establishing College of Arts and Sciences ; 
hon. D.D. Edinburgh, 1784 ; principal of Manchester 
College, c. 1784-98. [iii. 257] 

BARNES, THOMAS (1785-1841), editor of the 
'Times' 1817-41 ; educated at Christ's Hospital and Pem- 
broke College, Cambridge ; acquainted with Hunt, Lamb, 
and Hazlitt. [Iii. 257] 

BARNES, WILLIAM (1801-1886) the Dorsetshire 
poet ; son of a farmer in Vale of Blackmore ; entered 
solicitor's office at Dorchester, 1818 ; master of a school at 
Mere, Wiltshire, 1823 : executed woodcuts for several pub- 
lications ; contributed to 'County Chronicle,' 1833, ' Poems 
in Dorset Dialect,' published, 1844; removed school to 
Dorchester, 1835 ; entered at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, as ten years' man, 1838 ; B.D., 1850 ; pastor of 
Whitcombe, 1847-63: published 'Philological Grammar,' 
18*4, and 'Hwomely Rhymes,' 1858; rector of Came, 

1862-86. His works include ' Se Gcfylsta : an Anglo-Saxon 
Delectus.' 1849 : ' Tiw : or a View of Roots and Stems of 
English as a Teutonic Tongue,' 1862 ; and 'Grammar and 
Glossary of Dorset Dialect,' 1863. His poems in Dorset 
dialect were collected, 1879. [Suppl. i. 131] 



BARNET, JOHN (</. 1373), bishop ; prebendary of St. 
Paul's, 1347, and of Lichfield, 1354 ; bishop of Worcester, 
1362, Bath and Wells, 1363, and Ely, 1366 ; treasurer of 
England, 1363-70. [iii. 258] 

BARNETT, CURTIS (d. 1746), commodore; flag- 
lieutenant to Sir Charles Wagner in Baltic, 1726 ; served 
as commander on Irish coast, 1730 ; in Mediterranean, 
1731-4, and during Spanish war, 1740-2 ; commodore of 
squadron in East Indies in French war, 1744 ; died at Fort 
St. David's. [iii. 268] 

BARNETT, JOHN (1802-1890), stnger and musical 
composer ; of German origin ; articled to Samuel James 
Arnold [q. v.] : first appeared in public at Lyceum, 1813, 
and continued to sing till 1817 ; musical director at 
Olympic, 1832 : composed ' Mountain Sylph,' opera, pro- 
duced at Lyceum, 1834, and 'Fair Rosamund' (Drury 
Lane), 1837; opened St. James's Theatre for English 
opera, but achieved small success : devoted himself to 
teaching singing ; published 'School for the Voice,' 1844. 

[Suppl. i. 133] 

BARNETT, MORRIS (1800-1856), actor and drama- 
tist ; played with great success Tom Drops in the ' School- 
fellows ' (Douglas Jerrold) at Drury Lane, 1833 ; wrote 
several popular dramas including ' Monsieur Jacques ' and 
' The Serious Family ' ; on staff of ' Morning Post ' and 
'Era.' [iii. 260] 

BARNEWALL, ANTHONY (1721-1739), officer in 
the German army ; son of John, eleventh lord Trimles- 
ton ; served in Germany with Hamilton's cuirassiers ; 
killed at Krotzka. [tii. 260] 

(1470-1538), high chancellor of Ireland ; second justice of 
king's bench 1509 ; high treasurer of Ireland, 1524 ; high 
chancellor, 1534-8. [iii. 260] 

LAND (1592-1663), M.P. for co. Dublin in Irish parlia- 
ments, 1634 and 1639 ; fled on outbreak of Irish rebellion, 
1643 ; created Viscount Kingsland, 1645. [iii. 261] 

LAND (1668-1725), captain in James's Irish army, 1688 ; 
outlawed; subscribed Irish catholic petition against in- 
fraction of treaty of Limerick, 1703. [iii. 261] 

1622), statesman ; imprisoned in Dublin and afterwards in 
Tower for supporting petition in favour of those who re- 
fused to attend protestant church on Sundays, 1605 ; 
opposed creation of new boroughs in Ireland, leis. 

[iii. 261] 

lawyer ; called to bar at Inner Temple, 1806 ; reported in 
court of king's bench, 1817-1834. [iii. 262] 

BARNEY, JOSEPH (1751-1827), fruit and flower 
painter ; studied under Zncchi and Angelica Kauffmann ; 
drawing master at Royal Military Academy, [iii. 262] 

BARNFEELD, RICHARD (1574-1627), poet; BA. 
Braseuose College, Oxford, 1592; published 'Affectionate 
Shepherd ' (1594), 'Cynthia, with certain Sonnets ' (1595), 
and other poems (1598), including two pieces, which ap- 
peared in the ' Passionate Pilgrim,' 1699, and were long 
attributed to Shakespeare. [iii. 262] 

BABNHAM, BENEDICT (1559-1598), merchant and 
benefactor of St. Alton's Hall, Oxford, where he was 
educated ; liveryman of Drapers' Company ; alderman of 
London, 1591 ; member, Society of Antiquaries,1572. 

[iii. 263] 

BARNHAM, SIR FRANCIS (</. 1646?), parliamen- 
tarian ; knighted, 1603 ; M.P. for Gramponnd, 1603 and 
1614, and Maidstone, 1621, 1624, 129, and 1640 ; supported 
parliamentarians in civil war. [iii. 264] 

BARNINOHAM, JOHN (d. 1448), theologian ; edu- 
cated at Oxford and Paris ; prior of White Carmelites at 
Ipswich; wrote religious treatises. [iii. 264] 



BARNS, LORD (d. 1594). [See SKTON, Sm JOHN.] 

BARNSTON. JOHN (d. 1645), divine ; fellow, 
noee Collide, oxford, where he endowed, 1028, a lectureship 
in Hei.ivw prebendary of Salisbury, IGOO; D.D., 1616. 

[iii. 264] 

BARO, PETER (1534-1599), controversialist; born at 
EUmipes ; bachelor of civil law, Bourges, 1556; admitted 
advocate at Paris, 1557; entered ministry at Geneva, 
1. ))(): lecturer in divinity and Hebrew, King's College, 
Cambn.k'. : Lady Margaret professor of divinity, 1574; 
D.D., 1676 ; reprimanded by the vice-chancellor for preach- 
ing Arminian doctrine and criticising the Lambeth Ar- 
ticles, 1595 ; published controversial and other religious 
works. He was almost the first divine in England who 
combated the endeavours to^ impart a definitely ultra- 
Calvinistic character to the church of England. 

[iii. 265] 

VENTURA (d. 1696), Irish Franciscan and miscellaneous 
\vritt'r ; entered Franciscan order in Italy, c. 1636 ; lived 
at college of St. Isidore, Koine ; successively provincial 
commissary of Franciscans and custos of Scotland ; spent 
close of his life at Rome. His publications include several 
poems, a treatise on Bocthius, and an exposition of the 
works of Duns Scotus. [iii. 267] 

BARON. BERNARD (d. 1762), engraver ; reproduced 
works by Vandyck, Kueller, Hogarth, Rubens, Titian, 
Watteau, Teniers, and other artists. [iii. 267] 

BARON or BAREON, GEOFFREY (d. 1651), Irish 
rebel : elder brother of Bartholomew Baron [q. v.] ; dele- 
gate of Irish confederates to court of France, 1642; 
executed on taking of Limerick. [iii. 268] 

BARON, JOHN (1786-1851), physician; M.D. Edin- 
burgh, 1805 ; practised at Gloucester ; physician to General 
Infirmary ; admitted to the Royal Society, 1823 ; retired to 
Cheltenham, 1832 ; founder of Medical Benevolent Fund, 
and active supporter of Medical Missionary Society of 
Edinburgh. His publications include a ' Life of Edward 
Jenner' and three works on tubercle. [iii. 269] 

BARON or BARRON, RICHARD (d. 1766), repub- 
lican ; educated at Glasgow, 1737-40; edited Milton's 
prose works, Algernon Sidney's 'Discourse concerning 
Government,' and collections of republican tracts and 
other works. [iii. 270] 

BARON, ROBERT (1593 ?-1639), divine; successively 
professor of divinity at St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews, 
and at Marischal College, Aberdeen ; minister of Grey- 
friars, Aberdeen, 1624 ; D.D., 1627 ; published controversial 
and other religious writings. [iii. 270] 

BARON, ROBERT (fl. 1645), poet and dramatist; 
educated at Cambridge. His publications include 'Cy- 
prian Academy,' 1647, which, with other of his works, 
contains whole passages from Milton's minor poems 
(1645), 'Mirza,'a tragedy, resembling Denham's ' Sophy ' 
(1642) ; and ' Apologie for Paris,' 1649, many passages of 
which are possibly imitated from Jonson's ' Catiline.' He 
was a skilful plagiarist, but was detected after the lapse 
of a century. [iii. 270] 

BARON, STEPHEN (d. 1520 ?), Franciscan friar of 
the Strict Observance ; confessor to Henry VIII and pro- 
vincial of his order in England. [iii. 272] 

BARONS or BARNES, WILLIAM (d. 1505), bishop 
of London ; LL.D. Oxford ; commissary of chapter and 
of prerogative court, Canterbury ; deputed to reply in 
St. Paul's to objections to banns of Prince Arthur and 
Katharine of Arragou, 1501 ; master of rolls, 1502 ; bishop 
of London, 1504. [iii. 272] 

BARONSDALE, WILLIAM (d. 1608), physician ; M.D. 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 1568 ; Linacre lecturer on 
medicine ; F.C.P. ; president College of Physicians, 1589- 
1600. [iii. 272] 

BAROWE or BARROW, THOMAS (d. 1497?), 
divine and judge ; prebendary of Westminster and master 
of rolls, 1483 ; master in chancery ; keeper of great seal, 
1484. [iii. 272] 

BARRA. LORD (rf. 1654). [See HAY, Sm JOHN.] 

BARRALET, JOHN JAMES (</. 1812), water-colour 
painter : member of London Society of Artists ; emigrated 
to Philadelphia, 1795. [iii. 273] 

(1773?-1863), soldier and explorer ; ensign in New South 
Wales corps, 1800; surveyor to expedition to Bass's 
Straita (of which he prepared charts) and Hunter's River, 
1800-3 ; lieutenant, 1805 ; served at Martinique, 1809, and 
Guadaloupe, 1810 ; surveyed Barbados, 1812-17 : brevet 
lieutenant-colonel, 1840. [iii. 273] 

BARRATT, ALFRED (1844-1881), philosophical 
writer ; educated at Rugby ; B.A. Balliol College, Oxford, 
1866 ; fellow of Brasenose College, 1869 ; called to the 
bar, 1872: secretary of Oxford University commission, 
1880 ; published ' Physical Ethics,' 1869, and left unfinished 
a work on ' Physical Meteinpiric.' [iii. 274] 

BARRATTD, HENRY (1811-1874), painter; exhibited 
chiefly portraits at Royal Academy, 1833-59. [iii. 275] 

BARRAUD, WILLIAM (1810-1850), animal painter ; 
exhibited at Royal Academy and other exhibitions, 1828- 
1850 ; brother of Henry Barraud [q. v.] [iii. 275] 

BARRE, ISAAC (1726-1802), colonel and politician ; 
graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, 1745 : served under 
Wolfe against Rochefort, 1757 ; M.P. for Chipping Wy- 
coinbe, 1761-74, and Came, 1774-90 ; adjutant-general and 
governor of Stirling, 1763-4 ; vice- treasurer of Ireland and 
privy councillor ; treasurer of navy, 1782. [iii. 275] 

BARRE. RICHARD (fl. 1170-1202), ecclesiastic and 
judge ; envoy to papal court at time of Becket's murder ; 
keeper of great seal, 1170 ; archdeacon of Ely, 1184 V-96 ; 
justice of king's court, 1196. [iii. 276] 

BARRE, WILLIAM VINCENT (1760 ?-1829), author ; 
born in Germany of Huguenot parents ; served in Russian 
navy ; interpreter to Bonaparte, against whom he wrote 
satiric verses and was compelled to fly to England, 1803 ; 
published ' History of French Consulate under Napoleon 
Buonaparte,' whom he scurrilously attacked, [iii. 276] 

BARRET, GEORGE, the elder (1728 V-1784), painter ; 
apprenticed as staymaker in Dublin, where he studied 
and subsequently taught drawing ; came to England, 
1762, and quickly achieved success as landscape painter ; 
master painter to Chelsea Hospital. [iii. 277] 

BARRET, GEORGE, the younger (d. 1842), painter ; 
son of George Barret (1728 ?-1784) [q. v.] ; exhibited chiefly 
landscapes at Royal Academy, from 1796, and at Society 
of Painters in Watercolours, 1805-42. [iii. 278] 

BARRET, JOHN (d. 1563), Carmelite friar of King's 
Lynn ; D.D. Cambridge, 1533 : vicar of Bishop's Thorpe, 
1558, and prebendary of Norwich; published religious 
works. [UL 278] 

BARRET, JOHN (d. 1580 ?). [See BARET.] 

BARRET, JOHN (1631-1713), nonconformist divine ; 
M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge ; presbyterian minis- 
ter at Nottingham, 1656, where, being ejected in 1662, he 
held conventicles ; published religious works, [iii. 278] 

BARRET, JOSEPH (1666-1699), religious writer ; sou 
of John Barret (1631-1713) [q. v.] ; in business at Not- 
tingham ; his ' Remains ' appeared, 1700. [iii. 279] 

BARRET, PATRICK (d. 1415), bishop of Ferns, Wex- 
ford, 1400 : chancellor of Ireland, 1410-12 ; compiled cata- 
logue of bishops of Ferns. [iii. 279] 

BARRET, RICHARD (d. 1599), catholic divine; edu- 
I cated at Douay and Rome ; D.D. Rome, 1582 ; superin- 
tendent, 1582, and president, 1588, of English college at 
Rheims and, on its removal thence, at Douay. [iii. 279] 

BARRET, ROBERT (/. 1600), military and poetical 

writer ; saw service among French, Dutch, Italians, and 

Spaniards; published in London, 1598, ' Theorike and 

Practike of Modern Warres,' and left in manuscript an 

I epic poem entitled ' The Sacred War.' [UL 279] 

BARFET, WILLIAM (d. 1584), British consul at 
: Aleppo, 1584 ; wrote treatise on ' Money and Measures of 
Babylon, Balsara, and the Indies.' [iii. 280] 

BARRET, WILLIAM (/. 1595) : divine; M.A. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1688 ; aummoned before Arch- 
bishop Whitgift for preaching anti-Calvinistic sermon at 
Cambridge, 1595 ; fled to continent and embraced Catho- 
licism, 1597 ; subsequently lived as layman in England. 

[Ui. 280] 




BARRETT. KAT<>\ ST \NN.\IU) ( 17Kfi-lH2(>), poeti- 
cal writer : studied at Middle Temple, l/>ndon : published 
'Woman, and other Poems' 1810, und several political 
satires. [iii. 281] 

BARRETT, ELIZABETH (1809-1861). [See Buowx- 


BARRETT. GEORGE (1762-1821), actuary to Hope 
Life Office, 1813. He prepared a series of life tobies, por- 
tions of which only were published. [iii. 281] 

BARRETT, JOHN (d. 1810), navy captain ; lieutenant 
in navy. 1793; made post-captain after capture of St. 
Lucia, 1795 : served against Danes, 1808 ; wrecked and 
drowned while convoying Baltic trade. [iii. 282] 

BARRETT. JOHN (1753-1821), divine ; fellow and 
M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1778; D.D., 1790; vice- 
provost, 1807. His publications include an astrological 
work on the Zodiac ; he edited the ' Oodex Z Dnblinensis 
Rescriptus,' discovered while examining manuscripts in 
Trinity College, 1787. [iii. 282] 

BARRETT, LUCAS (1837-1862), geologist and natural- 
ist ; educated at University College School : studied at 
Ebersdorf ; made voyage* to Shetland. Norway, Greenland, 
and Spain, studying marine fauna ; curator of Woodward- 
ian Museum, Cambridge, and fellow Geological Society, 
1855 : director of geological survey of Jamaica, 1859 ; lost 
his life off Port Royal while diving to investigate Jamaican 
coral reefs. [iii. 283] 

BARRETT, STEPHEN ( 17.18-1801), classical teacher ; 
M.A. University College, Oxford. 1744; master at free 
school, Ashford ; held living of Hothfield, Kent, 1773- 
1801. His works include a Latin translation of Pope's 
' Pastorals,' 1746. [iii. 284] 

BARRETT. WILLIAM (1733-1789), surgeon and an- 
tiquary : qualified as surgeon, 1765 ; collected materials 
for history of Bristol (published, 1789), accepting from 
Thomas Chatterton [q. v.] a? authentic the forged ' How- 
ley' manuscripts, 1789 ; P.S.A., 1776. [iii. 284] 

BARRI, GIRALDUS DK (1146 ?-1220?). [See 


BARRINGTON, DAINES (1727-1800), lawyer, anti- 
quary, and naturalist ; son of John Shute, first viscount 
Barrington [q. v.] ; called to bar at Inner Temple ; mar- 
shal of high court of admiralty, 1751 ; justice of counties 
of Merioneth, Carnarvon, and Anglesey, 1757 ; recorder of 
Bristol, 1764 ; K.C., and bencher of his inn ; second jus- 
tice of Chester, 1778-85 ; vice-president of the Society of 
Antiquaries ; commissary-general of stores at Gibraltar 
till death; said to have induced White to write his 
'Natural History of Selborne.' His writings include 
' Observations on the Statutes,' 1766, and a translation of 
King Alfred's ' Orosius,' 1773. [iii. 286] 

BARRINGTON, GEORGE (6. 1755), pickpocket and 
author ; real name WALDROX ; ran away from school and 
joined a company of strolling players, assuming name 
George Barriugton ; turned pickpocket ; came to London, 
and having been twice sentenced to hard labour, was 
ultimately transported for seven years to Botany Bay, 
1790 ; released in consideration of good behaviour, 1792; 
became superintendent of convicts and high constable of 
Paramatta, New South Wales ; published description of 
voyage to Botany Bay (1801-3) and historical works relat- 
ing to Australia. [iii. 288] 

BARBIXGTOX (1678-1734), hi wyer, polemic, and Christian 
apologist; originally named SHUTK; Ph.D. and L.A.M. 
Utrecht ; called to bar at Inner Temple ; sent to Scotland 
to win presbyterian support for the union; inherited 
estates in Essex and assumed name of Barrington, 1709 ; 
published 'Dissuasive from Jacobitism,' 1713; M.P. for 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, 1715 and 1722; raised to peerage, 
1720; expelled from House of ('ominous for connection 
with Harburg lottery, which was patronised by the king 
and Prince of Wal*, 1723; published a 'History of the 
Apostles' and (1701-6) works relating to rights of prates- 
taut dissenters. [iii. 289] 

BARRINGTON, Sm JONAH (170-1834), lawyer; 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; called to bar ; judge 
iii admiralty, 1798 ; member for Tuam in Irish House of 

Common?, 1792-8,nnd for Bannagher, 1799-1800 : deprived 
of office for appropriating money paid into his court, 1830 ; 
died at Versailles ; wrote works, relating to history of Ire- 
laud, [iii. 291] 

BARRINGTON, SAMUEL (1729-1800), admiral ; son 
of John Shute, first viscount Barrington [q. v.] ; lieuten- 
ant, 1746 ; served under Hawke in Basque Roads expedi- 
tion, 1757 ; under Rodney at destruction of shipping at 
Havre-de-Grace, 1769 ; with Hon. J. Byron at Louisbourg, 
1760, and with Keppel at Belle Isle, 1761 ; flag-captain 
under Duke of Cumberland, 1768; attached to Channel 
fleet, 1771-4 ; commander-in-chief in West Indies, 1778 ; 
took St. Lucia ; superseded by Byron : served as second in 
command at Grenada ; second in command of Channel 
fleet, 1779 and 1782 ; admiral, 1787. [iii. 291] 

BARRINGTON, SHUTE (1734-1826), divine; brother 
of Samuel Barrington [q. v.] ; educated at Eton ; M.A. 
Merton College, Oxford, 1757 ; chaplain-iu-ordiuary to 
George III, 1760 ; canon of Christ Church, 1761 ; D.C.L., 
1762 ; held a stall at Windsor, 1776 ; bishop of Llandaff, 
1769, Salisbury, 1782, and Durham, 1791 till his death, 
when he was count palatine and custos rotulorum of 
Durham ; published religious works. [iii. 294] 

COUNT BARHINOTON (1717-1793), statesman ; brother of 
Shute Barrington [q. v.] ; M.P. for Berwick-upon-Tweed, 
1740, and Plymouth, 1754 and 1765 ; introduced plan for 
formation of militia, 1745 : lord commissioner of ad- 
miralty, and member of committee for impeachment of 
Lovat, 1746 : privy councillor, 1765 ; chancellor of ex- 
chequer, 1761 ; treasurer of navy, 1762 ; secretary at war, 
1765-78 ; joint postmaster-general, 1782. [iii. 295] 

BARRITT, THOMAS (1743-1820), antiquary: col- 
lected and iuvestigated antiquities hi neighbourhood of 
Manchester. [iii. 295] 

BARRON, HUGH (d. 1791), portrait-painter ; pupil 
of Reynolds ; worked hi Lisbon and Rome ; exhibited at 
Royal Academy, 1783 and 1786. [iii. 296] 

BARRON, WILLIAM AUGUSTUS (ft, 1777), land- 
scape painter ; brother of Hugh Barren [q. v.] ; held 
position in exchequer. [iii. 296] 

BARROUGH. PHILIP (/. 1690). [See BARROW.] 

BARROW, SIR GEORGE (1806-1876), author : son of 
Sir John Barrow [q. v.] ; clerk in colonial office, 1825 ; 
secretary to order of St. Michael and St. George, 1870. 
His works include 'The Valley of Tears,' a volume of 
poems. [iii. 296] 

BARROW or BARROWE, HENRY (d. 1593), church 
reformer ; B.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1670 ; entered 
Gray's Inn, 1576 ; led a profligate life, but subsequently 
gave himself up to study of the bible ; made the ac- 
quaintance of Greenwood, and largely adopted 'Browuist' 
tenets ; arrested at instance of Whitgift, and examined 
by legal and ecclesiastical authorities, 1586 ; imprisoned 
in Fleet for denying their authority ; published with two 
fellow-prisoners an account of the examination and 
other works, for which they were arraigned, and ulti- 
mately hanged at Tyburn. His principles required the 
admission of the supreme authority of Jesus Christ and 
of Holy Scripture. [iii. 297] 

BARROW, ISAAC (1630-1677), divine and mathe- 
matical and classical scholar ; educated at Charterhouse, 
Pelstead, and Peterhouse, Cambridge ; B.A. Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, 1648 ; fellow, 1649 ; M.A., 1652 ; incor- 
porated M.A. Oxford, 1653 : travelled abroad, 1655-9 ; took 
holy orders, 1659 ; professor of Greek at Cambridge, 1660, 
and, later, of geometry at Gresham College : first Lucasian 
professor of mathematics at Cambridge, 1663 ; resigned 
in favour of his pupil, Isaac Newton, 1669, having pre- 
viously resigned the Gresham professorship; wrote 'Ex- 
position of the Creed, Decalogue, and Sacramente,' 1669 ; 
D.D. by royal mandate, 1670 ; master of Trinity, where he 
founded the library, 1672 : published ' Euclidis Elements,' 
1655, and ' Archimedis Opera,' 1676. As a mathematician 
he was considered by his contemporaries second only to 
Newton, while no more perfect piece of controversial 
writing than his treatise on the ' Pope's Supremacy ' (1680) 
i> extaut. Hie sermon uow rank amoug the finest. 

[iii. 299] 




BARROW, ISAAC (1614-1680), divine; fellow of 
Peterhouse, Cambridge ; ejected from fellowship as royalist, 
1643 : chaplain of New College, Oxford, 1643-5 ; returned 
to fellowship, 1660 : bishop of Sodor and Man, 1663, and 
governor of Isle of Mail, 1664 ; translated to St. Asaph, 
1669. [ill- 298] 

BARROW, JOHN (/. 1756), geographical compiler ; 
compiled history of the discoveries made by Europeans in 
different parts of the world, 1756. [iii. 305] 

BARROW, SIK JOHN (1764-1848), secretary of the 
admiralty : born of humble parents ; timekeeper aud sub- 
se<|iiently partner in a Liverpool ironfoundry ; comp- 
troller of household in suite of Lord Macartney; private 
secretary to Macartney at Cape of Good Hope, whither he 
was sent on mission to reconcile Boers and Kaffirs, and to 
obtain topographical information ; auditor-general of 
public records ; lived near Table Mountain, 1800-2 ; re- 
turned to England, 1803 ; second secretary of the ad- 
miralty, 1804-6 and 1807-45 ; hon. D.C.L. Edinburgh, 
1821 ; created baronet, 1835 ; founder of Royal Geographi- 

1 733 ; fellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians 
(Ireland), 1740; president, 1749: F.C.P. London, 1762; 
created baronet, 1775 ; professor of physic, Dublin ; pub- 
lished medical works. [iii. 314] 

BARRY, EDWARD (1759-1822), religious and medical 
writer ; M.D. St. Andrews ; curate of St. Marylebone, 
London ; grand chaplain to the freemasons ; published 
medical and theological works. [iii. 314] 

BARRY, EDWARD MIDDLETON (1830-1880), archi- 
tect ; son of Sir Charles Barry [q. v.] ; educated at 
King's College, London ; rebuilt Covent Garden Theatre, 
1857, and Floral Hall, 1858 ; R.A., 1869 ; professor of 
architecture at Royal Academy, 1873-80; treasurer of 
the Academy, 1874 ; competed for Albert Memorial, 1862, 
and for Law Courts, 1867. Among bis works are the 
New Palace, Westminster, 1866-8, new picture galleries 
added to the National Gallery, 1871-5, and Inner Temple 
Buildings, 1875-9. [Ui. 315] 

BARRY, ELIZABETH (1658-1713), actress; owed 

MJ99* U*BVCU IMUUUCUj M.UUU , &VUUUV* v*. Jfcwjt*!. vj**sg * |sui- % i i * T I 

cal Society ; contributed to the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica.' , "er entrance on the stage to patronage of Earl of Roches- 
His works include ' Voyages of Discovery and Research in I **r ; first appeared at Dorset Garden as Isabella, queen of 
the Arctic Regions,' an Autobiography,' and volumes de- Hungary in Mustapha,' 1673 ; 'created more than one 
scriptive of his travels. [iii. 305] 

medical writer ; licensed by Cambridge University to 
practise chirurgery aud physic ; published ' Method of 
Phisicke,' 1590. [iii. 308] 

BARROW, THOMAS (d. 1497 ?). [See BAROWE.] 

BARROW, THOMAS (1747-1813), learned Jesuit; 

rendered great services to English academy at Liege and 
to Stouyhurst College ; published verses in Hebrew and 
Greek. [iii. 308] 

BARROW, WILLIAM (1610-1679). [See WARIXG.] 

BARROW, WILLIAM (1754-1836), divine ; gained at 
Queen's College, Oxford, 1778, chancellor's prize for essay 
on ' Education ' (enlarged and published, 1802) ; D.C.L., 
and Banipton lecturer, 1799 ; prebendary, 1815, and vicar- 
gpneral, 1821, of collegiate church of Eaton ; archdeacon 
of Nottingham, 1830-2 ; F.S.A. [iii. 308] 

BARROWBY, WILLIAM (1682-1751), physician: 
M.D. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1713 : F.C.P., 1718 ; 
F.R.S., 1721 ; joint physician to St. Bartholomew's, 1750 ; 
published work on anatomy. [iii. 309] 

BARRY, MRS. ANN SPRANGER (1734-1801), actress ; 
n& Street ; married an actor named Dancer, and played 
in Portsmouth and York, c. 1766 ; played Cordelia (to 
Lear of Spranger Barry [q. v.], whom she married), 
Juliet, Desdemona, and other parts at Dublin, 1758-67 ; 
at Haymarket, 1767, where she soon gained great reputa- 
tion. Her last appearance was at Covent Garden as 
Lady Randolph, her great character, 1798. [iii. 309] 

BARRY, SIR CHARLES (1795-1860), architect: 
articled as surveyor in Lambeth, 1810-16 ; regularly 
exhibited at Royal Academy : travelled in France, Italy, 

hundred roles, including Monimia (the ' Orphan '), Cor- 
delia (Tate's version of ' King Lear '), Belvidera (' Venice 
Preserved '), Cassandra (Dryden's ' Cleomenes '), aud Zara 
(Oongreve's 'Mourning Bride') ; retired, 1710. [iii. 317] 

BARRY, GEORGE (1748-1805), topographical writer ; 
minister at Kirk wall, 1782, and Shapinshay, 1793 ; D.D. 
Edinburgh. 1804 ; published ' History of Orkney Islands,' 
1805. [Ui. 319] 

BARRY, GERAT or GERALD (fl. 1624-1642), colonel 
in the Spanish army ; served in Spanish army in Low 
Countries and Germany ; distinguished himself at siege of 
Breda, 1626 (of which he published an account, 1628), and 
subsequently as colonel in Ireland during rising of 1641, 
for assisting which he was outlawed, 1642 ; published 

Military Discipline,' 1634. 

[UL 319] 

BARRY, HENRY (1750-1822), colonel ; ensign, 1768 ; 
aide-de-camp and private secretary to Lord Rawdon dur- 
ing American war ; served in India ; colonel, 1793. 

[iii. 320] 

BARRY, JAMES, BARON SANTRY (1603-1672), lawyer : 
recorder of Dublin ; prime serjeant-at-law, 1629 ; second 
baron of exchequer and knighted, 1634; chairman of 
Dublin convention which voted unconditional restoration 
of Charles II, 1659 ; appointed chief-justice of king's 
bench and created Baron Santry, 1660. [iii. 320] 

BARRY, JAMES (1741-1806), painter ; studied under 
West at Dublin ; exhibited at Dublin, and secured friend- 
ship of Burke, who brought him to London, 1763, and 
introduced him to Reynolds and others ; visited Paris and 
Rome ; R.A., 1773 ; published ' Inquiry into Obstructions to 
Arts in England,' 1775; exhibited at Royal Academy, 
1771-6 ; decorated the walls of the Society of Arts with 
six pictures on subject of 'Human Culture,' 1777-83; 
received Society of Arts gold medal ; professor of painting 

Greece, Turkey, and Egypt, 1817-20 ; built houses of Tra- i at Royal Academy, 1782 ; expelled from the academy in 

-,,-. n,.,K /IBOO_I, M ninH P,I w.n /IT.. , couse * uence of continued quarrels with his fellow acade- 

miciaus, 1799 ; pubUshed several engravings. [iii. 321] 

BARRY, JAMES (1795-1865), woman who lived as a 
man : hospital assistant in the army, 1813 ; assistant 
surgeon, 1815 ; surgeon-major, 1827 ; deputy inspector- 
general, 1851 ; inspector-general, 1858 ; served at Malta 
and Cape of Good Hope. [iii. 324] 

BARRY, JOHN (1745-1803), commodore, U.S.A. ; 
went to sea at early age, and settled at Philadelphia, c. 
1760 ; joined United States navy at outbreak of revolu- 
tion, 1776 ; as commander of the Lexington captured the 
Edward, the first ship taken by America ; subsequently 
suffered defeat and lost his ship ; served in army, 1778-80 ; 
commodore, 1794. [iii. 325] 

BARRY, JOHN MILNER (1768-1822), physician ; 
M.D. Edinburgh, 1792 ; founded, and was first physician 
of, Cork Fever Hospital ; introduced into Ireland vaccina- 
tion, on which and other subjects he wrote papers. 

[iii. 325] 

medical writer : son of John Milner Barry [q.v.] ; M.D. 
Edinburgh, 1837 ; F.R.C.P. ; published medical treatises. 

[iii. 325] 

Club (1829-31), Reform Club, Pall Mall 
and Bridgewater House (1847) ; R.A. ; queen's gold ' 
medallist for architecture : gained first premium in i 
Houses of Parliament competition, 1836, and was occu- | 
pied in building them, 1840 - 60. They were finished by 
his son, Edward M. Barry [q. v.] [iii. 310] 

BARRY, SIR DAVID (1780-1835), physician and 
physiologist ; surgeon in army in Peninsula ; published i 
works on influence of atmospheric pressure on bodily ! 
functions ; M.D. ; F.R.S. [iii. 313] 

BARRYMORE (1605-1642), soldier : served against Scots, 
1639, and supported royal cause in Ireland, 1641-2 ; pro- 
bably died from wounds received at battle of Liscarrol. 

[iii. 313] 

VANT (1560-1617), soldier ; second son of James Barry 
Roe, viscount Buttevant ; succeeded to title, 1681, during 
life of his elder brother, who was deaf and dumb ; sup- 
ported Desmond's rebellion, 1579-83, but during Hugh 
O'NeiU's rebellion, 1594-1603. served against the rebels. 

[iii. 313] 

BARRY, SIR EDWARD (1696-1776), physician ; M.D. 
Leydeii, 1719, and Trinity College, Dublin, 1740 ; F.R. 




or BARREY, LODOWICK (17th cent.)- 
dramatist ; published 'Rain Alley or Merry Tricks,' a 
comedy in verse, 1611. [iii. 326] 

BARRY, MARTIN (1802-1865), physician: M.D. 
Edinburgh, 1833 ; studied at Heidelberg : F.R.S., 1840 ; 
discovered presence of spermatozoa in ovum, 1843. 

[iii. 326] 

BARRY, PHILIP DK (fl. 1183), warrior, nephew of 
Robert Fitz-Stepheu ; held possessions in Cork. [iii. 327] 

BARRY, Sm REDMOND (1813-1880), lawyer; B.A. 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1833 ; called to the bar, 1888 ; 
commissioner of court of requests, Melbourne, 1839 ; 
solicitor-general of Victoria, 1860; judge. 1861; first 
chancellor, Melbourne University, 1855 ; knighted, 1860. 

[iii. 327] 

BARRY, ROBERT DE (/. 1176), warrior ; brother of 
Philip de Barry [q. v.] ; wounded at siege of Wexford, 
1169. [iii. 327] 

BARRY, SPRANGER (1719-1777), actor; originally 
Dublin silversmith, but became bankrupt; played suc- 
cessfully Lear, Henry V, Hotspur, and other characters at 
Dublin, and Othello, under management of Garrick and 
Lacey, at Drury Lane, 1746 ; appeared alternately with 
Garrick in Hamlet ' and ' Macbeth ' ; played Romeo to Mrs. 
Gibber's Juliet at Covent Garden, 1750 ; in partnership 
with Woodward built new theatre at Dublin (1758), and 
Cork (1761); reappeared at Drury Lane (as Othello), 
1767, and Covent Garden, 1774. [iii. 327] 

BARRY, THOMAS DK (fl. 1560), canon of Glasgow 
and chief magistrate of Bothwell ; wrote poem on Otter- 
burn, [iii. 329] 

BARRYMORE, first EABL OF (1606-1642). [See 

BARTER, RICHARD, M.D. (1802-1870), physician; 
qualified at London College of Physicians ; established St. 
Anne's water-cure establishment at Blarney, 1842 ; set up 
first hot-air baths in British dominions, and subsequently 
instituted Turkish baths. [iii. 329] 

1808), violinist ; born at Bordeaux ; served as officer in 
Irish brigade ; adopted profession of music ; composed 
and produced several operas in London and Paris ; leader 
at VauxhaU Gardens, 1770. [iii. 329] 

BARTHLET or BARTLETT, JOHN (/. 1566), theo- 
logical writer ; minister of church of England with strong 
Calviuistic opinions ; divinity lecturer at St. Giles', Cripple- 
gate ; published ' Pedegrewe of Heretiques ' 1566. 

[iii. 329] 

BARTHOLOMEW (d. 1184), divine ; native of Brit- 
tany; bishop of Exeter, 1161 ; consented to Constitutions 
of Clarendon, 1164 ; one of five bishops sent with Henry II's 
appeal to Alexander III at Sens : took part in coronation 
of the young Henry, 1170, and was the only bishop who 
escaped excommunication for his share in that ceremony ; 
left religious manuscripts. [iii. 330] 

BARTHOLOMEW, SAINT (d. 1193), Northumbrian 
hermit ; ordained in Norway ; joined monks at Durham ; 
became hermit at Fame. [iii. 3J 1 ] 

BARTHOLOMEW ANOLICDH (Jl. 1230-1250). [See 

BARTHOLOMEW, ALFRED (-1801-1845), architect : 
articled in London ; one of earliest members of a society 
of Freemasons of the Church for furtherance of true prin- 
ciples of architecture ; editor of ' Builder,' and author of 
several practical works on architecture. [iii. 332] 

authoress and miniaturist ; published plays and poems ; 
married Walter Turn! ml!. ;u n 1 afterwards Valentine Bartho- 
lomew [q. v.], 1840 ; exhibited flower and fruit pieces in 
watercolour. [iii. 332] 

BARTHOLOMEW, DAVID EWEN (d. 1821), navy 
captain ; pressed out of merchant ship, 1794 : lieutenant, 
1805 ; commander, 1812 ; engaged on coast of Georgia 
and up St. Mary's river, 1815 ; captain and C.B., 1815 ; 
died in St lago. [iii. 333] 

BARTHOLOMEW, VALENTINE ( 1799-1879), flower 
painter in ordinary to Queen Victoria and Duchess of 
Kent ; member of Watercolour Society, 1835-79. 

[lit 833] 

BARTLEMAN, JAMES (1769-1821), vocalist: cho- 
rister at Westminster ; bass singer at the ' Ancient ( Vm- 
certs,' 1788, and, excepting from 1791-5, was permanently 
connected with that institution. [iii. 333] 

BARTLET, JOHN (/. 1662), nonconformist divine ; 
held livings in Exeter ; ejected, 1662 ; published religious 
works. [iii. 334] 

BARTLET, WILLIAM (</. 1682), independent minis- 
ter ; lecturer at Bideford, 1649 ; ejected, 1662 ; published 
two learned religious treatises. [iii. 334] 

BARTLETT, BENJAMIN {1714-1787), apothecary; 
formed collection of English coins and seals ; F.S.A., 
1764 ; published memoir on ' Episcopal Coins of Durham 
and Monastic Coins of Reading,' and left in manuscript 
'History of Manchester,' published in Nichols's 'Topo- 
graphical Antiquities.' [iii. 334] 

BARTLETT, THOMAS (1789-1864), divine; M.A. 
St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, 1816 ; published works maintain- 
ing evangelical principles, [iii. 335] 

BARTLETT, WILLIAM HENRY (1809-1854), topo- 
graphical draughtsman ; employed by John Britton, the 
architect, to make sketches in England for architectural 
publications ; subsequently visited Europe, the 'East, and 
America, and published illustrated topographical works. 

[iii. 335] 

BARTLET, GEORGE (1782 ?-1858), comedian ; em- 
ployed at Bath theatre ; appeared at Cheltenham as Or- 
lando in ' As you like it,' 1800 : engaged as Orlando by 
Sheridan at Drury Lane, 1802 ; reappeared at Drury Lane 
as Falstaff, 1815 ; stage-manager of Co vent Garden, 1829 ; 
last appeared at Princess's, 1852. [iii. 335] 

BARTLEY, SARAH (1783-1850), actress ; wife of 
George Bartley [q. v.] ; engaged as Lady Townley in the 
'Provoked Husband' at Coveut Garden, 1805: created 
Teresa in Coleridge's 'Remorse' at Drury Lane, 1813; 
toured with her husband in America, 1818-20; last 
appeared as Lady Macbeth. [iii. 336] 

BARTLOT, RICHARD (1471-1557), physician ; M.D. 
All Souls' College, Oxford, 1508; president, College of 
Physicians, 1527, 1528, 1531, and 1548. [iii. 337] 

BARTOLOZZI, FRANCESCO (1727-1815), engraver ; 
born in Florence, where he studied art ; apprenticed to 
John W T agner, an engraver, at Venice ; came to England, 

17G4, as ' engraver to the king,' and was also engaged by 
i [q. v.], librarian to George III ; joined 
incorporated Society of Arts, 1 765 ; original member of 

Royal Academy, 1769 ; took charge of National Academy 
at Lisbon, 1802, and there died. Among his best works 
are engravings after Italian masters and Holbein. 

[iii. 337] 

engraver ; son of Francesco Bartolozzi [q. v.] ; opened a 
musical and fencing academy in Paris, becoming involved 
in difficulties owing to his indolence. [iii. 339] 

BARTON, ANDREW (d. 1511), Scottish naval com- 
mander ; merchant seaman ; gained favour of James IV 
by exploits against Portuguese ships ; cleared Scottish 
coasts of Flemish pirates, 1506 ; sent to assist Denmark 
against Lnbeck, 1508 ; shot in encounter with Sir Thomas 
and Sir Edward Howard, who had been dispatched by 
Henry VIII to capture him. [iii. 340] 

BARTON, BERNARD (1784-1849), poet ; of quaker 
parentage ; coal and corn merchant at Woodbridpe, 1807 ; 
banking clerk at Woodbridge, 1809-49 ; be formed a close 
friendship with Lamb, and was intimately acquainted with 
Southey and other literary men of his time ; published 
4 The Convict's Appeal,' 1818, ' Household Verses,' 1846, 
and other volumes of poems. [iii. 340] 

BARTON, CHARLES (1768-1843), conveyancer; 
called to bar, 1795 ; published legal writings, [iii. 342] 

BARTON, EDWARD (1562 V-1597), second English 
ambassador to Constantinople ; appointed, 1590 ; served 
in Turkish army against Maximilian, 1595 : died of 
plague at Halkc. [ill. 342] 

BARTON, ELIZABETH (1506 7-1534), NUN or MAID 
OK KENT ; domestic servant at Aldington, Kent, r. 1526, 
when she was attacked by some internal disease, fell into 
nervous derangement which issued in religious mania : 
subject to trances, during which her utterances had such 




effect on her hearers that on recovery she determined to 
feign divine inspiration : Edward Rocking [q. v.] and 
William Hartley, monks of Canterbury, dim-Utl by Arch- 
bishop Warham to observe her : induced by Docking to 
anathematise all opponents of the Roman catholic church : 
removed to priory of St. Sepulchre, Canterbury, where a 
cell was assigned her : inveighed against Henry's divorce 
from Catherine of 'Arapon, prophesying that he would die 
in month succeeding his marriage with Anne Boleyn, and 
subsequently saying that he was no longer king in the 
sight of God an utterance which Cromwell regarded as 
incitement to rebellion; repeatedly examined, and ulti- 
mately executed with her accomplices at Tyburn. 

[iii. 343] 
BARTON, FRANCES (1737-1815). [See ABINGTOX.] 

BARTON, JOHN DR (fl. 1304), judge ; otherwise 
called DK RYTOX and DR FRYTON* ; member of itinerary 
court constituted for Yorkshire, 1304. [iii. 346] 

BARTON, JOHN (15th cent.), physician: author of 
'Coiifutntio Lollardorum,' of which a manuscript copy 
is preserved at All Souls' College, Oxford. [iii. 346] 

BARTON. MATTHEW (1715 ?-1795), admiral : en- 
tered navy, 1730: lieutenant, 1739; with Boscawen in 
North America, 1756 : senior officer on Guinea coast, 
1767-8 : started under Keppel for Goree, but was wrecked 
on African shore and captured by emperor of Morocco ; 
ransomed, 1760; served in Belle-Isle expedition, 1761, at 
Martinique, 1762, and at Jamaica and Havana, 1763 : ad- 
miral, 1779. [iii. 346] 

BARTON, RICHARD (1601-16C9), Jesuit; entered 
Society of Jesus, 1625; rector of English college, Liege, 
1642 ; provincial of English province, 1656-60 : rector of 
English college, St. Omer, 1660-9. [iii. 347] 

BARTON, SIR ROBERT (1770-1853), general ; served 
as volunteer in French national guard, 1790, and subse- 
quently held commission in English army in Holland and 
the Peninsula ; general, 1819 ; knighted, 1837. [iii. 348] 

BARTON, THOMAS (d. 1683), royalist divine ; gra- 
duated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford ; rector of Eynesbury, 
1629, of Westrneston, c. 1631 till 1642 (when he was de- 
prived) and 1660-83; D.D., 1663; wrote theological 
works. [iii. 348] 

BARTON, THOMAS (1730 ?-1780), divine: graduated 
at Dublin ; opened school at Norriston, Pennsylvania ; 
tutor at Philadelphia academy : missionary of Society for 
Propagation of Gospel, 1754-9, and subsequently rector at 
Lancaster. Pennsylvania. [iii. 348] 

BARTON, WILLIAM (15987-1678), hymnologist ; 
probably vicar of Mayfleld, Staffordshire ; published verse- 
translation of the psalms, 1644, and 'Century of Select 
Hymns,' 1659. [iii. 348] 

major ; son of Sir Walter Barttelot Barttelot [q. v.] ; edu- 
cated at Rugby and Sandhurst; joined 7th fusiliers, 
1879 ; served in Afghanistan, 1880, and in Egypt, 1882 
and 1883 ; in expedition for relief of Gordon ; brevet 
major, 1883 : accompanied Mr. (now Sir) H. M. Stanley's 
expedition to relieve Emiu Pasha, 1887-8 ; remained with 
stores at Yambuya, where he was shot by an Arab. 

[Snppl. i. 135] 

1893), politician; educated at Rugby: served with 1st 
royal dragoons, 1839-53, retired as captain; M.P. for 
West Sussex, 1860-85, and for Horsham division, 1885-93 ; 
opposed Irish land bill, 1881 ; created baronet, 1875 ; C.B., 
1880 ; privy councillor, 1892. [Suppl. i. 134] 

BARVITTTS (/. 645), Scottish saint; perhaps 
disciple and companion of St. Brandan, whose life he is 
said to have written. [iii. 349] 

BARWELL, LOUISA MARY (1800-1885), musician; 
daughter of Richard Mackenzie Bacon [q. v.], with whom 
she was associated in editorship of 'Quarterly Musical 
Magazine'; married John Barwell of Norwich; wrote 
educational works and contributed to ' Quarterly Jour- 
nal of Education.' [UL 349] 

BARWELL, RICHARD (1741-1804), Anglo-Indian; 
born at Calcutta ; writer on Bengal establishment of 
East India Company, 1756 ; member of council in Bengal 
under Warren Hastings (whom he supported) as governor- 

general, 1773; retired with an immense fortune, 1780- 
M.P. for St. Ives, 1784, nn<l Wim-helsea, 1790 and 1796. 

[iii. 350] 

BARWICK, JOHN (/. 1340), doctor of theolc-v at 
Oxford, where he studied at Franciscan schools ; his works 
include a commentary on Peter Lombard. [iii. 361] 

BARWICK, JOHN (1612-1664), divine; B.A. St. 
John's College, Cambridge, 1636; fellow; M.A., 1638; 
opposed parliament at outbreak of war, 1642, and was 
compelled to leave Cambridge ; made chaplain to Bishop 
Morton, and received stall at Durham and two rectories ; 
settled in London, whence, assisted by his brother, he com- 
municated to Charles I, and later toCliarles IT. the designs 
of the rebels ; charged with high treason and at length 
committed to Tower, 1650 : released without trial, 1052 ; 
renewed his management of king's correspondence ; sent 
by the bishops to Charles at Breda, 1659 ; royal chaplain ; 
refused a bishopric and was made dean of Durham, 1660 ; 
dean of St. Paul's, 1661 ; prolocutor of lower house of con- 
vocation of province of Canterbury. [iii. 351] 

BARWICK, PETER (1619-1705), physician, brotherof 
John Barwick (1612-1664) [q.v.]; M.A. St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, 1647 ; fellow ; M.D., 1655 : supported hia 
brother in his efforts to assist royal cause [during civil 
war ; physician in ordinary to Charles II, 1660 ; F.C.P., 
1665 ; wrote ' Vita Johannis Barwick,' a life of his brother, 
published 1721. [iii. 353] 

BASEVI, GEORGE (1794-1845), architect ; pupil of 
Sir John Soane ; his works include the Fitzwilliam Mu- 
seum, Cambridge, begun 1837, and, with Sydney Smith, 
the Conservative Club House, 1843-6. [iii. 354] 

BASHAM, WILLIAM RICHARD (1804-1877), phy- 
sician ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1834 ; physician to Westminster 
Hospital, 1843 ; published works on dropsy and the renal 
diseases. [iii. 364] 


BASING or BASINGSTOKE, JOHN(rf. 1252), divine; 
probably studied at Oxford, Paris, and Athens ; had re- 
turned to England and was archdeacon of Leicester by 
1235 ; friend of Grosseteste ; did much to encourage the 
study of Greek, and his writings include ' Donatus Grte- 
corum,' a translation into Latin of a Greek grammar. 

[iii. 354] 

BASIRE, ISAAC (1607-1676), divine and traveller : 
studied at Rotterdam, 1623, and at Leyden, 1625 ; settled 
in England, 1628 ; became chaplain to Morton, then bishop 
of Lichfield and Coventry, 1629 : B.D. Cambridge ; by 
royal mandate university preacher through England and 
Ireland, and rector of Egglescliff, 1636 ; D.D., 1640 ; chap- 
lain extraordinary to Charles 1, 1641 ; collated to stall in 
Durham Cathedral, 1643 : archdeacon of Northumberland, 
1644; received living of Stanhope, 1645 : seized by parlia- 
mentarians and compelled to go abroad, 1646 ; arrived in 
1649 at Rome, whence he set out to the East to disseminate 
the Anglo-catholic faith ; returned to England after suc- 
cessful missionary work, 1661, and was restored to his 
former offices; among his works are a 'History of the 
English and Scottish Presbytery,' 1659, and a life of Cosin, 
bishop of Durham ; he also left in manuscript notes of 
several of his journeys. [iii. 356] 

BASIRE, ISAAC (1 704-1 768), map engraver : executed 
frontispiece to edition of Bailey's dictionary, 1755. 

[iii. 360] 

BASIRE, JAMES (1730-1802), engraver ; son of Isaac 
Basire (1704-1768) [q.v.] : accompanied to Italy Richard 
Dalton [q. v.], keeper of royal drawings ; engraver to 
Society of Antiquaries, c. 1763-1802 ; William Blake was 
his apprentice, 1771-8 : his views of Oxford after Turner, 
and his ' Pylades and Orestes ' after West, are among the 
best known of his works. [iii. 358] 

BASIRE, JAMES (1769-1822), engraver ; son of James 
Basire (1730-1802) [q. v.] ; engraver to Society of Anti- 
quaries, by which Society much of his work was published ; 
probably executed or assisted in more than one of the 
Oxford plates after Turner. [iii. 360] 

BASIRE, JAMES (1796-1869), engraver : son of James 
Basire (1769-1822) [q.v.]; executed plates of Sussex 
country houses. [iii. 360] 




son of Sir Thomas Baskerville [q. v.] : born at Saiut 
V.-ili-ry. IVanh : flncated at Brascnose College, Ox for. 1; 
left iu manuscript antiquarian notes. [iii. 3tiO] 

BASKERVILLE, JOHN (1706-1776), printer : taught 
writing and book-keeping and carved monumental in- 
scriptions at Birmingham, where he kept a school In the 
Bull Ring, 1737: started business at Moor Street as 
japanuer, 1740; began to occupy himself with type- 
founding, 1760, and after experimenting several years 
produced a type with which he was satisfied : his first 
work a quarto edition of Virgil, which appeared 1757 : 
produced his ' Milton,' 1758 : elected printer to Cambridge 
University for ten years, 1758 : first printed his editions 
of the prayer-book, 1700, and of the bible, one of the finest 
ever published, 1763 : brought out a Greek New Testa- 
ment (quarto and octavo), 1763, a quarto Horace, 1770, 
and in 1772-3 a famous series of quarto editions of Latin 
authors ; his printing plant purchased after his death, in 
1779, by Beaumarchais ; he has the reputation of being 
the finest printer of modern times, though the opinion of 
contemporary experts was somewhat unfavourable to his 
type. [iii. 361] 

BASKERVILLE, SIR SIMON (1574-1641), physician ; 
fellow of Exeter College, Oxford ; M.A. ; M.B., 1611 : 
M.D. ; F.C.P., 1615 : physician successively to James I and 
Charles I ; knighted, 1636. [iii. 368] 

BASKERVILLE, SIR THOMAS (d. 1597), general: 
served at Porto Rico, in France, 1589, Brittany, 1594, and 
Picardy, 1596. [iii. 369] 

BASKERVILLE, THOMAS (1630-1720), topographer ; 
son of Hannibal Baskerville [q. v.] ; wrote account of a 
journey (1677-8) through various English counties. 

[iii. 369] 

BASKERVILLE, THOMAS (1812-1840?), physician ; 
M.C.S., 1835 ; published a botanical work. [iii. 369] 

BASKETT, JOHN (d. 1742), king's printer; joint 
purchaser of bible patent and queen's printer, 1709, for 
term of thirty years, after which, having bought the 
reversion, he obtained renewal for sixty years; printed 
editions of Book of Common Prayer, 1713 ; master of 
Stationers' Company, 1714 and 1715 ; produced at Oxford 
4 The Vinegar Bible,' in two volumes, 1716-17; obtained 
right to print bibles in Scotland ; bankrupt, 1731 ; his last 
volume a New Testament, 1742. [iii. 369] 

BASS, GEORGE (d. 1812 ?), explorer : apprenticed to 
a surgeon at Boston, Lincolnshire ; surgeon in navy ; 
sailed to Sydney, 1795 ; explored coast of New South 
Wales and circumnavigated Tasmania; gave name to 
Bass's Strait. [iii. 371] 

BASS, MICHAEL THOMAS (1799-1884), brewer; 
entered as traveller his father's brewery business, which 
rapidly increased after Great Exhibition (1861) and open- 
in j of Trent and Mersey Canal ; liberal M.P. for Derby, 
1848-83 ; exhibited lively concern in questions relating to 
welfare of working classes, and improved social conditions 
in Burton and Derby by numerous charities, [iii. 371] 

BASSA1TTIN, JAMES (d. 1568), Scottish astronomer ; 
educated at Glasgow University ; taught mathematics at 
Paris ; returned to Scotland, 1662 ; principal work. ' Astro- 
nomique Discours,' Lyons, 1567. [iii. 372] 

BASSE or BAB, WILLIAM (d. 1653?), poet; retainer 
to Sir Richard (afterwards Lord) Weiunan of Thame 
Park ; probably attached to household of Lord Norreys at 
Kicot or Kycote, Oxfordshire; published 'Sword and 
Buckler,' 1602, and 'Great Brittaincs Sunnes-set,' 1613, but 
he is best known by his occasional verses and an ' Epitaph 
on Shakespeare ' ; his ' Angler's Song,' quoted in Walton's 
'Compleat Angler,' possesses distinction. [iii. 373] 

printer, bookbinder, and bookseller at the Nether Bow, 
Edinburgh ; king's printer ; produced an edition of Sir 
David Lindsay's works, 1674 ; printed earliest translation 
of New Testament published in Scotland, 1676. [iii. 374] 

BASSET OP CORNWALL. This family was among the 
early Norman settlers in England, at first residing in Ox- 
fordshire and other midland counties, and subsequently 
migrating to Cornwall. Members of it intermarried with 

prominent f 'ornish families ; during the reigns of Henries 
VI, VII, and VIII were frequently sheriffs of Cornwall ; 
tlu-y wore staunch royalists during the civil wars. 

[iii. 375] 

younger son of Thomas Basset [q. v.] ; close attendant 
anil supporter of John ; sent on political mission to 
France, 1220 : sheriff of Rutland, 1217-29. [iii. 376] 

BASSET, SIR FRANCIS (d. 1645), recorder and M.P. 
for St. Ives, 1640 ; sheriff of Cornwall, 1642-4 : actively 
supported royalist cause in Cornwall, 1643 : knighted after 
battle of Braddock Down, near LostwithieL [iii. 376.] 

patriot and political writer ; at Harrow and Eton ; M.A. 
King's College, Cambridge, 1786 ; recorder of Penryn, 
1778 ; actively assisted defences of Cornwall when Spanish 
and French fleets threatened Plymouth, 1779 ; baronet 
and M.P. for Penryn, 1779 ; strongly opposed peace with 
America ; raised to peerage, 1796 ; expended large sums in 
developing mining interests of Cornwall and was a liberal 
patron of the fine arts ; wrote political and agricultural 
treatises. [iii. 377] 

BASSET, FULK (d. 1269), bishop of London ; son of 
Alan Basset, baron of Wycombe [q. v.] ; provost of 
Beverley ; dean of York, 1239 ; succeeded to Basset 
estates, 1241 ; elected bishop of London by canons of St. 
Paul's in opposition to wishes of Henry III, 1241 : led 
opposition to Pope Innocent IV's demand on incomes of 
beueficed clergy, 1246 ; probably suspended with other 
bishops for refusal to pay first year's income of ah* vacant 
livings to archbishopric of Canterbury, 1247 : supported 
Grosseteste's opposition to tenth of church revenues 
granted to Henry III by pope, 1252 ; took king's side 
after meeting of barons at Oxford, 1258; died of pesti- 
lence, [iii. 378] 

BASSET, FULK DE (d. 1271). [See SANDPORD.] 

BASSET, GILBERT (d. 1241), baronial leader ; son of 
Alan Basset [q. y.] ; succeeded his father in barony of 
Wycombe, 1233 ; joined barons' opposition to Henry Ill's 
foreign relations ; outlawed for refusing to meet Henry III 
at Gloucester, 1233 ; was reconciled to Henry, 1234, and 
became one of his familiar councillors. [iii. 380] 

BASSET, JOHN (1791-1843), writer on mining ; sheriff 
of Cornwall, 1837 ; M.P. for Helston, 1840 ; published 
treatises on subjects connected with mining, [iii. 381] 

BASSET, JOSHUA (1641 ?-1720), master of Sidney 
Sussex College, Cambridge; M.A. Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge, 1665 ; B.D., 1671 ; senior fellow, 1673 ; 
master of Sidney Sussex College, 1686 : by mandate from 
James II, 1687, declared himself a papist ; left college on 
James's revocation of all mandamuses, 1688. His name 
appears on the title-page of 'Ecclesiae Theoria Nova 
Dodwelliana exposita ' (1713) only, but he is credited with 
authorship of ' Reason and Authority, or the Motives of a 
late Protestant's Reconciliation to the Oatholick Church ' 
(1687), and another eirenicon. [iii. 381] 

BASSET, PETER (/. 1421), chamberlain and intimate 
friend of Henry V. whose life he is stated by Bale to have 
written under title of ' Acta Regis Henrici Quinti ' ; other 
historical writings attributed to him. [iii. 383] 

BASSET, SIR PHILIP (d. 1271), justiciar and royalist 
baron ; son of Alan Basset, baron of Wycombe [q. v.] ; 
joined opposition to king under earl marshal, 1233, and 
was outlawed : made peace with king, 1234 ; chosen by 
barons, deputy to protest against papal policy in England, 
1244; associated with justiciar in regency when Henry 
left for France, 1259 ; joined royal party, 1260 ; justiciary 
of England. 1261-3 ; fought for king at Dover, 1263, 
Northampton, and Lewes, where he was made prisoner, 
1264 ; released, 1266 : sheriff of Somerset and Dorset ; 
member of king's council, 1270. [lit 384] 

BASSET, RALPH (d. 1127 ?), justiciar : one of five 
arbitrators between archbishop of York and abbot of 
I Ripon, 1106. [iii. 385] 

BASSET, RALPH (d. 1265), baron of Drayton, Staf- 
fordshire ; fell at Eveshain by De Montfort's side, 1265. 

[iii. 386] 




BASSET, RALPH (,l. 1282?), baron of Sapeoto, Li-i- 
i.i-st-r^nn- : ronstal.leof Northampton, 1258 ; custos pa. -is 
f,,r I.-in~tTshin'. 1264; fought for barons nt Evesham, 
1265. C IU - 386 1 

BASSET, RICHARD (<f. 1144?), justiciary of all 
England iiil-r H.-nry 1 : sou of Ralph Basset (rf. 1127?) 
[q. v.] [" 388 J 

Itinerant justice for Essex and Hertfordshire ; baron of 
xoheqoflr, c. 1169; ami sheriff of Oxfordshire, 1164. 

[iii. 386] 

BASSET, WILLIAM (d. 1185 ?), judge : son of Richard | 
Baet r<l. v.]; sheriff of Warwickshire and Leicestershire, j 
11C, 70 : and of Lincolnshire, 1177-84. [iii. 386] 

BASSET, WILLIAM (d. 1249?), judge : jupticiar, 
1225- imtice itinerant for Derbyshire and Northampton- 
*fc, 1226, 1227, and 1232. [iii. 386] 

BASSET, WILLIAM (/. 1341), justice of common 
pleas, c. 1337-41, and "of king's bench, 1341-c. 1350. 

BASSET, WILLIAM (1644-1695), divine : M.A. Mag- 
dalen College, Oxford: rector of St. Swithin's, London, 
1683 ; published theological works. [iii. 386] 

itinerant justice; perhaps archdeacon of Salisbury be- 
tween 1188 and 1222. [Iii. 386] 

BASSNETT, CHRISTOPHER (1677 ?-1744), noncon- 
formist minister at Liverpool, where he assisted in esta- 
blishing a free school for poor children, 1716. [iii. 387] 

BASTARD, JOHN POLLEXFEN (1756-1816), colonel 
of East Devonshire militia, 1782 ; prevented destruction of 
Plymouth dockyards in workmen's revolt, 1799 ; M.P. for 
Devonshire, 1784-1816. [ill. 387] 

BASTARD, THOMAS (1566-1618), satirist and divine : 
educated at Winchester : admitted perpetual fellow, New 
College, Oxford, 1588; M.A. ; chaplain to Thomas, earl 
of Suffolk ; held two Dorsetshire livings ; published j 
Chrestoleros : Seuen Bookes of Epigrames,' 1598. 

[iii. 387] 

BASTON or BOSTON, PHILIP (d. 1320 ?), Carmelite 
of Nottingham : gained considerable reputation in rhetoric 
and poetry at Oxford. [iii. 388] 

BASTON, ROBERT (/. 1300), Carmelite ; brother of 
Philip Baston [q. v.] ; Carmelite monk and prior of abbey 
of Scarborough ; crowned with laurel as rhetorician and 
poet at Oxford ; accompanied Edward II to sing his praises 
on expedition to relieve Stirling, and was captured by 
Bruce, who forced him to sing his countrymen's defeat ; 
wrote poems on second Scottish war and on miscellaneous ! 
subjects. [iii. 388] 

BASTWICK, JOHN (1593-1654). physician and con- 
troversialist : educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge : 
M.D. Padua ; published puritanical controversial trea- 
tises, for which he was fined and subsequently imprisoned : 
released by Long parliament, 1640 : captain of Leicester 
trained bands, 1642; published tractates against 'Inde- 
pendents,' 1648. [iii. 389] 

BATE, CHARLES SPENCE (1819-1889), scientific 
writer : practised as dentist ; L.R.C.S., 1860 ; member of 
Odontological Society, 1866, vice-president, 1860-2, and 
president, 1885 ; president, British Dental Association, 
1883 ; closely connected with Plymouth Institution from 
1852 ; F.L.S., 1854 ; F.R.S., 18G1 : published writings on 
Crustacea, dentistry, and other subjects. [Suppl. i. 136] 

BATE, GEORGE (1608-1669), court physician : M.D. 
St. Edmund Hall, Oxford. 1637 ; physician to Charles I at 
Oxford ; F.C.P., 1640 ; physician to Oliver Cromwell, and 
subsequently to Charles II : F.R.S. ; published medical 
and political writings. [iii. 390] 

BATE, HENRY (1745-1824). [See DUDLEY, Sm 

BATE, JAMES (1703-1775), scholar, brother of Julius 
Bate [q. v.] ; B.A. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 
1723 ; fellow of St. John's College : M.A., 1727 ; chaplain to 
Horace Walpole when ambassador in Paris ; received living 
at Deptford, 1731 ; published religious works, [iii. 390] 

BATE, JOHN (d. 1429), theologian ; educated at Car- 
melite monastery, York, and at Oxford ; deacon, 1415 ; 

prior of Carmelites at York. His works include treatises 
on Aristotle. [iii. 391] 

BATE, JULIUS (1711-1771), divine; M.A. St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 1710; rector of Sut.ton ; Hutchiii- 
sonian mystic, and connected with publication of Hutch- 
inson's works ; published Hebrew-English dictionary, 
1767. [iii- 391] 

1487 ?), mathematician ; perhaps professor of mathematics 
at Oxford in Henry V's reign : left manuscript treatises 
from which Chaucer compiled his ' Astrolabe.' [iii. 392] 

actor ; born in United States : entered firm of mechanical 
engineers, but subsequently joined the elder Booth and 
Ellen Tree (Mrs. Charles Kean) : manager of St. Louis 
Theatre, 1856, and of Lyceum, London, 1870-5. Under 
his management (Sir) Henry Irving gained his first success 
in the 'Bells.' [Hi. 392] 

BATEMAN, JAMES (1811-1897), horticulturist : M.A. 
Magdalen College, Oxford, 1846 ; took great interest in 
collecting and cultivating tropical plants : F.L.S., 1833 : 
F.R.S., 1838 ; fellow of Royal Horticultural Society : pub- 
lished writings on orchids and other horticultural subjects. 

[Suppl. i. 137] 

styled JOHN FREDKRIC BATEMAN (1810-1889), civil 
engineer ; began business, 1833 : associated with (Sir) 
William Fairbairn [q. v.j in laying out reservoirs on 
river Bann, Ireland, 1835 ; engaged on Longdendale works 
for Manchester water supply, 1846-77, and on Lake 
Thirlmere works, 1879 ; published ' History of Manchester 
Waterworks,' 1884; superintended supply of water to 
Glasgow from. Loch Katrine, 1856-60: constructed water- 
works for many other towns in British Islands and 
abroad : designed scheme to supply London with water 
from river Severn, 1865 ; M.I.O.E., 1840, and was presi- 
dent, 1878 and 1879 ; F.R.S., 1860. [Suppl. i. 138] 

actress ; nee Cowell ; married Hezekiah Bateman [q. v.], 
1839 ; wrote several plays produced in England and 
America ; managed Lyceum, 1875-8, and Sadler's Wells, 
1878-81. [iii. 392] 

BATEMAN, STEPHEN (d. 1584). [See BATMAN]. 

BATEMAN, THOMAS (1778-1821), physician ; studied 
at St. George's Hospital ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1801 : pupil 
of Dr. Willan and subsequently physician to public dis- 
pensary and to fever hospital, London, 1804 ; L.O.P., 1805 ; 
connected with ' Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal '; 
became principal authority in London on skin diseases : 
published 'Synopsis of Cutaneous Diseases,' 1813, in 
which he followed and established the reputation of 
Willan. [iii. 393] 

BATEMAN, THOMAS (1821-1861), archfeologist, 
son of William Bateman (1787-1835) [q.v.]: country 
gentleman in neighbourhood of the Peak ; formed large 
archaeological and ethnological collections, of which the 
foundations were laid by his father and grandfather ; 
published accounts of his investigations. [iii. 394] 

BATEMAN, WILLIAM (1298 ?-1365), bishop of Nor- 
wich, called WILLIAM OP NORWICH; D.O.L. Cambridge; 
archdeacon of Norwich, 1328 : took up residence at court 
of Pope John XXII at Avignon and was subsequently ap- 
pointed auditor of the palace ; dean of Lincoln, 1340 : twice 
despatched by Pope Benedict XII to reconcile French 
king and Edward III: bishop of Norwich. 1344; re- 
peatedly employed by Ed ward I II in political negotiations, 
1348-54. Founded Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 1350. for stu- 
dents of canon and civil law to recruit ranks of clergy 
thinned by pestilence of 1349, and completed (1351) scheme 
for founding college originated by Edmund Gonville, who 
died before it was fully established ; died, perhaps from 
poison, at Avignon. [iii. 396] 

BATEMAN, WILLIAM (1787-1835), archreologist : 
excavated several barrows of Peak district and communi- 
cated results to ' Archseologia.' [iii. 395] 

(1835-1887), colonel ; educated at Addiscombe : second lieu- 
tenant, Bengal engineers, 1863 : captain, 1863 ; major, 
I 1872 ; colonel, 1882 ; assistant principal at Thomason Col- 
! lege, Rurki, India, 1867 ; served at Delhi, Agra, Cawnpore, 




and Lucknow, 1857-8 : engaged on construction of electric 
telegraph to India through Russia, Turkey, and i 
1862-87: chief director of government ln<l<>-Kuropean 
telegraph, 1870: K.C.M.H.: member of council of Royal 
Geographical Society and Society of Telegraph Engineer-. 

[Suppl. i. 139] 

BATES, HARRY (1850-1899), sculptor: studied 
under Jules Dalou at Lambeth, at Roya] Academy, and 
under Rodin in Paris; A.K.A., 1892; execute! tnui-h ,!- 
corative work for metropolitau buildings. Among the 
most notable of his productions is the statue of Queen 
Victoria at Dundee. [Suppl. i. 140] 

BATES, HENRY WALTER (1825-1892), naturalist : 
clerk in Allsopp's offices, Burton-on-Trent, 1845 : went 
with \lfivd Un-wl Wallace to Para, 1848, and joiirneywl 
to the Tapajo* and Upper Anwwous, 1851-9, fixing his 
headquarters at Ega, 1854-9, and reaching St. Paulo, 
1857 : revealed by his researches in natural history over 
eight thousand species new to science : published' Natura- 
list on the Amazons' 1NG3: a<si<tunt secretary to Royal 
Geographical Society, 18G4-92: P.L.S.. 1H71 : F.'R.S., 1881 : 
president of Entomological Society, 1869 and 1878 ; edited 
several works on natural history and topography. 

[Suppi. i. 141] 

BATES, .TOAH (1741-1799), musician; scholar of 
Eton, 1756, and King's College, Cambridge, 1760: M.A., i 
1767 ; fellow and college tutor : private secretary to Lord ! 
Sandwich, first lord of admiralty; conductor to' concerts \ 
of Ancient Music and, 1784, to Handel commemoration 
at Westminster : commissioner of customs ; published 
' Treatise on Harmony.* [iii. 397] 

BATES, JOSHUA (1788-1864), financier; entered ' 
counting-house of W. 11. Gray, merchant, of Boston, 
United States, America: began business, but became , 
bankrupt on declaration of war with England, 1812 ; em- ! 
ployed by Gray as general European agent ; admitted 
partner in Baring Brothers, and ultimately became > 
senior partner : appellant arbitrator, 1854, to joint com- 
mission for consideration of claims arising from peace of 
1815. He was a great benefactor to city of Boston. 

[iii. 398] 

BATES, SARAH (rf. 1811), singer; wife of Joah 
Bates [q. v.] ; studied singing in London under her hus- 
band and Sacchini, and was a successful concert singer, 
chiefly of sacred music. [iii. 399] 

BATES, THOMAS (fl. 1704-1719), naval surgeon in 
Mediterranean ; distinguished himself during cattle plague 
(1714), of which he wrote an account ; F.R.S., 1719. 

[iii. 399] 

BATES, THOMAS (1775-1849), stockbreeder : farmed 
at Wark Eals, North Tyne, and Halton Castle, where he ' 
.achieved renown as breeder of shorthorns; won many I 
prizes at the Royal Agricultural Society's shows from j 
1839 ; contributed to newspapers letters chiefly on politics 
of agriculture. [Suppl. i. 144] 

BATES, WILLIAM (1625-1699), presbyterian divine ; 
B.A. King's College, Cambridge, 1647 ; held living of St. 
DunstanVin-the-West, London ; ejected, 1662 ; royal chap- 
lain and commissioner for Savoy conference, 1660 : D.D. 
by royal mandate, 1661 ; made repeated unsuccessful 
efforts to obtain relief for nonconformists ; published'theo- 
logical writings. [iii. 399] 

BATESFORD, JOHN DK (rf. 1319), judge ; acted as 
justice of assize in several counties, 1293-1311 ; regularly 
summoned to parliament, 1295-1318. [iii. 400] 

BATESON, THOMAS (1580?-1620?), musical com- 
poser : organist of Chester Cathedral, 1599 ; vicar-choral 
of cathedral of the Trinity, Dublin, 1609; Mus. Bac. 
Dublin : published two volumes of madrigals, [iii. 401] 

BATESON, WILLIAM HENRY (1812-1881), divine; 
educated at Shrewsbury ; B.A. St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, 1836 ; fellow, 1837 ; senior bursar, 1846, and master 
1857 ; public orator, 1848 ; vice-chancellor, 1858. 

[iii. 401] 

MARQUIS, 1831-1896.] 

BATH. EAHI.SOP. [See GREXVTLLE, JOHN, 1828-1701 ; 
and PULTK.NKY, WILUAM, 164-1764.] 

BATHE or BATHONIA. HENRY PE (d. 1260), judge 
of common picas 1238-50; served on commissions of 
assize for various counties, 1240-60 ; fined for corrupt 
practices, 1251 ; restored to favour, 1253. [iii. 402] 

BATHE, JOHN (1610-1649), Jesuit; studied at Eng- 
lish college, Seville : entered Society of Jesus at Dublin, 
1638; 'missioner' in residence at Drogheda, where he 
was shot by Cromwell's soldiers. [iii. 402] 

BATHE, WILLIAM (1564-1614), Jesuit; brought up 
in protestant religion, but subsequently became Romanist ; 

! educated at Oxford ; entered Jesuit novitiate of Tournai, 
c. 1596; after studying at Louvain and Padua, was ap- 
pointed rector of Irish College at Salamanca ; died at 
Madrid. His works include 'Introduction to Art of 
Music,' 1584, and 'Janua Linguarum,' 1611, a system for 
teaching languages. [iii. 402] 

BATHER, EDWARD (1779-1847), divine: M.A. Oriel 
College, Oxford, 1808 : vicar of Meol-Brace, 1804 : arch- 
di-uemi of Salop, and prebendary of Lichfield, 1828 ; pub- 
lished religious works. [iii. 403] 

BATHER, LUCY ELIZABETH (1836-1864), writer 
for children, known as AUNT LUCY : daughter of Dr. Blom- 
field, bishop of London. [iii. 41)4] 

BALDHILD (rf. 678 ?), queen ; wife of Clovis II, king of 
the Franks ; of Saxon birth ; carried off by pirates when 
young, and sold to Erchinwald, mayor of palace (640- 
c. 658), in times of Dagobert and his son, Clovis II ; mar- 
ried, 649 ; became regent during last two years of her 
husband's reign, during which he was afflicted with mad- 
ness, and during minority of her son : credited with pro- 
curing the murder of one Dalphinus, said to have been 
archbishop of Lyons. She gave generously to many 
ecclesiastical institutions. Her most cherished work was 
the reconstruction of nunnery of Chelles, to which she 
retired, c. 664. Three of her sons became Fraukish 
kings. [iii. 404] 

1775) ; educated at Trinity College, Oxford ; tory M.P. for 
Cirencester, 1705-12 ; raised to peerage. 1712 ; privy coun- 
cillor, 1742 ; captain of band of pensioners, 1742-4 ; earl, 
1772. [iii. 406] 

BATHURST, BENJAMIN (1784-1809), diplomatist ; 
son of Henry Bathurst (1744-1837) [q. v.]; secretary of 
legation at Leghorn ; mysteriously disappeared while on 
mission from Vienna to England. [iii. 407] 

1794); son of first earl; lawyer; B.A. Balliol College, 
Oxford, 1733 ; called to bai at Lincoln's Inn, 1736 ; M.P. 
for Cirencester, 1735-54, solicitor-general and attorney- 
general to Frederick, prince of Wales, 1745 : judge of 
common pleas, 1754; created Baron Apsley, 1771; lord 
chancellor, 1771-8; lord president of council, 1779-82. 
[iii. 407] 

BATHURST, HENRY (Jl. 1814), archdeacon of Nor- 
wich, 1814; son of Henry Bathurst (1744-1837) [q. v.] ; 
chancellor of church of Norwich, 1806. [iii. 409] 

1834) ; son of second earl ; tory statesman ; master of 
mint, 1804 ; held seals of foreign office, 1809 ; president of 
board of trade ; secretary for war and colonies : lord pre- 
sident of council, 1828-30. [iii. 408] 

BATHURST, HENRY (1744-1837), bishop of Nor- 
wich ; educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford ; 
canon of Christ Church, Oxford, 1775 ; prebendary of 
Durham, 1795 ; bishop of Norwich, 1805. [iii. 408] 

BATHURST, JOHN (1607-1669), physician to Oliver 
Cromwell: M.A. Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1621; 
M.D. and F.R.C.P., 1637 ; M.P. for Richmond, Yorkshire, 
1656 and 1658. [iii. 409] 

BATHURST, RALPH (1620-1704), divine : scholar of 
Trinity College, Oxford, 1637; B.A., 1638; fellow, 1640; 
ordained priest, 1644 ; M.D., 1654 : though a royalist, was 
employed by state as physician to navy ; among the origi- 
nators of the Royal Society : abandoned medicine on 
Restoration ; chaplain to king, 1663 ; president of Trinity, 
1664; F.R.S., 1663; dean of Wells, 1670: he gave both 
pecuniary and personal help to the rebuilding of Trinity 
College ; left miscellaneous writings in English and Latin. 

[iii. 409] 




BATHURST, RICHARD (</. 17G2), essayist; born in 
Jamaica : M.H. 1'eterhoiKc. Cambridge. 1746 : snb>c- 
(juently army physician in \Vest Indies: friend of Dr. 
.lolin-on. ami member of the club at the Kind's Head: 
contributor to the ' Adventurer' ; died at Havannah. 


BATHURST, THEODORE (d. 1651), Latin poet; 
nephew of Ralph Bathurst[q. v.] ; educateil at Pembroke 
('olleu'e, Cambridge; translated Spenser's 'Shepherd's 
Caleiidar ' into Latin verse (published 1G53). [iii. 411] 

BATHURST, WALTER (17647-1827), navy captain : under Rodney in West Indies, 17K2 : under Lord 
St. Vincent at Cadiz, 1793 ; captain, 17'.s : held commands 
in I a-t Indies, Baltic, and Mediterranean; killed at 
Navarino. [iii. 412] 

BATMAN, JOHN (1800-1840), reputed founder of 
colony of Victoria : born at Paramatta, New South Wales ; 
formed com pans ( 1835) for colonising Port Phillip, whither 
lie proceeded secretly to report on the district: made 
treaty with aboriginal chiefs for assignment of six hundred 
thousand acres, including site of Melbourne. Tlie Sydney 
authorities refused to recognise the treaty, but several of 
Batman's party settled at Port Phillip, and. in 1837. 
Melbourne was founded. [iii. 412] 

BATMAN, STEPHEN (d. 1584), translator and 
author ; educated at Cambridge ; domestic chaplain to 
Archbishop Parker ; employed by Parker to collect li- 
brary, now in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ; rector 
of Merstham, Surrey, 1573 ; published religious and his- 
torical works and translations. [iii. 414] 

BATMANSON, JOHN (d. 1531), prior of Charter- 
house ; studied theology at Oxford ; employed by Edward 
Lee in connection with his critical attack on Erasmus ; 
prior of London Charterhouse, 1529 ; published religious 
works. [iii. 414] 

BATT, ANTHONY (d. 1651), Benedictine monk at 
English monastery of Dieulouard, Lorraine: published 
devotional works. [iii. 415] 

BATT, WILLIAM (1744-1812), scientist and medical 
writer ; studied at Oxford, Montpellier (M.D., 1770), and 
Leyden : practised medicine at Genoa ; professor of chemis- 
try, Genoa, 1774-87 ; wrote medical treatises, [iii. 415] 

BATTEL, ANDREW (ft. J589-1614), traveller ; sailed 
with Captain Cocke for Rio de la Plata, 1539 ; driven by 
storm to St. Sebastian ; captured by Indians and delivered 
to Portuguese : imprisoned at St. Paul-de-Loanda, and 
subsequently employed as trader at Longo and along 
coast ; returned to England, 1605. [iii. 415] 

BATTELEY, JOHN (1647-1708), divine; fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge : domestic chaplain succes- 
sively to Archbishops Bancroft and Tillotson ; chancellor 
of Brecknock, 1684 ; archdeacon of Canterbury, 1687, and 
prebendary, 1688 : master of King's Bridge hospital, 1688 ; 
wrote work on ancient state of Isle of Thanet (published, 
1711), and other treatises. [iii. 416] 

BATTELEY, NICHOLAS (1650-1704), antiquary; 
brother of John Batteley [q. v.] ; B.A. Trinity College, 
Cambridge, 1668 ; M.A. Peterhouse, 1672 : held livings in 
Kent, 1680-5 ; published ' Antiquities of Canterbury,' 1703. 

[iii. 417] 

BATTELEY, OLIVER (1697-1766), divine; son of 
Nicholas Batteley [q. v.] ; B.D. Christ Church, Oxford, 
1734 ; prebendary of Llandaff, 1757 ; edited John Batteley's 
works. [iii. 417] 

BATTELL, RALPH (1649-1 71 3), divine ; D.D..comirt 
regiis, Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1706 ; sub-dean of Chapel 
Royal ; sub-almoner to Queen Anne ; prebendary of Wor- 
cester, 1685 ; published religious works. [iii. 417] 

BATTEN, ADRIAN (/. 1630), musician : educated in 
choir, Winchester Cathedral ; vicar-choral, Westminster, 
1614 ; organist and vicar-choral, St. Paul's, 1624 ; com- 
posed church music. [iii. 418] 

BATTEN, SIR WILLIAM (d. 1667), admiral; ob- 
tained letters of marque for the Salutation, 1626 : surveyor 
of the navy, 1638; second in command of Warwick's 
fleet, 1642 : engaged in preventing assistance from reach- 
ing king by sea, 1643 : resigned command, 1647, but re- 
sumed it on personal invitation of officers ; joined Prince 
of Wales iu Holland, where he was knighted ; declined to 

serve against parliament and returned ; reinstated sur- 
veyor of navy, 1660 ; M.P. for Rochester, 1661 : master of 
Trinity House, 1663-7. [iii. 418] 


BATTLE, WILLIAM( 1704-1776), physician : educated 
at King's College. Cambridge ; founded Battie scholarship, 
1747: Craven scholar, 1725; M.A., 1730; M.D., 1737; 
F.C.P., 1738, Harveian orator, 1746 ; president, 1764 ; Lum- 
leian orator, 1749-54 ; published editions of Aristotle and 
Isocrates, and several medical lectures. [iii. 420] 

BATTINE, WILLIAM (1765-1836), lawyer and poet ; 
fellow, Trinity Hall, Cambridge ; LL.D. and fellow of Col- 
lege of Doctors of Law, London, 1785 : advocate-general 
in high court of admiralty ; chancellor of diocese of Lin- 
coln ; F.R.S., 1797 ; published ' Another Cain ' (1822), a 
dramatic poem. [iii. 421] 

BATTISHILL, JONATHAN (1738-1801), composer; 
chorister at St. Paul's ; conductor of band at Covent Gar 
den ; member of Madrigal Society, 1758, and of Royal 
Society of Musicians, 1761 ; engaged in theatrical com- 
position ; set music to hymns by Charles Wesley ; pub- 
lished church music and glees : buried in St. Paul's. 

[iii. 421] 

BATTLEY, RICHARD (1770-1856), chemist : medical 
attendant to Newcastle collieries ; assistant surgeon in 
navy ; apothecary in city of London. Introduced improve- 
ments in pharmaceutical operations. [iii. 422] 

BATTY, ROBERT (d. 1848), topographical writer; 
son of Robert Batty (1763?-1849) [q. v.] ; M.B. Cains 
College, Cambridge, 1813 ; served in Western Pyrenees 
and Waterloo campaign : exhibited at Royal Academy, 
1825-32 ; published topographical works illustrated by 
himself. [iii. 422] 

BATTY, ROBERT (1763 ?-1849), obstetric physician ; 
M.D. St. Andrews, 1797 ; L.O.P., 1806 : physician to lying-in 
hospital, Brownlow Street ; edited Medical and Physical 
Journal.' [iii. 422] 

BATY, RICHARD (d. 1758), divine ; M.A. Glasgow, 
1725 : vicar of Kirkandrew-upon-Esk, 1732 ; had local fame 
as oculist; published religious works. [iii. 423] 

BAUMBTTRGH, THOMAS DK (ft. 1332), keeper of the 
great seal; held living of Emildon, Northumberland, 
1328 ; joint-keeper of the great seal, 1332, 1334, 1338, and 
1339-40. [iii, 423] 

socialist ; born at Marseilles ; educated at Naples ; private 
secretary to King Ferdinand, c. 1815-25 ; acquired con- 
siderable wealth in England, which he bequeathed to 
philanthropic institutions in Isle of Man ; gained repute 
during Owenite socialistic agitation. [iii. 423] 

BAVAND, WILLIAM (ft. 1559), student of Middle 
Temple ; published translation from Ferrarius Montanus. 

[iii. 424] 

BAVANT, JOHN (ft. 1552-1586), Roman catholic 
divine ; M.A. Oxford, 1552 ; D.D. Rome ; joined English 
mission, 1581 : imprisoned in Wisbech Castle, [iii. 424] 

BAWDWEN, WILLIAM (1563-1632). [See BALDWIN'.] 

BAWDWEN, WILLIAM (1762-1816), antiquary: 
vicar of Hooton Pagnel ; translated part of Domesday 
Book (two volumes published, 1809-12). [iii. 424] 

BAXENDELL, JOSEPH (1815-1887), meteorologist 
and astronomer : joint-secretary and editor to Manchester 
Literary and Philosophical Society, 1861 : astronomer to 
Manchester Corporation from 1859 ; meteorologist to South- 
port Corporation : made important meteorological and ter- 
restrial-magnetical researches; F.R.A.S., 1858: F.R.S., 
1884. [Suppl. i. 145] 

BAXTER, ANDREW (1686-1750), philosophical 
writer ; educated at King's College, Aberdeen ; travelled 
on continent, 1741-7, and made acquaintance of Wilkes, 
with whom he corresponded till death : published ' Enquiry 
into the Nature of the Human Soul ' (1733). [iii. 425] 

BAXTER, CHARLES (1809-1879), portrait and sub- 
ject painter ; exhibited at Royal Academy from 1834 ; 
member of Society of British Artists, 1842. [iii. 426] 




BAXTER, Sm DAVID (1793-1872), manager of Sugar 
Refining Company, Dundee : became, on failure of this 
business (1826), partner with his father and brothers in :i 
linen manufactory : successfully introduced power-loom 
weaving, 183G : created baronet, lNf,:t. He wasaijeneroiis 
benefactor of Dundee, and established several foundations 
in Edinburgh University. [iii. 426] 

BAXTER. EVAN BUCHANAN (1844-1885), physi- 
cian : born at St. Petersburg : studied at King's College. 
London, and Lincoln College, Oxford : M.TX l/mdon, is/o ; 
professor of materia medica and therapeutics, King's Col- 
lege, London, 1874 : F.R.O.P., 1877 ; wrote, edited, and 
translated medical works. [ill. 427] 

BAXTER, JOHN (1781-1858X printer and publisher : 
first printer to use the inking roller, an appliance made 
under his superintendence at Lewes ; his publications in- 
clude ' Baxter's Bible,' [iii. 427] 

BAXTER, NATHANIEL ( fl. 1606), poet and preacher : 
probably educated at Magdalen College, Oxford ; tutor in 
Greek to Sir Philip Sidney ; warden of St. Mary's College, 
Youghal, Ireland, 1592-9 : vicar of Troy, Monmouthshire, 
1602; published 'Sir Philip Sidney's "Ourania"' (1606) 
and puritanical controversial works. [iii. 428] 

BAXTER, RICHARD (1615-1691), presbyterian 
divine : taught by Richard Wickstead, chaplain to council 
at Ludlow ; after brief experience of court-life, studied 
for ministry at Wroxeter ; was ordained and became 
head-master of a school at Dudley, 1638 ; assistant 
minister at Bridgnorth, Shropshire ; lecturer at Kidder- 
minster, 1641 ; sided with parliament and recommended 
the 'protestation,' 1642 : retired to Gloucester and thence 
to Coventry, where he officiated as chaplain to garrison : 
chaplain to Colonel Whalley's regiment after 1645, and 
present at several sieges ; returned to Kidderminster after 
living in retirement, where he wrote ' Aphorisms of 
Justification' (1649) and the 'Saint's Everlasting Rest' 
(1650); came to London, 1660: one of the king's chap- 
lains ; prepared the ' Reformed Liturgy * for Savoy con- 
ference; retired from church of England on passing of 
Act of Uniformity : suffered much ill-treatment under 
Charles II and Jaines II : imprisoned, 1685-6, and fined 
by Judge Jeffreys on charge of libelling the church in his 
'Paraphrase of New Testament' (1685); complied with 
Toleration Act. His numerous writings include ' Reliquiae 
Baxteriana?,' an autobiography. [iii. 429] 

BAXTER, ROBERT DUDLEY (1827-1875), political 
writer; B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1849; entered 
his father's firm, Baxter & Co., parliamentary lawyers, 
1860 ; published political works. [iii. 437] 

BAXTER, ROGER (1784-1827), Jesuit; entered 
Society of Jesus, 1810: missionary in Maryland and 
Pennsylvania, where he died ; published religious works. 

[iii. 437] 

BAXTER, THOMAS (/. 1732), pseudo-mathema- 
tician ; published ' The Circle Squared,' 1732. [iii. 437] 

BAXTER, THOMAS (1782-1821), china painter; 
studied at Royal Academy ; established a school of china 
painting in London, 1814. [iii. 437] 

BAXTER, WILLIAM (1650-1723), scholar; nephew 
of Richard Baxter [q. v.] ; educated at Harrow ; school- 
master at Mercers' School, London. Works include ' Ana- 
creon,' 1695, an edition of ' Horace, 1 1701, and a dictionary 
of British antiquities, 1719. [Hi. 438] 

BAXTER, WILLIAM (<1. 1871), botanist : curator of 
Oxford botanic garden, 1813-54; associate of Linnean 
Society, 1817 ; published ' British Phsenogamous Botany,' 
1834-43. [iii. 438] 

BAXTER, WILLIAM EDWARD (1825-1890), tra- 
veller ; educated at Edinburgh University ; partner in 
his father's mercantile firm of Edward Baxter & Co. 
(afterwards W. E. Baxter & Co.) ; liberal M.P. for Mon- 
trose burghs, 1855-86 ; secretary to admiralty, 1868-71 ; 
joint secretary of the treasury, 1871-3 ; privy councillor, 
1873 ; published works on foreign travel. [Suppl. i. 146] 

BAYARD, NICHOLAS (fl. 1300?), according to Bale 
and Pits a Dominican theologian at Oxford : D.D. : said 
by Quetif to have been a Frenchman of the thirteenth 
century. Merton College possesses a manuscript of his 
' Distinctions Theologies;.' [iii. 439] 

BAYE8, JOSHUA (1671-1746), nonconformist divine ; 

1 itinerant preacher to churches around London ; minister 

at Leather Lane, 17'.':! : lecturer at Salters' Hall, 1732. 

Completed 'Kpistle to (Jalatians ' iii Matthew Henry's 

unfinished ' Commentary.' [iii. 439] 

BAYETJX, JOHN PK, or DE BAIOCIS (d. 1249), justice 
itinerant for Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, and Dorset, 1218, 
and for Dorset, 1225. [iii. 440] 

BAYEUX, THOMAS OP (d. 1100). [See THOMAS.] 

martyr: Benedictine of abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, 
1514: priest, 1515; chamberlain of the abbey, c. 1525; 
burnt at Smithfield for assisting Tyndall to import for- 
bidden books. [iii. 440] 

BAYFIELD, ROBERT (fl. 1668), physician, of Nor- 
wich ; wrote religious and medical works, 1655-62. 

[iii. 440] 

BAYLEE, JOSEPH (1808-1883), theological writer ; 
! M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1848 ; D.D., 1852 ; founded 
I and was first principal, 1856-71, of St. Aidan's Theological 
; College, Birkenhead : vicar of Shepscombe, Gloucester- 
| shire, 1871-83 ; published controversial and other theolo- 
I gical works. [iii. 441] 

BAYLEY, CORNELIUS (1751-1812), divine : metho- 
dist preacher : took orders, and was incumbent of St. 
James's Church, Manchester ; D.D. Cambridge, 1800 ; 
published a Hebrew grammar. [iii. 441] 

BAYLEY, SIR EDWARD CLIVE (1821-1884), Indian 
I statesman ; under foreign secretary to Indian govern- 
! ment and deputy-commissioner of Gujarat, 1849, and of 
j Kangra district, 1851 : returned to England ; called to 
bar, 1857; held several posts in Allahabad, 1857-8; 
' Indian judge, 1859 ; temporary foreign secretary, 1861 ; 
| home secretary, 1862-72 ; member of supreme council, 
1 1873-8; K.O.S.I., 1877; published writings on Indian 
; history and antiquities. [iii. 441] 

BAYLEY, F. W. N. (1808-1853), first editor of 
j ' Illustrated London News,' 1842 ; published miscellaneous 
I works in verse and prose. [iii. 442] 

BAYLEY, HENRY VINCENT (1777-1844), divine : 
I educated at Eton ; B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1800 : 
fellow, 1802; chaplain to Bishop Majendie of Chester, 
1803 ; sub-dean of Lincoln, 1805-28 ; archdeacon of Stow 
and prebendary of Liddington, 1823 ; D.D.,1824 ; appointed 
to stall Iii Westminster Abbey, 1828. [iii. 442] 

BAYLEY, SIH JOHN (1763-1841), judge; educated 
at Eton; called to bar at Gray's Inn, 1792; judge of 
king's bench, 1808; judge of exchequer court, 1830-4: 
made baronet and privy councillor, 1834 ; published legal 
and religious works. [iii. 443] 

BAYLEY, JOHN [WHITCOMB] (d. 1869), anti- 
quary ; junior clerk in Tower Record Office : chief clerk, 
1819, and, later, sub-commissioner on the Public Records. 
Wrote and edited historical works, including 'History 
and Antiquities of Tower of London,' and an unfinished 
' Parliamentary History of England.' [iii. 443] 

BAYLEY, PETER (1778 ?-1823), miscellaneous writer ; 
educated at Rugby and Merton College, Oxford ; called 
to bar at Temple ; published writings in verse and prose. 

[iii. 444] 

BAYLEY, ROBERT S. (d. 1859), independent minis- 
ter ; pastor successively in Louth, Sheffield, and London ; 
assisted in founding People's College, Sheffield ; published 
miscellaneous writings. [iii. 444] 

BAYLEY, THOMAS (1582-1663). [See BAYLIK.] 

agriculturist and philanthropist ; educated at Edin- 
burgh ; J.P. for county palatine of Lancaster : intro- 
duced many improvements in prison construction, sanita- 
tion, and agricultural methods. [iii. 445] 

BAYLEY, WALTER (1529-1592), physician: educated 
at Winchester: fellow of New College, Oxford, 1560; 
M.D., 1563 ; canon of Wells : regius professor of physic, 
Oxford, 1561 ; physician to Elizabeth : F.C.P., 1581 ; pub- 
lished treatise on preservation of the eyesight, [iii. 445] 

Anglo-Indian ; educated at Eton ; entered Bengal civil 
service, 1799 ; registrar of Sudder court ; judge at Burd- 




wan, 1813 : secretary in judicial and revenue department, 
1814; chief secretary to government, 1819; member oi 
supreme council, 1H25 : governor-general, IK^S :;n : n- 
turned to Kn.u'land ; director, K;t-t India Company, IsP.s ; 
chairman of court, 1840. [iii. 4 1C] 

BAYLIE. TIKXMAS (1582 1663), puritan divine: 
M.A..and fellow, Maplalen College, Oxford, 1611; B.D., 
1G21 ; rector successively (if Mannini-ford Bruee and Mil- 
denhall Wiltshire; ejected, 1660 ; set up conventicle at 
Marllxmn.u'h. [iii. 446] 

BAYLIES, WILLIAM (1724-1787), physician ; M.D. 
Aberdeen, 1748; P.O.P. Edinburgh, 1767 ; practised at 
Dresden and Berlin ; L.C.P. London, 1765 ; published re- 
marks on waters at Stratford-on-Avon and Bath. 

[iii. 447] 

BAYLI8, EDWARD (1791-1861), founder between 
1838 and 1854 of several insurance offices, of which the 
English and Scottish Law alone still survives, [iii. 417] 

promoter of insurance offices; son of Edward Baylis 
[q. v.] ; clerk in Anchor, and, in 1850, manager of Tra- 
falgar insurance offices ; founded several offices with 
varying success. [iii. 447] 

BAYLY, ANSELM (d. 1794), critic and theologian ; 
B.C.L. Christ Church, Oxford, 1749 : minor canon of St. 
Paul's and Westminster, and sub-dean of Chapel Royal ; 
published critical and theological works. [iii. 448] 

BAYLY, BENJAMIN (1671-1720), divine ; M.A. Ox- 
ford, 1695 ; rector of St. James's, Bristol, 1697-1720 ; pub- 
lished Essay on Inspiration ' (1707). [iii. 448] 

BAYLY, JOHN (d. 1633), chaplain to Charles I ; son 
of Lewis Bayly [q. v.] ; guardian of Christ's Hospital, 
Ruthin. [iii. 448] 

BAYLY, LEWIS (</. 1631), bishop of Bangor : 
D.D. probably of Exeter College, Oxford, 1613 ; vicar of 
Evesham ; chaplain to Henry, prince of Wales ; bishop of 
Bangor, 1616 ; brought into disfavour by his puritanism ; 
published at beginning of seventeenth century ' Practice 
of Piety,' which won and retained extraordinary popu- 
larity, [iii. 448] 

BAYLY, THOMAS (d. 1657 ?), royalist divine ; son of 
Lewis Bayly [q. v.] ; M.A. Magdalene College, Cambridge, 
1631 ; sub-dean of Wells, 1638 ; incorporated M.A. Oxford, 
1644 ; D.D. ; assisted as commissioned officer in defence of 
Raglan Castle, 1646 : converted to Roman Catholicism in 
Prance ; imprisoned for writings offensive to authorities 
of Commonwealth ; subsequently settled at Douay and 
finally went to Italy ; published religious works. 

[iii. 449] 

BAYLY, THOMAS HAYNES (1797-1839), miscella- 
neous writer ; educated at Winchester and St. Mary Hall, 
Oxford ; abandoned original idea of entering church ; pro- 
duced songs, ballads, and dramatic pieces, including ' I'd 
be a butterfly,' ' She wore a wreath of roses,' and ' Perfec- 
tion,' a successful farce; became involved in financial 
difficulties, 1831, and in a short time wrote thirty-six 
pieces for stage ; published five novels. [iii. 451] 

BAYLY, WILLIAM (1737-1810), astronomer : assist- 
ant at Royal Observatory ; accompanied astronomical 
expedition sent by Royal Society to North Cape, 1769, and 
Cook's voyages, 1772 and 1776 ; head-master of Royal Aca- 
demy, Portsmouth, 1785-1807; published observations 
made during his voyages. [iii. 452] 

BAYNARD, ANN (1672-1697), daughter of Dr. Ed- 
ward Baynard [q. v.] ; noted for her learning and piety. 

[iii. 452] 

BAYNARD, EDWARD (b. 1641), physician: studied 
at Leyden ; honorary F.C.P. London, 1687 : published 
' Health, a Poem,' 1719. [iii. 453] 

BAYNARD, FULK (</. 1306), itinerant justice in 
Norfolk. [iii. 453] 

BAYNARD, ROBERT (d. 1331), justice: son of Fulk 
Baynard [q. v.] ; frequently knight of shire for Norfolk, 
1289-1327 ; justice of king's bench, 1327. [iii. 453] 

BAYNBRIGG, CHRISTOPHER (1464 ?-1614). [See 

BAYNE, ALEXANDER, of Rires (d. 1737), Scottish 
lawyer ; advocate, 1714 ; curator of Advocates' Library, 

and first professor of Scots law, Edinburgh University, 
1722 ; published legal writings. [iii. 453] 

BAYNE, I'KTKU ( 1830-1896), journalist and author ; 
M.A. Marisehal College, Aberdeen, 1*50 ; studied for 
ministry at Edinburgh; editor of 'Glasgow Common- 
wealth,' and, 1866, of ' Witness ' (Edinburgh) ; editor of 
Dial,' 1860-2, and of ' Weekly Review,' the organ of Eng- 
lish presbyterian church, 1862-6 : leader-writer for 
' Christian World,' and contributor to London periodicals 
and reviews ; published essays and biographical, historical, 
and other works. [Suppl. i. 146] 

BAYNE, WILLIAM (d. 1782), navy lieutenant, 1749 ; 
captain, 1760 ; at reduction of Martinique, 1762 ; served 
at Fort Royal, and off Chesapeake, 1781 ; killed in action 
with French. [iii. 454] 

BAYNES, ADAM (1622-1670), captain in parlia- 
mentary army, and successively commissioner of excise 
and of customs ; member of army and admiralty com- 
mittees : several times M.P. for Leeds, and, 1659, for 
Appleby ; imprisoned in Tower for treasonable practices, 
1666. [iiL 454] 

BAYNES, JAMES (1766-1837), watercolour painter ; 
pupil of Romney ; exhibited at Royal Academy, 1796- 
1837. [iii. 455] 

BAYNES, JOHN (1758-1787), lawyer ; B.A. Trinity 
College, Cambridge, 1777; fellow, 1779; M.A., 1780; 
studied law at Gray's Inn ; became a zealous whig ; pub- 
lished political writings in verse and prose. [iii. 465] 

BAYNES, PAUL (d. 1617), puritan divine ; fellow, 
Christ's College, Cambridge ; refused absolute subscription 
and was compelled to leave university: successfully 
replied to charge of conducting conventicles ; his religious 
writings were all published posthumously. [iii. 455] 

BAYNES, RALPH (d. 1569), bishop ; M.A. St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 1521 ; university preacher ; opposed 
Latimer : professor of Hebrew at Paris ; bishop of Lich- 
field and Coventry, 1554 ; D.D., 1555 ; deprived of bishopric, 
1559 ; published a Hebrew grammar. [iii. 456] 

BAYNES, ROGER (1546-1623), secretary to Cardinal 
Allen ; abjured protestantism, c. 1679 ; secretary to Car- 
dinal Allen at Rome ; published ' Praise of Solitarinesse,' 
1577, and ' The Baynes of Aqvisgrane,' 1617. [iii. 456] 

BAYNES, THOMAS SPENCER (1823-1887), philo- 
sopher ; educated at Edinburgh, where he studied logic 
under Sir William Hamilton [q. v.] ; graduate of London, 
1850 : teacher of philosophy at Philosophical Institution, 
Edinburgh, and assistant to Hamilton, I860: editor of 
' Edinburgh Guardian,' 1850-4 ; introduced to Carlyle by 
G. H. Lewes; assistant editor of 'Daily News,' 1868-64": 
professor of logic, metaphysics, and English literature, St. 
Andrews, 1864 : wrote articles on Shakespeare's obscure 
and unfamiliar words and on his school-learning, which 
were collected as ' Shakespeare Studies,' 1894 ; superin- 
tended ninth edition of ' Encyclopaedia Britauuica,' 1873- 
1887, being associated with Professor William Robertson 
Smith [q. v.] from 1880. [Suppl. i. 147] 

BAYNHAM, JAMES (d. 1552). [See BAIXHAM.] 

BAYNING, first BARON (1728-1810). [See Towxs- 

BAYNTON, Sm ANDREW (/. 1S40), scholar; 
attended Knyvett on embassy from Henry VIII to the em- 
peror ; several times M.P. ' [iii. 457] 

BAYNTON, THOMAS (d. 1820), surgeon at Bristol 
Published works on ulcer and spinal diseases, [iii. 457] 

admiral ; captain, 1794 : served in West Indies, Mediter- 
ranean, and at Buenos Ayres, 1794-1807 : at Trafalgar, 
1805 ; rear-admiral, 1812 : vice-admiral, 1821 : admiral, 
1837 ; K.C.B., 1815 ; G.C.B., 1839. [iiL 457] 

civil engineer : pupil of Sir John Benjamin McNeill [q. v.] ; 
engineer at Westminster, 1842 ; chief engineer to metro- 
politan board of works, 1855-89 : carried out construction 
of metropolitan drainage system, 1858-75, and Thames 
embankment, 1862-74 ; M.I.C.E., 1838, president, 1884 ; 
C.B., 1871 : knighted, 1874. He did much work in con- 
nection with metropolitan bridges, and published many 
valuable professional reports. [Suppl. i. 149] 




BAZLEY, Sin THOMAS (1797-1885), manufacturer 
and politician: cotton-spinner and merchant in Mun- 
cbester, 1826-62; member of council of Anti-t'ornlsiw 
League ; chairman of Manchester Chamber of Commerce, 
1845-59; M.P. for Manchester, 1858-8U: created baronet, 
1869 ; published pamphlet*. [Suppl. i. 151] 

BEACH or BECHE, JOHN (d. 1539), abbot : edu- 
cated at Oxford ; abbot of St. John's, Colchester, 1538, 
opposing its dissolution, 1539 : subsequently attainted of 
treason, and perhaps hanged at Colchester. [iii. 458] 

BEACH, THOMAS (d. 1737), poet ; wine merchant at 
Wrexham; published 'Eugenic, or the Virtuous and 
Happy Life,' 1737. [iii. 458] 

BEACH, THOMAS (1738-1806), portrait-painter; 
pupil of Reynolds ; exhibited at Royal Academy, 1785- 
1797. [iii. 458] 

BEACH, THOMAS MILLER, (1841-1894), govern- 
ment spy, known as ' MAJOR LK CAROX' ; apprenticed as 
draper at Colchester ; went to New York, 1861, and served 
with federalists under name of Henry le Caron ; major, 
1865 ; joined Fenian organisation ; furnished English 
government with information about intended Fenian in- 
vasion of Canada, 1866 : paid spy in United States, 1867- 
1889; military organiser of Irish republican army; re- 
ported to English government second Fenian invasion of 
Canada, 1868 ; betrayed to Canadian government plans of 
John O'Neill, the Fenian leader, and Louis Riel [q. v.], 
1871 ; M.D. Detroit ; practised medicine successively at 
Detroit and Braidwood ; retained confidence of Fenians ; 
closely connected with Irish Land League agitation and 
Fenian movement in England, 1879, and communicated 
plans of the Olan-na-Gael to Mr. Robert Anderson, chief 
of criminal detective department in London ; finally left 
America, 1888 ; gave evidence against Irish agitators at 
Parnell commission, 1889 ; published ' Twenty-five Years 
in Secret Service,' 1892. [Suppl. i. 151] 


BEACONSFIELD, EARL OF (1804-1881). [See 

BEADLE, JOHN (d. 1667), divine : educated at Cam- 
bridge ; rector of Little Leighs and (1632) of Barnstone 
(1656) ; signal ' Essex Testimony ' ; published 'Journal of 
a Thankful Christian.' [iii. 459] 

BEADON, SIR CECIL (1816-1881), Indian statesman ; 
educated at Eton and Shrewsbury ; entered Bengal civil 
service, 1836; under-secretary to Bengal government, 
1843 ; represented Bengal presidency on commission on 
Indian postal system, 1850 ; successively secretary to Ben- 
gal government, home and foreign secretary to Indian 
government, member of governor-general's council and 
lieutenant-governor of Bengal ; his deservedly brilliant 
reputation marred by unfortunate measures in regard to 
tea-planting in Assam, the disastrous mission to Bhutan, 
and failure (partly due to ill-health) in relieving the 
Oriasa famine ; returned to England, 1866 ; K.C.s.l . 

[iii. 459] 

BEADON, FREDERICK (1777-1879), divine: son of 
Richard Beadou (1737-1824) [q. v.] : educated at Charter- 
house and Trinity College, Oxford ; presented to living of 
Weston-super-Mare ; rector of North Stoneham, 1811 ; 
canon residentiary of Wells, 1812-75. [iii. 461] 

BEADON, RICHARD (1737-1824), bishop ; B.A. St. 
John's College, Cambridge, 1758; fellow and tutor: 
public orator, 1768 ; master of Jesus College, Cambridge, 
1781 ; bishop of Gloucester, 1789, and of Bath and Wells, 
1802. [iii. 462] 

BEAL, SAMUEL (1825-1889), Chinese scholar ; B.A. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1847 : ordained priest, 1852 ; 
naval chaplain on China station ; naval interpreter, 
1856-8: professor of Chinese, University College, Lon- 
don, 1877 ; D.C.L. Durham, 1885 ; published translations 
from Chinese, and other writings. [Suppl. i. 153] 

BEAL, WILLIAM (1815-1870), religious writer : edu- 
cated at King's College, London, and Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; B.A., 1847 ; LL.D. Aberdeen : vicar of Brooke, 
Norfolk, 1847 ; published religious works. [iv. 1] 

BEAT.E. BARTHOLOMEW (ft. 1680), portraitist and 
physician ; son of Mary Beale [q. v.] [iv. 3] 

BEALE, CHARLES (/. 1689), portrait-painter, son of 
Mary Beale [q. v.] ; retired from profession, 1689. [iv. 3] 

BEALE, FRANCIS (/. 1656), author of Royall Game 
of Chesse Play,' 1666. [iv. 1] 

BEALE, JOHN (1603-1683?), scientific writer; edu- 
cated at Eton and Kind's College, Cambridge; M.A., 
1636 ; rector df Yeovil, Somerset, 1660-83 ; F.R.P., 1663 : 
chaplain to Charles II, 1665 : wrote on Herefordshire 
orchards. [iv. 1] 

BEALE, MARY (1632-1697), portrait-painter, nte 
Oradock ; perhaps a pupil of Sir Peter Lely, but more 
probably of Robert Walker; copied many of Lely's- pic- 
tures. Her works include portraits of Charles II, Cowley, 
James, duke of Monmouth, and Milton. [iv. 2] 

BEALE, ROBERT (1541-1601), diplomatist and anti- 
quary ; compelled to leave England during Mary's reign, 
owing to his religious opinions ; connected with English 
embassy in Paris, 1564 ; secretary to Walsingham, when 
ambassador resident there, 1670 : M.P., Totnes, 1572 : clerk 
to the council ; sent by Elizabeth to Lutheran princes 
of Germany, to plead for toleration of Cryptocalvimsts, 
who denied doctrine of ubiquity of the body of Jesus, 
1577-8 ; acted as secretary of state during Walsingham's 
absence, 1578, 1581, and 1583 ; deputy to Walsiugham 
when governor of Mines Royal, 1681 ; engaged in nego- 
tiating with Mary Queen of Scots between 1581 and 
1584 : M.P. for Dorchester, 1585, 1586, and 1688 ; notified 
Mary of sentence of death passed on her, 1586, and read 
warrant before her execution, 1587 : served under Leicester 
in attempt to relieve Sluys, 1587 ; employed in negotiation 
with the States, 1589 ; banished from court and parlia- 
ment for his attitude in debate upon supply and towards 
inquisitorial practices of bishops, 1592 ; M.P., Lostwithiel, 
Cornwall, 1592 : envoy to treat for peace with Spain at 
Boulogne, 1600 ; wrote legal, historical, political, and other 
works ; member of Elizabethan Society of Antiquaries. 

[iv. 3] 

BEALE, THOMAS WILLERT (1828-1894), miscel- 
laneous writer; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1863; 
studied music under Edward Roeckel ; managed operas in 
London and provinces ; originated national music meet- 
ings at Crystal Palace ; published songs, and pianoforte 
and dramatic pieces. [Suppl. i. 154] 

BEALE, WILLIAM (d. 1651), royalist divine ; edu- 
cated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; 
B.A., 1610; fellow of Jesus College, 1611; M.A., 1613; 
archdeacon of Carmarthen, 1623 : D.D., 1627 ; master of 
Jesus College, 1632, and of St. John's College, 1634 ; vice- 
chancellor of university, 1634; rendered considerable 
assistance to the king at outbreak of war, 1642 ; captured 
and imprisoned by Cromwell, 1642-5 ; ultimately went into 
exile in Spain, where he died. [iv. 7] 

BEALE, WILLIAM (1784-1854), musician ; chorister 
at Westminster Abbey ; gentleman of Chapel Royal, 1816 ; 
organist to Trinity College, Cambridge, 1820, and to two 
London churches, 1821 ; composed glees and madrigals. 

[iv. 8] 

BEALES, EDMOND (1803-1881), political agitator ; 
educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge ; M.A., 
1828; called to bar at Middle Temple, 1830; equity 
draughtsman and conveyancer ; achieved celebrity by his 
connection with Polish Exiles' Friends Society, Circassian 
Committee, Emancipation Society, Garibaldi Committee, 
and the Reform League, of which he was president at 
the time of the Hyde Park riots, July 1866 ; county court 
circuit judge, 1870. [iv. 9] 

1400 ?), judge ; king's sergeant and justice of assize, 
1366; commissioner for defence of Kentish coast; chief- 
justice of common pleas ; unsuccessful in quelling Wat 
Tyler's rebellion, 1381 ; knighted, 1386 ; exiled to Ireland 
for giving opinion unfavourable to parliament's action 
towards Michael de la Pole ; recalled, 1397. [iv. 9] 

BEAMISH, NORTH LUDLOW (1797-1872), military 
writer ; obtained commission in 4th Irish dragoons, 1816 ; 
subsequently attached to the vice-regal suite in Hanover. 
His works include translations of Count von Bismarck's 
military writings. [iv. 10] 

BEAMONT, WILLIAM JOHN (1828-1868), divine ; 
B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1850; fellow, 1862; 
M.A., 1853; ordained, 1854; missionary in Palestine; 
chaplain in British army during Crimean war ; published 
religious, oriental, and other works. [iv. 11] 




BEAN or BEYN, SAINT (/. 1011). first bishop of 
Murthlach ; perhaps identical with the Irish Mophiog, 
the day of each (16 Dec.) being the same. [iv. 12] 

draughtsnmu ; educated at Oxford ; M.A., 1565 ; senior 
proctor of the university, 1579 ; executed drawings of the 
Oxford colleges, which have beeii several times repro- 
duced, [iv. 12] 

BEARCROFT, PHILIP (1697-1761), antiquary ; B.A. 
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 1716 ; fellow, Morton College, and 
M.A., 1719 ; B.D. and D.D., 1730 ; took orders : chaplain 
to the king, 1738 ; master of Charterhouse, 1753 ; pre- 
lx.'ndary of Wells, 1755 ; published antiquarian writings. 

[iv. 12] 

BEARD, CHARLES (1827-1888), Unitarian divine; 
son of John Belly Beard [q. v.] ; B.A. London University, 
1847; assistant at Hyde chapel, Gee Cross, Cheshire, 
1850, and sole pastor, 1854-66 ; minister at Kenshaw 
Street chapel, Liverpool, 1867-88 ; vice-president of Uni- 
versity College, Liverpool ; Hibbert lecturer, 1883 ; LL.D. 
St. Andrews, 1888 ; published religious writings. 

[Suppl. i. 154] 

BEARD, JOHN (1716 ?-1791), actor and vocalist; 
trained in the King's chapel ; appeared at Drury Lane as 
Sir John Loverule in The Devil to pay,' 1737 ; at Covent 
Garden in the ' Beggar's Opeca,' as Macheath, which be- 
came his favourite character, 1743 ; manager of Covent 
Garden Theatre, 1761 ; retired, 1767. [iv. 13] 

BEARD, JOHN RELLY (1800-1876), Unitarian mi- 
nister ; took charge of congregations at Salford, 1825, at 
Straugeways, Manchester, 1848-64, and at Sale, 1865-73 : 
hon. D.D. Giessen University, 1838 ; first principal of 
Unitarian Home Missionary Board, Manchester; pub- 
lished religious and other works, which did much for the 
cause of popular education. [iv. 14] 

BEARD, RICHARD (fl. 1553-1574). [See BEEARD.] 

BEARD, THOMAS (d. 1632), puritan divine; edu- 
cated at Cambridge ; rector of Hengrave, 1598 ; master of 
Huntingdon hospital and grammar school, where Oliver 
Cromwell was educated under his care ; J.P. for Hunting- 
donshire, 1630 ; D.D. Cambridge ; wrote religious works, 
including the "Theatre of Gods ludgernents,' 1697. 

BEARD, WILLIAM (1772-1868), collector of V 'bones, 
which he found in excavations in the neighbourhood of 
Hutton, Bleadou, and Saudford. His collection, containing 
many bones of great rarity, is now in the museum at 
Tauntou Castle. [iv. 15] 

BEARDMORE, NATHANIEL (1816-1872), engineer 
to works for draining and navigating river Lee, 1850; 
published writings on hydraulic engineering. [iv. 16] 

artist in black and white ; worked in architect's office, 
and later as clerk in office of Guardian Insurance Com- 
pany ; illustrated ' Morte d'Arthur ' ; contributed draw- 
ings to 'Pall Mall Budget' ; art editor of ' Yellow Book,' 
1894 ; joined Mr. Arthur Symous in production of ' The 
Savoy' magazine, 1896. His work included designs for 
Oscar Wilde's 'Salome,' the 'Rape of the Lock,' 'Made- 
moiselle de Maupin,' and Ernest Dowson's ' Pierrot of the 
Minute.' [Suppl. i. 155] 

BEATNIFFE, RICHARD (1740-1818), bookseller and 
topographer ; journeyman bookbinder at Norwich, where 
he subsequently kept a secondhand: bookshop ; published 
Norfolk Tour,' 1772. [iv. 16] 

BEATON or BETHUNE, DAVID (1494-1546), arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews ; educated at St. Andrews, Glasgow, 
and Paris : abbot of Arbroath, 1523 ; bishop of Mirepoix 
in Foix, 1537 ; cardinal of San Stefano on Monte Celio ; 
archbishop of St. Andrews, 1539 ; at an early age resident 
for Scotland at court of France ; lord privy seal, 1528 ; 
chancellor, 1643 ; protonotary apostolic and legate a latere, 
1543; murdered by John Leslie, in revenge for his con- 
demnation of Wishart, one of the most popular preachers 
of Reformation. [iv. 17] 

BEATON or BETHUNE, JAMES (d. 1539), arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews ; M.A. St. Andrews, 1493 ; prior of 
Whithorn and abbot of Duufermline, 1504 : bishop of Gal- 
loway ; archbishop of Glasgow, 1509 : archbishop of St. 
Andrews and primate, 1522 ; lord treasurer, 1505-6 ; chan- 

BEATON or BETHUNE. JAMES (1517-1603), arch- 
bishop of Glasgow ; brother of David Beaton [q. v.] ; edu- 
cated in Paris; al>lx>t of Arbroath; counsellor of queen 
regent during struggles with lords of congregation ; on 
death of regent went to Paris, where he remained till death 
as Scottish ambassador ; last Roman catholic archbishop 
of Glasgow, 1552. [iv. 19] 

BEATSON, ALEXANDER (1759-1833), governor of 
St. Helena ; ensign, Madras infantry, 1776 ; engineer and 
field officer ; colonel, 1801 ; governor of St. Helena, 1808- 
1813 ; major-general, 1810 ; lieutenant-general, 1814 ; in- 
troduced in St Helena improved system of agriculture 
and wrote miscellaneous works. [iv. 20] 

1874), classical scholar: educated at Merchant Taylors' 
School uud Pembroke College, Cambridge ; M.A., 1828 ; 
fellow ; published classical works. [iv. 20] 

BEATSON, GEORGE STEWARD (d. 1874), surgeon- 
general ; M.D. Glasgow, 1836 ; on army medical staff in 
Ceylon, 1839-51, and subsequently in Burmah and Turkey ; 
surgeon-general and principal medical officer of European 
troops in India, 1863-8 and 1871 ; in charge of Netley 
Hospital, 1868 ; C.B., 1869. [iv. 21] 

BEATSON, ROBERT (1742-1818), miscellaneous 
writer; educated for military profession; accompanied 
royal engineers against Kochefort, 1757, and to West 
Indies, 1759 ; retired, 1766 ; devoted himself to practical 
agriculture in Fifeshire, on which, and on military and 
political subjects, he published works, including 'Poli- 
tical Index to the Histories of Great Britain and Ire- 
land '(1786). [iv. 21] 

BEATTIE, GEORGE (1786-1823), Scottish poet ; son 
of a Kiucardineshire crofter ; established himself success- 
fully as an attorney at Montrose ; committed suicide from 
disappointment in love. His principal poems were con- 
tributed to the ' Montrose Review.' [iv. 22] 

BEATTIE, JAMES (1735-1803), Scottish poet ; son 
of a shopkeeper and small farmer ; M.A. Marischal Col- 
lege, Aberdeen, 1763 ; schoolmaster and parish clerk at 
Fardoun, Kincardine; studied divinity at Aberdeen: 
master at Aberdeen grammar school, 1758 ; professor of 
moral philosophy and logic at Marischal College, 1760 ; 
published 'Original Poems and Translations,' 1761; 
formed acquaintance with Gray, 1765; published ' Essay 
on Truth,' 1770, and, anonymously, first book of the 
' Minstrel,' 1771 ; met Dr. Johnson and members of his 
circle, 1771 ; hon. LL.D. Oxford, 1773 ; published second 
book of 'Minstrel,' 1774, 'Evidences of the Christian 
Religion,' 1786, and 'Elements of Moral Science,' 1790-93. 

[iv. 22] 

BEATTIE, JAMES HAY (1768-1790), sou of James 
Beattie [q.v.]; educated at Marischal College; M.A., 
1786 ; appointed assistant and successor to his father in 
chair of moral philosophy and logic, Aberdeen, 1787. 

[iv. 25] 

BEATTIE, WILLIAM (1793-1875), physician ; studied 
medicine at Edinburgh ; M.D., 1818 ; practised in Edin- 
burgh, and subsequently in Cumberland ; attended Duke 
of Clarence (afterwards William IV) on visits to Germany, 
1822, 1825, and 1826 ; studied at Paris ; L.R.C.P. London, 
1827 ; practised at Hampstead, 1827-45. He was on terms 
of the closest friendship with Thomas Campbell, while the 
Countess of Blessington and Lady Byron were among his in- 
timate acquaintances. His writings include several poems, 
a series of descriptive and historical works, illustrated by 
W. H. Bartlett [q. v.], and ' The Life and Letters of Thomas 
Campbell' (1849). [iv. 25] 

BEATTY, Sm WILLIAM (d. 1842), surgeon ; physi- 
cian to Greenwich Hospital, 1806-10. Published, 1807, 
' Narrative of Death of Lord Nelson,' whom he attended at 
Trafalgar ; M.D. St. Andrews, and L.C.P., 1817 ; F.R.S., 
1818 ; knighted, 1831. [iv. 27] 

EARL, 1747-1816 ; LYGON, FREDERICK, sixth EARL, 1830- 

1315), lord ordainer ; one of seven earls who signed letter 
rejecting pope's authority in Scottish questions, 1301 ; at- 
tended Edward II in his last campaign, 1307 ; took part in 
procuring Gaveston's banishment, 1308 : chosen one of the 

oellor, 1513-26; one of the regents during James V's I ordaiuerb, 1310 ; assisted Lancaster in capture of Gavestou, 
liuority. [iv. 18] 1312, but took no part in his execution. [iv. 28] 




(14L'5-1445), succeeded his father, Richard, eurl of War- 
wick [q. v.], 1439 ; created duke, 114 1. [iv. 28] 

(rf. 1388), steward of household to Richard H ; beheaded 
for treason. [iv. 29] 

(1382-1439), son of Thomas, earl of Warwick [q.v.]; 
K.B., 1399 ; succeeded his father, 1401 ; admitted to order 
of Garter between 1403 and 1420 ; visited Jerusalem and 
several European countries, 1408-10 : lord high steward 
at Henry V's coronation, 1413; instrumental in sup- 
pressing lollard rising, 1414 ; deputy of Calais ; accom- 
panied English embassy to council of Constance, 1414 ; 
went with Henry V to France, 1415, and held important 
commands in the war ; arranged truce preparatory to 
treaty of Troyes ; charged with care of educating infant 
Henry VI, 1428 ; arranged truce with Scotland, 1430 : lieu- 
tenant of France and Normandy, 1437 ; died at Rouen. 

[iv. 29] 

BEAUCHAMP, RICHARD DK (1430?-1481), divine; 
son of Sir Walter de Beauchamp [q. v.] ; bishop of Here- 
ford, 1448 ; translated to Salisbury, 1460 ; chancellor of 
order of Garter, 1475 ; dean of Windsor, 1478. [iv. 31] 

BEAUCHAMP, ROBERT DE (d. 1252), constable of 
Oxford and sheriff of the county, 1215; judge, 1234; 
justice itinerant, 1234 and 1238. [iv. 31] 

1401), statesman ; accompanied John of Gaunt in French 
campaign, 1373, and Richard in Scottish campaign, 1385 ; 
joined Gloucester and Arundel in opposing Richard, 1387 ; 
imprisoned for treason in Tower (the Beauchamp Tower 
being named after him), 1397 ; sentenced to forfeiture and 
imprisonment in Isle of Man ; liberated on triumph of 
Henry IV, 1399. [iv. 32] 

BEAUCHAMP, WALTER DE (<f. 1236), castellan of 
Worcester and sheriff of Worcestershire, 1216 ; declared 
for Louis of France, 1216 ; excommunicated, but re- 
stored to offices by Henry III ; itinerant justice, 1226 and 
1227. [iv. 32] 

BEAUCHAMP, SIR WALTER DE (/. 1416), lawyer ; 
fought in French wars of Henry IV and Henry V ; knight 
of shire for Wiltshire, 1415 ; speaker of House of Com- 
mons, 1416. [iv. 33] 

BEAUCHAMP, WILLIAM DK (d. 1260), judge ; ac- 
companied John's expedition to Poitou, 1214, and sub- 
sequently assisted baronial party ; sheriff of Bedfordshire 
and Buckinghamshire, 1234-7; baron of exchequer, 
1234. [iv. 33] 

BEAUCLERK, LORD AMELIUS (1771-1846), admi- 
ral ; lieutenant, 1792 ; commander, 1793 ; at blockade of 
Toulon, 1794 ; on Irish coast, 1796 ; rear admiral, 1811 ; 
vice-admiral, 1819 ; commauder-iu-chief at Lisbon and on 
Portuguese coast, 1824-7, and at Plymouth, 1836-9; 
admiral, 1830; F.R.; K.O.B., 1815; G.O.H., 1831; 
G.C.B., 1835. [iv. 33] 

BEAUCLERK, Loan AUBREY (17107-1741), post- 
captain ; in Leeward Is lands, 1731 ; in Mediterranean, 
1734-5 and 1737-9 ; killed in attack on Boca Chica. 

[iv. 34] 

(1670-1726), son of Charles II by Nell Gwynn ; created 
Duke of St. Albans, 1684 ; served in imperial army against 
Turks, 1688, and under William III in Landeu campaign, 

1693 ; captain of baud of pensioners ; volunteer in Flanders, 

1694 and 1697 ; dismissed from captaincy of pensioners by 
tory ministry, 1712, but restored by George I; K.G., 
1718. [iv. 34] 

BEAUCLERK, LADY DIANA (1734-1808), amateur 
artist ; eldest daughter of Charles Spencer, second duke of 
Marlborough: married second Viscount Boliugbroke, 
1757 ; was divorced, and married Topham Beauclerk 
[q. v.], 1768. Her works include illustrations for Drydeu's 
Fables.' [iv. 36] 

BEAUCLERK, TOPHAM (1739-1780), friend of Dr. 
Johnson ; grandson of Charles Beauclerk, first duke of 
St. Albans; educated at Trinity College, Oxford; en- 
joyed friendship of Dr. Johnson after 1767 ; married Lady 
Diana Spencer, 1768. [iv. 36] 

DI: (.//. 1190), secular canon of Salisbury ; reputed author 
of ' Encomium Topographiae ' ami other works, [iv. 36] 

judge ; on commission of trailbaston for western circuit, 
1305 ; summoned to attend Edward I at Ber \vick-on-Tweed 
on invasion of Scotland, 1301. [iv. 36] 

of Thetford ; consecrated by Lanfranc, 1086. [iv. 37] 

first DUKE, 1629-1700 ; SOMERSET, HENRY, second DUKE, 
1684-1714 ; SOMERSET, HENRY, seventh DUKE, 1792-1853.] 

geographer ; son of Daniel Cornelis de Beaufort [q. v.l 
M.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1764; hon. LL.D., 179; 
vicar of Oollon, co. Louth, 1790-1821 ; published map of 
Ireland, 1792. [iv. 38] 

provost and archdeacon of Tuam ; French refugee. 

[iv. 38] 

(<J. 1455) ; younger brother of Duke John ; held command 
in France, 1431 ; recaptured Hartieur from French, 1440 : 
relieved Calais, and obtained earldom of Dorset, 1442; 
succeeded to earldom of Somerset, 1444, and to dukedom, 
1448 ; lieutenant of France ; during his term of rule most 
of the English ascendency in France lost ; returned, and, 
with Henry's support, carried on government ; imprisoned 
in Tower on appointment of York as protector, J453 ; killed 
at first battle of St. Albans, [iv. 38] 

BEAUFORT, EDMUND, styled fourth DUKE OF 
SOMERSET (1438?-1471), son of Edmund Beaufort, second 
duke of Somerset [q. v. J ; styled fourth duke after death 
of his brother, Henry Beaufort, third duke [q. v.*), whose 
attainder, however, was not reversed, and whose titles 
consequently remained forfeit; fought for Lancastrians 
at Tewkesbury, and was taken prisoner and exe- 
cuted. [SuppL i. 156] 

BEAUFORT, SIR FRANCIS (1774-1857), rear-admiral 
and hydrographer ; sou of Daniel Augustus Beaufort 
[q. v.] ; navy lieutenant, 1796 ; commander, 1800 ; sur- 
veyed entrance to Rio de la Plata, 1807; post-captain, 
1810 ; surveyed coast of Karamania, 1811-12, and pub- 
lished results, 1817 ; hydrographer to navy, 1829-55 ; rear- 
admiral on retired list, 1846; K.C.B., 1848; prepared 
atlas used by Society for Diffusion of Useful Knowledge ; 
! F.R.S. and F.R.A.S. [iv. 39] 

of Sir Francis Beaufort [q. v.] ; author of the ' Digest of 
I Criminal Law Procedure in Bengal ' (1850). [iv. 41] 

BEAUFORT, HENRY (d. U47), bishop of Winches- 
ter ; second and illegitimate son of John of Gaunt, by 
Catherine Swyuford; declared legitimate by Richard II, 
1397 ; read law at Aachen ; received prebeudal stalls at 
Lincoln, 1389 and 1391 ; dean of Wells, 1397 ; bishop of 
Lincoln, 1398: chancellor of Oxford University, 1399; 
chancellor, 1403-4 ; member of king's council, 1403 ; 
bishop of Winchester, 1404 ; exercised considerable influ- 
ence over Prince of Wales, and thus came into conflict 
with Archbishop Arundel [q. v.], who in great measure 
guided the king's actions ; chancellor on accession of 
nenry V, 1413; accompanied unsuccessful embassy to 
France with terms of peace, 1414 ; attended council at 
Constance, 1417, and effected change in the policy by 
which Henry V, in alliance with the Emperor Sigisinund, 
had previously opposed the election of a pope until 
measures had been taken to reform church ; nominated 
cardinal by Cardinal Colonna, the new pope (Martin V) 
elected after the council had pledged itself to reformation ; 
forbidden by Henry V to accept the cardiualate ; named 
guardian of the iuf ant prince by Henry V on his death bed, 
1422 ; member of council, 1422 ; chancellor, 1424-6 ; nomi- 
nated cardinal-priest of St. Eusebius, 1426 ; legate in Ger- 
many, Hungary, and Bohemia ; assisted pope in Hussite 
war ; employed in affairs of French Kingdom, 1430-1 ; 
crowned Henry VI king of France, at Paris, 1431 : de- 
feated, with support of parliament, an attempt by Duke of 
Gloucester and his party to deprive him of his see on ground 
that a cardinal con Id not hold an English see, 1432 ; at- 
tempted unsuccessfully to arrange peace with France, 


1439 and 1440, but did not discourage efforts to prosecute 
the war with vigour, lending larirc sums for equipment of 
expeditions. Buried in Winchester Cathedral, the build- 
ing of which he completed, [iv. 41] 

(1436-14(> 1), son of Kdiniind Heattfort, second duke[q. v.] ; 
..led to dukedom, 1465; lieutenant of Isle of Wight, 
1457: nominated by Margaret captain of Calais in place 
of Earl of Warwick, 1469 ; was refused admission by 
Warwick and defeated at Newnham bridge (Neullay), 
1460; defeated Yorkists at Wakufield, 1460, and at second 
battle of St. Albans, 1461 : attainted, 1461 ; submitted to 
Kdward, 14(52 ; pardoned, 1463 ; returned to Margaret, 
lliii : captured and executed at Hexbam, the act restor- 
ing his dignities being annulled. [Suppl. i. 167] 

MA KVI: is UK DOUSKT and of SOMERSET (1373 ?-1410), eldest 
son of John of Gaunt, by his mistress, Catherine Swyn- 
fonl [q. v.] ; legitimated, 1397 ; served against Barbary, 
1390 ; knighted, c. 1391 ; served" with Teutonic knights in 
Lithuania, 1394 ; created Earl of Somerset and Marquis of 
Dorset and Somerset, and elected K.G., 1397 : lieutenant 
of Aquitaiue, 1397 ; admiral of the Irish fleet, 1398, and 
later of northern fleet; deprived of marquisates on 
Richard Il's fall, 1399 ; great chamberlain, 1399 ; privy 
councillor and captain of Calais, 1401 ; lieutenant of 
South Wales, 1403 ; deputy - constable of England, 
1404. [Suppl. i. 168] 

1444), son of John Beaufort, sou of John of Gaunt, by 
Catherine Swyuford [q. v.] ; earl of Somerset, 1419 ; duke, 
1443 ; captain-general in Aquitaine and Normandy, 1443. 

[iv. 48] 

AND DERBY (1443-1509), daughter and heiress of John, 
first duke of Somerset [q. v.] ; married, 1455, Edmund 
Tudor, earl of Richmond (d. 1456) ; on outbreak of Wars 
of Roses retired to Pembroke, where she was detained in 
honourable confinement after triumph of Yorkists, 1461 ; 
married Henry Stafford, and subsequently Lord Stanley 
(afterwards Earl of Derby); took an active part in 
planning marriage of Henry with Elizabeth of York, and 
insurrections of 1484 and 1485, after which she lived 
chiefly in retirement ; she instituted, on advice of John 
Fisher, the foundations bearing the name of * Lady 
Margaret' at both universities, and Christ's (1505) and 
St. John's colleges, Cambridge (1508) ; she was an early 
patron of Caxtou and Wynkyn de Worde. [iv. 48] 

1427), sou of John of Gaunt, by Catherine Swynford [q. v.] ; 
legitimated, 1397 ; admiral of fleet for northern parts, 
1403 ; commanded royal forces in rebellion, 1405 ; captain 
of Calais, 1407 ; admiral of northern and western seas, 
1409 ; chancellor, 1410-1 2 ; took prominent part in French 
wars, 1412-27 ; lieutenant of Normandy and K.G., 1416 ; 
created Duke of Exeter for life, 1416 ; relieved Roxburgh, 
1417 ; captain of Rouen, 1419 ; negotiated treaty of Troyes, 
1420 ; on council under Gloucester's protectorate. 

[iv. 49] 

BEAUFOY, HENRY (d. 1795), whig politician ; M.P. 
for Miuehead, 1780, and Great Yarmouth, 1784 and 1790 ; 
advocated repeal of test and corporation acts, 1787-90 ; 
published political works. [iv. 60] 

BEAUFOY, MARK (1764-1827), astronomer and 
physicist ; principal founder of Society for Improvement 
of Naval Architecture, 1791 ; made valuable observations 
to determine laws of diurnal variation and on eclipses of 
Jupiter's satellites ; received Astronomical Society's silver 
medal, 1827 ; colonel, Tower Hamlets militia, 1797 ; mem- 
ber of Royal Society (1815), and of Astronomical Society, 
and fellow of Linneau Society. [iv. 51] 

BEAULIEU, LUKE DE (d. 1723), divine : native of 
France ; educated at Saumur ; took refuge in England on 
account of his religion, 1667 ; chaplain to Judge Jeffreys 
1683-8 ; B.D. Christ Church, Oxford, and rector of Whit- 
church, near Reading, 1685 ; published ' Claustrum Anima},' 
1677-78, and other religious works. [iv. 62] 

BEAUMONT, Siu ALBANIS (d. 1810 ?), engraver and 
landscape painter ; born in Piedmont ; published between 
1787 and 1806 many views in South of France, the Alps, 
and Italy, some of which were coloured by Bernard Long 
the elder. [iv. 52] 



BEAUMONT, BASIL (1669-1703), rear-admiral; lieu- 
tenant, 1688 : captain, liiH'.i : commanded squadron 
off Dunkirk, 1696; senior officer at Spithead, 1699; com- 
manded squadron in the Downs and North Sea, 1689- 
1703 ; rear-admiral, 1703 ; drowned in wreck on Goodwin 
Sands. [iv. 63] 

BEAUMONT, FRANCIS (d. 1598), judge ; educated at 
IVterhouse. Cambridge : called to the bar at MiddleTemple ; 
autumn reader, 1581 ; serjeant-at-law, 1589 ; M.P. for Aid- 
borough, 1572 ; judge of common pleas, 1593. [iv. 54] 

BEAUMONT, FRANCIS (1584-1616), dramatist ; son 
of Francis Beaumont (<t. 1598) [q. v.] ; alucated at Broad- 
gates Hall (afterwards Pembroke College), Oxford ; entered 
Inner Temple, 1600; made acquaintance of Drayton and 
Jonson, for several of whose plays he wrote commendatory 
verses ; wrote conjointly with John Fletcher from about 
1606 to 1616 ; the first collected edition of Beaumont and 
Fletcher's plays appeared in 1647. [iv. 64] 

art patron and landscape painter ; educated at Eton and 
New College, Oxford ; M.P. for Beeralston, 1790-6 ; ac- 
quainted with Dr. Johnson, Reynolds, Scott, Wordsworth, 
Byron, and Coleridge ; presented several valuable pictures 
to the National Gallery, the foundation of which owed 
much to his endeavours. His own paintings do not rise 
above mediocrity. [iv. 56] 

BEAUMONT, HENRY (16 12-1673). [SeeHARCoURT.] 

BEAUMONT, JOHN (fi. 1550), master of rolls ; legal 
adviser to corporation of Leicester, 1530 : on commission 
for ecclesiastical survey of Leicestershire, 1534 ; reader, 
1537, double reader, 1543, and treasurer, 1547, of Inner 
Temple ; recorder of Leicester and master of rolls, 1550 ; 
deprived of his offices and fined for grossly abusing his 
position for his own advantage, 1552. [iv. 57] 

BEAUMONT, SIR JOHN (1583-1627), poet: son of 
Francis Beaumont (d. 1598) [q. v.] ; educated at Broad- 
gates Hall (now Pembroke College), Oxford; entered 
Inner Temple ; published ' Metamorphosis of Tobacco,' 
1602 ; made baronet on his introduction to the king by 
Buckingham, 1626. His poems were published by his son 
under the title ' Bosworth Field, with other poems,' 1629. 
The work on which he probably spent most labour, a poem 
entitled ' The Crown of Thorns,' has disappeared. 

[iv. 58] 

BEAUMONT, JOHN (d. 1701), colonel; attended 
Charles II in exile, and was employed at James Il's 
court ; as lieutenant-colonel cashiered by court-martial 
for opposing admission of Irishmen into his regiment, 
1688 ; accompanied Prince of Orange at his lauding ; 
fought as colonel at battle of Boyne, in Flanders, and in 
Holland. [iv. 59] 

BEAUMONT, JOHN (d. 1731), geologist and writer on 
spiritualism ; surgeon at Stoue-Easton, Somerset ; wrote 
letters to Royal Society on ' Rock-plants in Lead Mines of 
Mendip Hills,' 1676 and 1683 ; F.R.S., 1685 ; published 
'Treatise of Spirits and Magical Practices,' 1705. [iv. 60] 

founder of insurance offices ; founded County Fire and 
Provident Life offices, 1807 ; in early life secured medals 
for historic painting from Royal Academy and Society of 
Arts. [iv. 60] 

BEAUMONT, JOSEPH (1616-1699), master of Peter- 
house ; B.A. Peterhouse, Cambridge, 1634 ; fellow, 1636 ; 
M.A., 1638; ejected from Cambridge, as royalist, 1644: 
published 'Psyche,' an epic poem, 1648; canon of Ely, 
1646 ; domestic chaplain to Wren, bishop of Ely, 1650 ; 
| D.D. and chaplain to king, 1660 ; master of Jesus College, 
1662, and of Peterhouse, 1663 ; regius professor of divinity, 
1674. [iv. 61] 

BEAUMONT, JOSEPH (1794-1856), Wesleyan minis- 
ter; became widely known as an eloquent preacher on 
circuit ; minister successively at Edinburgh (where he 
graduated M.D.), Hull, Liverpool, London, Nottingham, 
and Bristol. [iv. 62] 

BEAUMONT, LOUIS DE (d. 1333), bishop of Durham : 
said to have been related to kings of France, Sicily, and 
England ; born in France ; treasurer of Salisbury Cathe- 
dral, c. 1291 ; prebendary of Auckland ; consecrated bishop 
of Durham, 1318 : the remainder of his life was princi- 
pally occupied with bickerings with the prior and chapter 
of St. Mary's, Durham, and Archbishop Melton of York. 
I [iv. 62.] 




BEAUMONT. I'll I LIP (1563-1635). [See TE8IMOND, 

BEAUMONT, ROBERT DE (</. 1118), count of 
Meulun : distinguished himself at Seulac, 1066, and was 
rewarded with laud in Warwickshire ; became one of the 
most prominent laymen uuder William II, whom hr 
assisted in his struggle iu Normandy with Robert. 1096, 
and in invasion of France, 1097 ; became Henry I's ' trusted 
counsellor': despatched on mission to Normandy, 1103; 
fought at Teuchebrai, 1106. [iv. 64] 

(1104-1168), justiciary of England; son of Robert de 
Beaumont (d. 1118) [q. v.] ; Stephen's chief adviser with 
his twin-brother, 1137 ; took active part in civil war, 
1139 ; secured interest with Angevin party on Stephen's 
defeat, 1141 : founded abbey of St. Mary de Pre, Leicester ; 
chief justiciar under Henry II, 1155 and 1166 ; regent 
during Henry's absence, 1168-63, and 1165. [iv. 66] 

(rf. 1190), sou of Robert de Beaumont (1104-1168) [q. v.] ; 
joined Prince Henry in rebellion against Henry II, 1173 ; 
his English fiefs confiscated and Leicester burned; im- 
prisoned at Falaise, 1173-4; restored in blood and 
honours, 1177; went on pilgrimage to Palestine, 1189, 
and died in Greece on his return journey. [iv. 67] 

BEAUMONT, ROBERT (d. 1567), divine ; educated 
at Westminster and Peterhouse, Cambridge; B.A. and 
fellow, 1544 ; M.A., 1550 ; during Mary's reign fled to 
Zurich ; Margaret professor of divinity, Cambridge, 1559 ; 
master of Trinity College, 1561 ; D.D., 1564 ; vice-chancellor 
of university, 1565 and 1566; canon of Ely, 1564; he was 
a prominent figure in the Calyinist opposition at Cambridge 
to ordinances of Elizabeth and Parker. [iv. 68] 

BEAUMONT, ROBERT (/. 1639), essayist ; author of 
' Love's Missives to Virtue,' published 1660. [iv. 69] 

politician; educated at Eton and St. John's College, 
Cambridge ; B.A., 1813 ; M.P. for Northumberland, 1818- 
1826, and South Northumberland 1830-7 ; joint-founder of 
4 Westminster Review.' [iv. 69] 

(1104-1166), warrior: brother 1 of Robert de Beaumont, 
earl of Leicester (1104-1168) [q. v.] ; joined movement in 
favour of William 'Clito' and Anjou, 1112, and was im- 
prisoned for five years ; espoused Stephen's cause, 1136, 
and became his chief adviser ; joined Geoffrey of Anjou, 
1143 ; went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, 1145 ; assisted 
Matilda against Stephen, 1150. [iv. 69] 

BEAUYALE, BARON (1782-1853). [See LAMB, 

BEAVER, PHILIP (1766-1813), navy captain : lieu- 
tenant, 1783 ; accompanied unsuccessful expedition for 
colonising island of Bulaina, near Sierra Leone, 1792-4 ; 
took part in conquest of Cape of Good Hope, 1795, and iu 
reduction of Ceylon ; commander, and, later, assistant-cap- 
tain of fleet under Lord Keith, 1799 ; commanded at bom- 
bardments of Genoa, 1800 ; post-captain iu Egypt, 1800-1 ; 
placed in charge of Essex sea fcncibles, 1803 ; iu West 
Indies, 1806-9 ; assisted in reduction of Mauritius, 1810 ; 
served in Mozambique and on Madagascar coast, 1811-12 ; 
died at Table Bay. [iv. 70] 

BEAVOR, EDMOND (d. 1745), navy captain; lieu- 
tenant, 1734 : served in West Indies ; captain, 1743 : 
lost iu a storm while engaged against Scottish rebels, 
1745. [iv. 72] 

BEAZLEY, SAMUEL (1786-1851), architect and play- 
wright ; served as volunteer in Peninsula ; designed 
several London theatres; wrote upwards of a hundred 
dramatic pieces. [iv. 72] 

BECHE, Sin HENRY THOMAS DE LA (1796-1865), 
geologist : entered military school at Marlow, 1810, but left 
army at peace of 1815 : studied geology in Dorset, France, 
Switzerland (1824), Jamaica, publishing papers embodying 
results of his investigations ; began at his own expense 
geological map of England: was appointed, 1832, by 
government to conduct geological survey, and ultimately 
secured the erection of the Jermyu Street museum, opened 
1861; president of Geological Society, 1847; kuighted, 

1848 ; received Wollaston medal, 1856 ; published geologi- 
cal works. [iv. 73] 

BECHER, ELIZA, LADY (1791-1872), actress, nle 
o'Ni-ill ; first appeared at Drogheda Theatre and subse- 
quently made her mark as Juliet at Dublin ; played 
Juliet at Covent Garden, 1814, and soon achieved success 
in tragic characters ; married, 1819, William Becher,M.P., 
afterwards baronet, and retired from stage. [iv. 74] 

BECHER, HENRY (/. 1561), translator; vicar of 
Mayfleld : translated into English two books of ' St. Am- 
brose de Vocatioue Gentium.' [iv. 75] 

BECHER, JOHN THOMAS (1770-1848), divine and 
social economist ; educated at Westminster and Oxford : 
M.A., 1795 ; successively vicar of Rumpton and of Mid- 
somer Norton ; prebendary, 1818, and subsequently vicar- 
general of South well ; rector of Barnborough, 1830 ; wrote 
on questions relating to social economy. [iv. 75] 

BECK. [See also BKK.] 

, CAVE (1623-1706?), writer on pasiprraphy: 
M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge: incorporatai M.A. 
Oxford, 1643 ; master of free grammar school, Ipswich, 
1655-7; rector of St. Helen's and perpetual curate of St. 
Margaret's, Ipswich, 1662 ; published ' The Universal 
Character' (1657), a system for universal language both 
for writing and speaking. [iv. 76] 

BECK, DAVID (d. 1656), portrait-painter : born at 
Delft ; pupil of Vandyck : worked at courts of England, 
France, and Denmark, and subsequently entered service 
of queen of Sweden. [iv. 77] 

BECK, THOMAS ALCOCK (1795-1846), author of 
' A n i idles Furnesienses ' (1844), an exhaustive history of 
Furness abbey. [iv. 77] 

BECKE, EDMUND (/. 1550), divine ; ordained, 1551 : 
supervised editions of the bible with annotations, 1549 
and 1551. [iv. 77] 

BECKER, LYDIA ERNESTINE (1827-1890), advo- 
cate of women's suffrage ; secretary, 1867, of Manchester 
women's suffrage committee, which was merged in the 
same year in Manchester National Society for Women's 
Suffrage, Miss Becker continuing as secretary ; editor of 
' Women's Suffrage Journal,' 1870-90 ; member of Man- 
chester school board from 1870 ; published pamphlets on 
women's suffrage. [Suppl. i. 159] 

BECKET, THOMAS (1118 ?-1170), archbishop of Can- 
terbury. [See THOMAS.] 

BECKET, WILLIAM (1684-1738), surgeon and anti- 
quary ; F.R.S., 1718 ; original member of Society of Anti- 
quaries, 1717 ; surgeon to St. Thomas's Hospital, South- 
wark; published historical and practical works on 
surgery. [iv. 78] 


BECKETT, ISAAC (1653-1719), mezzotint engraver ; 
associated with Lutterel as mezzotint engraver ; executed, 
between 1681 and 1688, subject plates and portraits of 
celebrities. [iv. 78] 

BECKFORD, PETER (1740-1811), sportsman and 
master of foxhounds; published 'Thoughts upon Hare 
and Fox Hunting,' ' Essays on Hunting,' 1781, and 
' Familiar Letters from Italy,' 1805 ; M.P. for Morpeth, 
1768. [iv. 79] 

BECKFORD, WILLIAM (1709-1770), lord mayor of 
London ; born in Jamaica, of which colony his father 
was governor ; educated at Westminster ; attained con- 
siderable eminence as merchant in London : alderman of 
Billingsgate ward, 1752; M.P. for city of London, 1754, 
1761, and 1768 ; sheriff of the city, 1755 ; lord mayor, 
1762 and 1769 : strongly supported Wilkes when charged 
with libel in the ' North Britou,' 1763; presented an ad- 
dress to the king complaining of a false return made at 
the Middlesex election, 1770, and replied to the king'* 
curt answer with an impromptu speech, which was sub- 
sequently inscribed on a monument erected in his honour 
in Guildhall ; laid first stone of Newgate, 1770 ; master 
of the Ironmongers' Company, 1753. [iv. 80] 

BECKFORD, WILLIAM (d. 1799), historian ; pub- 
lished works relating to Jamaica, where he lived many 
years, and a history of Franco (1794). [iv. 82] 




BECKTORD WILLIAM (1759-1844), author of 
'Vathek'; son of William Heekford (17DSM77U) [q. v.] : 
travelled in Kurope with a private tutor ; wrote ' Vathek ' 
in Frcm-h 17H1 or 1782, of which an anonymous trans- 
lation in English (perhaps by Rev. S. Henley ) was pub- 
li-hed, 1781. and the first French edition, 1787; spent 
pome time in Paris, Lausanne, and Cintra ; M.P. succes- 
sively for Wells and Hindon, from which constituency he 
retired in 17'.U, but again represented it, 1806-20: lived in 
almost complete seclusion at his family mansion of Font- 
hill Qiffard, where he spent large sums in fantastic- deeo- 
ration and in collecting works of art and curios: com- 
pelled by extravagance to dispose of Fonthill, 1822. His 
publications include letters written in various parts of 
Kurope and a translation of the oriental tale Al liaoui.' 

[iv. 82] 

BECKINGHAM, CHARLES (1699-1731), dramatist: 
educated at Merchant Taylors' School ; wrote poems and 
two plays, 'Scipio Africauus' (1718) and 'Henry IV of 
France' (1719), which were produced at Lincoln's Inn 
Fields theatre. [iv. 85] 

BECKINGHAM, ELIAS DE (d. 1305 ?), king's ser- 
jeant and justice for Middlesex, 1274 ; justice of common 
pleas, 1285-1305. [iv. 85] 

BECKINGTON, THOMAS ( 1 390 P-1465), bishop and 
statesman; educated at Winchester and New College, 
Oxford ; fellow, 1408-20 ; entered service of Humphrey, 
duke of Gloucester, 1420 ; prebendary of York, 1423 ; 
canon of Wells, 1439 ; master of St. Katherine's Hospital, 
London : dean of arches, 1423 ; prolocutor of convocation, 
c. 1433-8 : accompanied embassies to France and to the 
court of John, count of Armagnac, between 1432 and 
1442 ; king's secretary, e. 1439 ; lord privy seal, c. 1443 : 
bishop of Bath and Wells, 1443. He adorned the city of 
Wells with many fine buildings. [iv. 86] 

rSALL, JOHN (1496 ?-1559). [See BKKIX- 


BECKLEY, WILLIAM (d. 1438), Carmelite ; probably 
graduated D.D. at Cambridge, where he spent many years ; 
head of Carmelite friary at Sandwich ; wrote theological 
works. [iv. 87] 

BECKMAN, SIR MARTIN (d. 1702), colonel, chief 
engineer and master gunner of England ; Swedish captain 
of artillery; entered service of Charles II as engineer, 
1660 : accompanied Lord Sandwich's expedition to Algiers 
and Tangiers, 1661-2 ; third engineer of Great Britain, 
1670, second engineer, 1681, and chief engineer, 1685; 
accompanied Prince Rupert to Holland, 1673 : on commis- 
sion for strengthening fortifications of Portsmouth, 1678 ; 
major ; served with Lord Dartmouth at Tangiers, 1683 ; 
knighted, 1685; head of royal laboratory at Woolwich, 
1688 ; served under Major-general Thomas Tollemache 
[q. v.] in Ireland and France, 1691-4, and was colonel 
commanding ordnance train for sea expedition, 1692; 
commanded ordnance trains in expeditious against Gib- 
raltar and France, 1695-6. [Suppl. i. 160] 

BECKWTTH, SIR GEORGE (1763-1823), lieutenant- 
general ; ensign, 37th regiment, 1771 ; lieutenant, 1775 ; 
major, 1781 ; took prominent part in American war, 
1776-82 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1790 : colonel, 1795 : lieu- 
tenant-general, 1805 ; governor of Bermuda and com- 
mandant, 1797 ; governor of St. Vincent, 1804, and of 
Barbados, 1808 ; completed conquest of Martinique, 1809, 
and Guadaloupe, 1810 ; K.B., 1809 ; commanded forces in 
Ireland, 1816-20. [iv. 88] 

BECKWITH, JOHN CHARLES (1789-1862), major- 
general ; nephew of Sir George Beckwith [q. v.] : ensign, 
1803 ; lieutenant, 1805 ; served in Hanover and, under 
Moore, in Peninsula ; captain, 1808 ; accompanied Wal- 
cheren expedition; with Wellington in Portugal, 1810; 
deputy assistant quartermaster-general; lost his leg at 
Waterloo, and was made lieutenant-colonel and C.B., 1815 ; 
settled in Piedmont among the Waldenses and devoted his 
life to educating them and reawakening in them the evan- 
gelical faith ; major-general, 1846. [iv. 89] 

organist ; organist of St. Peter Mancroft's, Norwich, 1794, 
and of Norwich Cathedral, 1808-9 : Mn. Doc. Oxford, 
1803 ; published chants adapted to the Psalms (1808). 

[iv. 90] 

BECKWITH, JOSIAH (fl. 1784), antiquary ; educated 
as attorney ; produced enlarged edition of Blount's ' Frag- 
menta Antiquitntis,' 1784. [iv. 90] 

BECKWITH, Slit THOMAS SYDNEY (1772-1831), 
lieutcnaiit-ireneral ; brother of Sir George Beck with [q. v.] ; 
lieutenant, 7 l.-t regiment in India, 1791; captain, 1794; 
major in Manninu'ham's rillc brigade (the 95th) at 
Copenhagen, 1802 ; lieutenant-colonel, 1803 ; accompanied 

i expedition to Hanover, 180*5; served in Denmark, 1807, 
and Peninsula, IKOK-ll ; assistant quartermaster-general 

] in Canada, 1812; major-general and K.O.B., 1814 ; colonel 
of rifle brigade, 1H27 : roummnder-in-ehief at Bombay, 
1829 ; lieutenant-general, 1830. [iv. 90] 

BECON, JOHN (<l. 1687), divine ; M.A. St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 1564; university orator, 1571-3: 
proctor, 1671-2; canon (1574) and chancellor (1575) of 
Norwich ; LL.D., 1576 ; precentor of Chichester, 1579 ; 
prebendary of Lichfield, 1581 ; joint-chancellor of Lich- 
field and Coventry, 1582. [iv. 92] 

BECON or BEACON, RICHARD (fl. 1594), Irish ad- 
ministrator and author ; M.A. St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, 1575 ; called to bar at Gray's Inn, 1585 ; attorney 
for province of Minister, 1586-91 ; published political 
pamphlet on Ireland, 1594. [iv. 92] 

BECON, THOMAS (1512-1567), protestant divine; 
B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1530; vicar of 
Breuzett, Kent : manifested sympathy with Reformation, 
and was compelled to recant, 1541 and 1543 ; supported 
himself by teaching: rector of St. Stephen, Walbrook, 

i 1548 ; chaplain to Cranmer and Protector Somerset, and 
preacher in Canterbury Cathedral ; on Edward's death 
committed to Tower as ' seditious preacher,' 1553-4, and 
ejected from his living as married priest; on release, 

j retired to Strasburg ; returned to England, 1558, and was 
restored to his benefice and preachership ; D.D. Cam- 

I bridge ; published religious works, most of which were 

! ' proclaimed ' as ' heretical ' by Roman catholic authori- 
ties, [iv. 92] 

BEDDOES, THOMAS (1760-1808), physician : M.D. 
Pembroke College, Oxford : studied medicine at London 
and Edinburgh ; reader in chemistry at Oxford, 1788-92 ; 
succeeded in establishing at Clifton a ' Pneumatic Insti- 
tute ' for the treatment of disease by inhalation, 1798 ; 
married Anna, sister of Maria Edgeworth; wrote and 
edited several medical and other works. [iv. 94] 

BEDDOES, THOMAS LOVELL (1803-1849), poet and 
physiologist ; son of Thomas Beddoes [q. v.] ; educated at 
Charterhouse and Pembroke College, Oxford ; published 
' The Bride's Tragaly ' (written in 1819), which enjoyed 
considerable success, 1822 : graduated B.A., and began 
'Death's Jest Book,' 1825; studied physiology under 
Blumenbach at Gottingen ; M.A. Oxford, 1828; M.D. 
Wiirzburg University, 1832 ; settled at Zurich, 1835 ; took 
great interest in cause of liberal politics, and was com- 
pelled to fly to Berlin from the anti-liberal insurgents at 
Zurich, 1841 ; from 1842 to 1848 lived much on conti- 
nent : died at Bale. 'Death's Jest Book' was published 
in 1850, and a volume of his poems and fragments in 
1851. [iv. 95] 

BEDDOME, BENJAMIN (1717-1795), hymn- writer ; 
baptist minister at Bourton-on-the- Water, Gloucestershire, 
1740-95. Wrote hymns, a volume of which was published 
in 1818. [iv. 97] 

BEDE or BJEDA (673-735), historian and scholar; 
placed under charge of Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wear- 
mouth, and of Ceolfrith, abbot of Jarrow ; ordained 
deacon, 692, and priest, 703 ; spent his life mainly at 
Jarrow from the time when Ceolfrith was appointed 
abbot; being a diligent teacher and Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew scholar, found many pupils among the monks of 
Wearmouth and Jarrow ; buried at Jarrow, but his bones 
were taken to Durham during the first half of the eleventh 
century. The epithet ' Venerable ' was first added to his 
name in the century following his death. His ' His tor ia 
Ecclesiastica ' was brought to an end in 731, and by that 
year he had written nearly forty works, chiefly biblical 
commentaries. The treatise ' De Natura Rerum,' one of 
his earliest works, contains such physical science as was 
then known, and has the merit of referring phenomena to 
natural causes. Collective editions of his works were 
printed at Paris, 1545 and 1554, Basle, 1563, Cologne, 1612, 
London, 1843-4, and in J. P. Migne's ' Patrologiaa Cursus 
Completus,' Paris, 1844. [iv. 98] 




BEDEL, HENRY (yf. 1571), divine; probably M.A. 
Corpus Ohristi College, Oxford, 1566; vicar of Christ 
Church, London, 1567-76. [iv. 105] 

BEDELL, WILLIAM (1571-1642), bishop: scholar of 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 15K5 ; M.A., 1592 : fellow, 
1593 : ordained pru-st, 1597 : B.D., 1599 ; appointed to 
i-hun-h of St. Mary's, Bury St. Edmund's. UJu-j 7 ; chap- 
lain to Sir Henry Wotton at Venice, 1607-10 ; rector of 
Horningsheath, 1616 ; provost of Trinity College, Dublin, 
1627 ; bishop of Kilniore and Ardagh (oo. Longford), 1629 ; 
p-xMiM see of Ardagh, 1633 ; died from hardships endured 
during rebellion of 1641. [iv. 105] 

1410), scholar ; fellow, and rector (1379-80) of Stapeldon 
Hall (now Exeter College), Oxford; suspended from 
preaching as advocate of Wycliffe's doctrines, 1382 ; 
rector of Lifton, Devonshire, 1382-1410. [iv. 108] 

BEDEEIO or DE BUEY, HENRY (fl. 1380), theo- 
logian : entered Angustiuian monastery at Clare, Suffolk ; 
studied probably at Oxford and Cambridge and at Paris, 
where he graduated D.D. ; provincial in England ; wrote 
theological works. [iv. 109] 

1389-1435 ; TUDOR, JASI-KR, 1431 ?-1495 : RUSSKLL, WIL- 
LIAM, first DUKK of the RUSSKLL family, 1613-1700 ; 
RUSSKLL, JOHN, fourth DUKK, 1710-1771 : RUSSELL, 
FRANCIS, fifth DUKK, 1765-1806 ; RUSSELL, JOHN, sixth 
ninth DUKK, 1819-1891.] 

EARL, 1486 7-1555; RUSSKLL, FRANCIS, second EARL, 
1527 ?-1585 ; RUSSELL, FRANCIS, fourth EARL, 1593-1641.] 


BEDFOED, ARTHUR (1668-1745), miscellaneous 
writer ; M.A. Brasenose College, Oxford, 1691 ; incum- 
bent of Temple Church, Bristol, 1692, and Newton St. Loe, 
Somerset, 1700; joined Collier in crusade against the 
stage, and issued several tracts ; chaplain to Haber- 
dashers' Company's hospital at Hoxton, 1724 ; chaplain 
to Frederick, prince of Wales ; published works on music, 
chronology, and other subjects. [iv. 109] 

BEDFOED, FRANCIS (1799-1883), bookbinder ; en- 
tered workshop of Charles Lewis [q. v.] ; in partnership 
with John Clarke of Frith Street, Soho, 1841-50 ; went 
to Cape of Good Hope, 1851, and subsequently established 
himself in Blue Anchor Yard, Westminster. 

[SuppL i. 162] 

BEDOED, HILKIAH (1663-1724), nonconformist 
divine; educated at St. John's College, Cambridge; 
fellow ; rector of Wittering ; ejected at the revolution ; 
chaplain to Dr. Ken ; fined and imprisoned unjustly on 
suspicion of having written 'The Hereditary Right of 
the Crown of England asserted* (1713); became a bishop 
among non jurors ; published religious and other works. 

[iv. 110] 

BEDFOED, JOHN (1810-1879), Wesleyan ; educated 
as solicitor at Wakefield : Weslevau minister at Glasgow, 
1831, and subsequently in Manchester, Birmingham, 
We?t Bromwich, and Derby ; president of conference, 
1867. [Iv. 110] 

BEDFOED, PAUL (17927-1871), comedian; first 
appeared on stage at Swansea ; in Drury Lane opera 
company, 1824-33 ; joined Macready's company as singer 
at Oovent Garden, 1833 : subsequently played second low- 
comedy parts at Adelphi ; last appeared, 1868, at Queen's 
Theatre. [iv. Ill] 

BEDFOED, THOMAS (/. 1650), theologian; B.D. 
Queens' College, Cambridge; rector of St. Martin Out- 
wich, London, before 1649 ; published theological works 
and (1620-50) took prominent part in religious contro- 
versy, [iv. 112] 

BEDFOED, THOMAS (d. 1773), nonjuror; son of 
Hilkiah Bedford [q. v.] ; educated at Westminster and 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; minister to non jurors at 
Oompton, Derbyshire ; published edition of Symeon of 
Durham's history of Durham Cathedral (1732) and other 
works of ecclesiastical history. [iv. 112] 

BEDFOED, WILLIAM (17647-1827), vice-admiral: 
captain in navy, 1791; served in North Sea, 1801, at 

blockade of Brest, 1805, and as flag-captain in expedition 
to Basque roads, 1809 : vice-admiral, 1821. [iv. 113] 

BEDLNGFELD, THOMAS (1760-1789), poet; edu- 
cated at Liege ; studied conveyancing at Newcastle and 
Lincoln's Inn ; began practice as chamber counsel, 1787. 
A volume of his poems was published in 1800. [iv. 113] 

1683), supporter of Queen Mary ; privy councillor, 1553 ; 
constable of Tower, 1555, when the Princess Elizabeth 
was committed to his charge for complicity in Wyatt's 
rebellion; knight of shire for Norfolk. 1553, 1554, and 
1557 ; retired from public life on Elizabeth's accession. 

BEDINGFIELD, SIR HENRY (1633-1687),' chief- 
justice of common pleas ; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 
1657 ; received the coif, 1683 ; king's serjeant and 
knighted : sub-steward of Great Yarmouth, 1684 ; judge, 
1686 ; chief- justice common pleas, 1686. [iv. 116] 

BEDINGFIELD, THOMAS (d. 1613), son of Sir 
Henry Bedingfield (d. 1583) [q. v.] ; gentleman pensioner 
to Queen Elizabeth ; published miscellaneous works. 

[iv. 115] 
9-1661), la 

BEDINGFIELD, SIR THOMAS (1593 9-1661), lawyer; 
called to bar at Gray's Inn, 1615 ; Lent reader, 1636 ; 
attorney-general of duchy of Lancaster and knighted: 
committed for contempt of House of Lords in refusing 
to defend Sir Edward Herbert, who was impeached by the 
Commons for snaring in the attempt to arrest the five 
members, 1642 ; serjeant-at-law and justice of common 
pleas, 1648 ; retired at interregnum ; reappointed serjeant, 
1660. [iv. 115] 

BEDLAT, LORD (1590?-1664). [See ROBERTSON, 

BEDLOE, WILLIAM (1650-1680), adventurer: worked 
as clockmaker and cobbler ; educated by David Lewis, a 
Jesuit; came to London, 1670, and lived by sharping: 
claimed to have been anticipated by Gates in making 
revelations of the popish plot, 1678-9 ; in receipt of 10*. 
weekly from the royal funds, 1679 ; public confidence in 
his statements diminished, c. 1680. He published several 
works on his 'Revelations,' the chief being 'A Narrative 
and Impartial Discovery of the Horrid Popish Plot . . . 
by Captain William Bedloe, lately engaged in that horrid 
design,' &c., 1679. [iv. 116] 

BEDWELL, THOMAS (d. 1595), mathematician; 
B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1667; fellow: M.A., 
1570; keeper of ordnance stores in Tower; military 
engineer at Tilbury and Gravesend at time of Spanish 
Armada. [iv. 118] 

BEDWELL, WILLIAM (d. 1632), Arabic scholar; 
nephew of Thomas Bedwell [q. v.] ; M.A. Cambridge, 
1688 ; rector of St. Ethelburgh's, Bishopsgate Street, 1601 ; 
one of the Westminster translators of the bible, 1604; 
published at Leyden Epistles of John in English and 
Arabic, 1612 ; published Arabic and mathematical works 
(including treatise explaining use of carpenter's square), 
and left a manuscript Arabic lexicon. [iv. 119] 

BEDYLL, THOMAS (d. 1537) ; divine : clerk of privy 

j council ; B.O.L. New College, Oxford, 1508 ; secretary to 

archbishop Warham, 1520-32 ; royal chaplain and clerk 

of council, 1632 ; employed by Henry VIII in business 

relating to his divorce and the royal supremacy, [iv. 120] 

BEE, ST. (<7. 660 ?). [See BKOHA.] 

' 1674), author ; rector of St. Mary Hill, London, 1560-74 ; 
1 published poetical pieces. [iv. 121] 

BEECHAM, JOHN (1787-1856), methodist ; general 
secretary to Wesleyan Missionary Society, 1831 ; presi- 
dent Wesleyan conference, 1850 ; published historical and 
other works. [iv. 121] 

, FREDERICK WILLIAM (1796-1856), 
rear-admiral and geographer ; son of Sir William Beechey 
[q. v.]; entered navy, 1806; lieutenant, 1815; accom- 
panied Franklin's Arctic expedition, 1818, an account of 
which he published, 1843 : employed in survey of coasts 
of North Africa, 1821-3, South America, 1835, and 
Ireland, 1837; captain, 1827; rear-admiral; president, 
I Royal Geographical Society, 1856 ; published geographical 
! works. [iv. 121] 



BEECHEY, GEORGE D. (fl. 1817-1855), portrait 
painter; brother of Sir William Bccchey [q. v.] : ex- 
hibited at Royal Academy, 1817-32 ; became court painter 
to king of Oudh. [iv. 122] 

BEECHEY, HENRY WILLIAM (rf. 1870V), painter 
and explorer; brother of George D. Beechey [q. v.] ; 
secretary (c. 1816) to consul-general in Egypt, where he 
accompanied exploring expedition on the Nile ; surveyed, 
with \\\* brother, const-line from Tripoli to Derna, 1821-2 ; 
1 .-.A., lsi'5 ; probably died in New Zealand, [iv. 122] 

BEECHEY, SIR WILLIAM (1763-1839), painter; 
worked in a London lawyer's office ; first exhibited, 1775 ; 
\ H.A., portrait painter to Queen Charlotte, knight, and 
R.A., 1793. [iv. 133] 

BEECHING, JAMES (1788-1858), inventor of self- 
righting' lifeboat: boatbuildera' apprentice; invented 
lit Great Yarmouth the ' self-righting ' lifeboat, 1851. 

[iv. 123] 

BEEDOME, THOMAS (d. 1641 ?), author of Poems 
Divine and Humane,' published 1641, and edited by Henry 
Glapthorne. [iv. 124] 

BEEKE, HENRY (1751-1837), divine ; M.A. Corpus 
Christi College, Oxford, 1776; D.D., 1800; fellow of 
Oriel, 1775 ; professor of modern history, 1801 ; vicar of 
St. Mary the Virgin, Oxford, 1782 ; dean of Bristol, 1814. 
Gained wide reputation as financial authority ; published 
a work on the income tax. [iv. 124] 

BEESLEY, ALFRED (1800-1847), author of 'History 
of Banbury,' 1841. [iv. 125] 

BEESLEY or BISLEY, GEORGE (d. 1591), catholic 
inissioner; educated at Douay ; ordained priest, 1587; 
joined English mission, 1588 ; executed. [iv. 125] 

BEESTON, SIR WILLIAM (fl. 1702), lieutenant- 
governor of Jamaica ; went to Jamaica, 1660 ; member 
for Port Royal in first house of assembly and judge of 
court of common pleas, Jamaica, 1664 ; speaker of house 
of assembly, 1677-9 ; knighted, 1692 ; lieutenant- governor, 
1693 ; resisted, as Commander-in-chief, French invasion, 
1694 ; superseded, 1702, on refusing to account for money 
which he was accused of appropriating ; left topographi- 
cal and other manuscripts. [iv. 125] 

BEG A (8th cent. ?), saint ; perhaps founded monas- 
teries in Cumberland and Northumbria. Her history has 
been confused with that of St. Heiu and St. Begu. 

[iv. 126] 

BEGBIE, JAMES (1798-1869), physician ; M.D., 1821, 
P.R.O.S., 1822, and F.R.C.P., 1847, Edinburgh ; physician 
in ordinary to queen in Scotland ; published medical 
essays. [iv. 126] 

BEGBIE, JAMES WARBURTON (1826-1876), phy- 
sician ; son of James Begbie [q. v.] : M.D., 1847, and 
F.R.O.P., 1862, Edinburgh ; studied in Paris ; physician to 
Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, 1855-65 ; hon. LL.D. Edin- 
burgh, 1876 ; published medical works. [iv. 127] 

BEGG, JAMES (1808-1883), free church minister; 
M.A. Glasgow; licensed as preacher, 1829; ordained, 
1830 ; minister at Paisley, 1831, Liberton, 1835-43, and 
Newington, 1843-83 ; supported measures of evangelical 
party in Scotland, and took keen interest in cause of pro- 
testantism; moderator 01 general assembly of the Free 
church, 1865. [iv. 127] 

BEGHA (d. 660 ?), saint ; Irish virgin of royal birth ; 
fled to Scotland to avoid marriage ; founded monasteries 
in England and at Strathclyde (c. 656). [iv. 128] 

BEHN, AFRA, APHRA, or AYFARA (1640-1689), 
dramatist and novelist, nle Johnson ; lived as child in 
Surinam, West Indies ; returned to England, 1658 ; mar- 
ried Behn, a city merchant, and gained entrance to the 
court ; employed by Charles II as spy in Antwerp on out- 
break of Dutch war ; returned to London and became a 
professional writer ; made friends among playwrights, and 
in 1671 brought out her ' Forc'd Marriage ' at the Duke's 
Theatre ; achieved popularity as a dramatist, some of her 
plays continuing to hold the stage in the eighteenth 
century; wrote poems, novels (including 'Oroonoko'), 
and many ephemeral pamphlets. [iv. 129] 

BEHNES or BTJBXOWE, HENRY (d. 1837), sculptor ; 
worked under name of Burlowe ; exhibited at Royal 
Academy, 1831-3 ; subsequently employed in Rome as 
bust modelltr. [iv. 131] 

WILLIAM (d. 1864), sculptor ; brother of 
Henry Behues [q. v.] ; trained as a piano manufacturer ; 
student of Royal Academy, 1819 ; gained high reputation, 
chiefly for portrait busts, between 1820 and 1840 ; bank- 
rupt, 1861 ; was picked up from the street and died in 
Middlesex Hospital. [iv. 131] 

BEIGHTON, HENRY (d. 1743), surveyor : surveyed 
Warwickshire, 1725-9, and illustrated Dr. Thomas's 
edition of Dugdale's Warwickshire ' ; prepared map of 
Warwickshire (published 1750) : editor of Ladies' Diary,' 
1713-34 ; F.R.S., 1720 ; published and left in manuscript 
scientific writings. [iv. 132] 

BEIGHTON, THOMAS (1790-1844), missionary ; sent 
by London Missionary Society to Malacca; established 
printing press, from which he issued works translated by 
himself into Malay language. [Iv. 132] 

BEILBY, RALPH (1744-1817), engraver ; in partner- 
ship, 1777-97, as engraver with Thomas Bewick, who was 
his pupil ; engaged with Bewick on engravings for Oster- 
wald's bible, 1806, and other works. [iv. 133] 

BEILBY, WILLIAM (1783-1849), physician ; M.D., 
1816, Edinburgh ; practised at Edinburgh ; philanthropist 
and interested in religious matters. [iv. 133] 

BEITH, ALEXANDER (1799-1891), divine ; educated 
at Glasgow University; minister successively at Oban, 
Glasgow, Kilbrandon, Glenelg, and Stirling (1839-76); 
among founders of free church of Scotland, 1843 ; D.D. 
Princetown University, D.S.A., 1860 ; moderator of general 
assembly of free church, 1858 ; published pamphlets and 
religious works. [Suppl. i. 163] 

BEITH or BEETH, WILLIAM (15th cent.), Domini- 
can ; probably provincial of his order in England, c. 1480 ; 
author of learned works. [iv. 133] 

BEK, name of Lincolnshire family descended from 
Walter Bek, who came over with William the Conqueror. 
From his three sons sprang three great Lincolnshire 
famines : (1) Bek of Eresby ; (2) Bek of Luceby ; (3) Bek 
of Botheby. [iv. 133] 

BEK, ANTONY I (d. 1310), bishop of Durham ; sou 
of Walter Bek, baron of Eresby, Lincolnshire ; held five 
benefices in see of Canterbury ; bishop of Durham, 1283 ; 
one of royal commissioners to arrange marriage of Prince 
Edward with Margaret of Scotland, 1290 ; one of Edward I's 
chief advisers during negotiations respecting Baliol ; 
substantially assisted Edward in Scottish expeditions, 
1296 and 1298 ; entered into dispute with Richard de 
Hoton, prior of convent of Durham, concerning visitation 
of the convent, 1300 ; refused to accept Edward's decision 
as mediator, and was deprived of his temporalities, but 
regained them on application to the pope ; granted sove- 
reignty of Isle of Man by Edward II, 1307. [iv. 134] 

BEK, ANTONY II (1279-1343), divine ; son of Walter 
Bek of Luceby, constable of Lincoln Castle ; educated at 
Oxford ; prebendary of Lincoln ; chancellor of the cathe- 
dral, 1316 ; appointed bishop of Lincoln, 1320, but election 
was annulled by the pope ; dean of Lincoln, 1329 ; chaplain 
to the pope and clerk of Roman curia ; bishop of Norwich, 
1337 ; perhaps poisoned by monks of his cathedral. 

[iv. 136] 

BEK, THOMAS I (d. 1293), divine ; elder brother of 
Antony Bek I [q. v.] ; chancellor of Oxford University, 
1269 ; keeper of wardrobe to Edward 1, 1274 : lord-trea- 
surer and temporary keeper of great seal, 1279 ; prebendary 
of Lincoln, and, later, bishop of St. David's, 1280 ; unsuc- 
cessfully opposed, as a protest in behalf of the independ- 
ence of the Welsh church, archbishop Peckham's visita- 
tion of the Welsh diocese, 1284; perhaps went on pil- 
grimage to Holy Land, 1290. [iv. 137] 

BEK, THOMAS II (1282-1347X divine: youngest 
brother of Antony Bek II [q. v.] ; doctor of canon law ; 
I prebendary of Lincoln, 1335 ; bishop of Lincoln, 1340. 

[iv. 138] 

BEKE, CHARLES TILSTONE (1800-1874X Abyssi- 
nian explorer; entered on business career in London, 
1820, but subsequently studied law at Lincoln's Inn ; pub- 
lished Orpines Biblicae,' 1834, and papers on oriental sub- 
jects, 1834-5 ; fellow of Society of Antiquaries, Royal Geo- 
graphical Society, and other learned institutions ; jour- 
neyed in Abyssinia, making many valuable discoveries, 
1840-3 ; published The Sources of the Nile,' 1860 ; travelled 
in Syria and Palestine, 1861-2, for purpose of exploring 





locality mentioned in Genets : undertook mission to 
Theodore of Abyssinia to urge him tordwisr British 
prisoners, 1864, and on outbreak of war, following Theo- 
dore's non-complianoe, supplied British government with 
valuable information : explored alleged situation of Mount 
Sinai, 1873-4. His ' Discoveries of Sinai ill Arabia and of 
Midian ' was published posthumously. [iv. 138] 

BEKINSATJ, JOHN (1496?-1559), divine: fellow of 
New College, Oxford, 1520 ; M.A., 1626 ; Greek lecturer 
at Paris University ; published a treatise, * De supremo et 
absolute Regis imperio,' 1546. [iv. 141] 

BEKYNTON, THOMAS (1390?-1465). [See BECK- 


BELASYSE, ANTHONY (/. 1552), civilian ; B.O.L. 
Cambridge, 1520 : LL.D., probably of a foreign university : 
advocate, 1628; held benefices ; prebendary of Auckland 
(1540), Lincoln (1544), Wells (1546), and York (1549) ; 
canon of Westminster (1540); master in chancery, 1544; 
master of Sherburn Hospital, co. Durham, c. 1545. 

[iv. 141] 

royalist ; created baron, 1645 : fought for Charles I in 
many engagements: after Restoration, appointed lord- 
lieutenant of East Riding, governor of Hull, and, subse- 
quently governor of Tangier ; first lord commissioner of 
treasury, 1687. [iv. 142] 

1700), supporter of Cromwell : married Mary, Cromwell's 
daughter, 1657 ; privy councillor of Charles II. [iv. 142] 

BELCHER, SIR EDWARD (1799-1877), admiral : en- 
tered navy, 1812; lieutenant, 1818: commander, 1829: 
employed successively on survey of coasts of Northern 
and Western Africa, Ireland, Western America, China, 
Borneo, Philippine Islands, and Formosa, 1830-47 ; cap- 
tain and O.B., 1841 ; knighted, 1843: commanded expedi- 
tion to Arctic in search of Sir John Franklin, 1852: 
vice-admiral, 1866; admiral, 1872; published accounts of 
voyages, and other works. [iv. 142] 

BELCHER, JAMES (1781-1811), prize-fighter ; fought 
Bill Warr at Covent Garden: beat successively Tom 
Jones of Paddington, 1799, Jack Bartholomew, 1800, 
Andrew Gamble, 1800, Joe Berks, 1801 and 1802, and 
John Firby, 1803 : lost an eye, 1803, and became publican ; 
was subsequently many times beaten, his last fight being 
with Tom Oribb, 1809. [Suppl. L 164] 

BELCHER, TOM (1783-1854), pugilist ; brother of 
James Belcher [q. v.] ; defeated Dogherty and Firby, but 
was beaten by Dutch Sam (Samuel Elias, 1776-1816). 

[Suppl. i. 165] 

BELCHIAM, THOMAS (1508-1637), Franciscan friar 
of convent of Greenwich ; imprisoned for refusing to take 
oath of royal supremacy ; died in Newgate. [iv. 143] 

OOURT (1580?-1621), dramatist: B.A. Christ Church, 
Oxford, 1600: settled in the Low Countries; wrote dra- 
matic and other works. [iv. 144] 

BELCHIER, JOHN (1706-1785), surgeon : educated 
at Eton : surgeon to Guy's Hospital, 1736 : F.R.S., 1732 ; 
contributed to ' Philosophical Transactions.' [iv. 144] 

BELER, ROGER I>K (d. 1326), judge ; supporter of 
Earl of Lancaster and included in the amnesty, 1318; 
baron of exchequer, 1322 ; murdered near Reresby. 

[iv. 144] 


BELET, MICHAEL (fl. 1182), judge; sheriff of 
Worcestershire, 1176-81 and 1184, of Leicestershire and i 
Warwickshire, 1185-7 and 1189-90: justice itinerant for ! 
Warwickshire and Leicestershire, 1177, and for Lincoln- : 
shire, 1178. [iv. 146] 

BELET, MICHAEL ( fl. 1238), judge : son of Michael : 
Belet (/?. 1182) [q.v.]: incumbent of Hinclesham, 1201, ! 
and Setburgham (now Serbergham), 1204 : receiver of rents 
of see of Coventry, 1223 : founded priory at Wroxton for 
Augustinian canons regular, r. 1230. [iv. 145] 

BELETH, JOHN (A H82?), author of 'Rationale j 
divinorum offlciorum ' ; perhaps rector of a theological 
school at Paris. [iv. 146] 

BELFAST, EARL OF (by courtesy) (1827-1858). [See 

BELFORD, WILLIAM (1709-1780), peneral ; entered 
royal artillery on its formation, 1726; fireworker, 1. .".); 
first lieutenant, 1740; adjutant at Oarthagena, 1741; 
served in Flanders, 1742-6: lieutenant-colonel, 1749; 
major-general, 1758; commander of Woolwich district, 
with charge of arsenal, 1758 ; general, 1777. [iv. 146] 

BELFOTJR, HUGO JOHN (1802-1827), author of 
poems signed ST. JOHN DORSET ; curate, 1826, in Jamaica, 
where he died. [iv. 147] 

BELFOTTR, JOHN (1768-1842), orientalist and mis- 
cellaneous writer ; member of Royal Society of Literature. 
Mis works include a Coptic version, with literal transla- 
tion, of the Psalms. [iv. 147] 

BELFRAGE, HENRY (1774-1835), divine of secession 
church ; educated at Edinburgh ; entered theological 
hall of his church, Selkirk. 1789: ordained, 1794: ap- 
pointed to Falkirk congregation ; hon. D.D. St. Andrews, 
1824 ; published religious works, 1814-33. [iv. 147] 

BELHAVEN, VISCOUNT (1574?-1639). [See DOU- 

BELHAVEN, second BARON (1656-1708). [See 

BELKNAP, SIR ROBERT DE (d. 1400?). [See BEAL- 


writer on law ; educated at Glasgow ; member of Society 
of Writers to Signet, 1835 : professor of conveyancing, 
Edinburgh, 1856. His lectures (published posthumously) 
form a standard treatise on conveyancing. [Iv. 148] 

BELL, ANDREW (1726-1809), engraver; half-pro- 
prietor, and subsequently sole proprietor, of the ' Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica' (first published in three volumes, 
1771), for which he furnished plates. [iv. 149] 

BELL, ANDREW (1753-1832), founder of Madras 
system of education : educated at St. Andrews ; tutor in 
Virginia, 1774-81 ; sailed for India, 1787, and in two years 
held simultaneously eight army chaplainships ; superin- 
tendent of Madras Male Orphan Asylum, 1789, where he 
successfully introduced a system of mutual instruction 
by the scholars: returned to England, 1796: received pen- 
sion from East India Company : published, 1797, a work 
on his educational system, which was adopted in many 
schools, including Christ's Hospital : rector of Swanage 
1801 ; master of Sherburn Hospital, Durham, 1809; super- 
intendent of National Society for Promoting Education 
of Poor in Principles of Established Church, with full 
powers to carry out Madras system, 1811; journeyed 
abroad to spread hip ideas, but with small success, 1816 ; 
prebendary of Westminster, 1819; buried in Westminster 
Abbey. His system was found applicable to certain parts, 
and certain parts alone, of school- work. [iv. 149] 

BELL, ARCHIBALD (1755-1854), miscellaneous 
writer: member of faculty of advocates, Edinburgh, 
1795 ; sheriff -depute of Ayrshire ; published miscellaneous 
works. [iv. 152] 

BELL, BEAUPRE (1704-1745), antiquary; M.A. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1729; became active member 
of Spalding Society ; assisted Blomefleld in history of 
Norfolk, and Hearne in many antiquarian works: left 
collection of books, medals, and manuscripts to Trinity 
College. [iv. 163] 

BELL, BENJAMIN (1749-1806), surgeon ; apprenticed 
as surgeon at Dumfries ; studied medicine at Edinburgh 
and Paris ; surgeon to Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, 1772, 
and Watson's Hospital, 1778; published works on agricul- 
ture and medical subjects. [iv. 163] 

BELL, SIR CHARLES (1774-1842), discoverer of dis- 
tinct functions of the nerves ; educated at Edinburgh ; 
published a 'System of Dissections,' illustrated by his own 
drawings, 1798 ; F.C.S. Edinburgh, 1799 ; published In 
London, 'Anatomy of Expression,' 1806, and 'New 
Idea of the Anatomy of the Brain,' 1811, formulating his 
nerve theory : his discovery complete in its modern form 
in 1826, and his investigations published in the 'Nervous 
System of the Human Body,' 1830 : knighted : medallist, 
Royal Society, 1829; professor of surgery, Edinburgh, 
1836; wrote on surgery, and (1836) joined Brougham in 
annotating Paley's 'Natural Theology.' [iv. 164] 



BELL, FRANCIS (1590-1643), Franciscan friar; edu- 
cated at Jesuit colleges of St. Omer and. Valladolid ; or- 
(IdiiK-l : entered convent of Douay ; successively confessor 
to the Poor Clares, Oravelines. and to Franciscan nuns at 
Brussels ; sup. rior of St. Bonaventure's convent, Douay, 
1630; English missioner, 1634-43; executed as Jesuit; 
linguist and author of religious work* and translations. 

[iv. 157] 

BELL, Pin GEORGE (1794-1877), colonel; ensign, 
1811; captain, 1828; in Canada. 1836-8; brevet-major, 
1839; served in (iihraltar, Nova Scotia, West Indies, 
Mc-literranean, Turkey, and the Crimea; C.B., 1855; 
colonel, 1863 ; K.C.B., 1867. [iv. 157] 

BELL, GEORGE JOSEPH (1770-1843), lawyer, 
brother of Sir Charles Bell [q. v.] ; studied at Edinburgh : 
advocate, 1791 : published works on Scottish bankruptcy 
law, 1804 and 1810 ; professor of conveyancing to Society of 
Writers to Signet, 1816-18; professor of Scots law. Edin- 
burgh, 1822; on commission, 1823, which resulted in 
Scottish Judicature Act (1825), and chairman, 1833, of 
commission which resulted in Scottish Bankruptcy Act 
(1839) ; clerk of session, 1832. [iv. 158] 

BELL, HENRY (1767-1830), builder of Comet steam- 
ship; apprenticed as millwright; worked under Reunie 
in London; conceived idea of applying steam to naviga- 
tion, and made engine for first practical steamboat that 
appeared on any European river the Comet, which plied 
(1812-20) on the Clyde. [iv. 159] 

BELL, HENRY GLASSFORD (1803-1874), sheriff ; 
studied law at Edinburgh ; started and conducted 'Edin- 
burgh Literary Journal,' 1828; published a defence of 
Mary Queen of Scots, 1830 : advocate, 1832 ; sheriff -sub- 
stitute of Lanarkshire, 1839-67; sheriff-principal, 1867- 
1874; one of the originators of the Royal Scotch Aca- 
demy ; published miscellaneous works in verse and prose. 

[iv. 160] 

BELL, HENRY NUGENT (1792-1822), genealogist ; 
registered at Inner Temple, 1818 ; successfully advocated 
claim of Mr. Hastings to earldom of Huntingdon. 

[iv. 161] 

BELL, JACOB (1810-1859), founder of Pharmaceutical 
Society ; in business as pharmaceutical chemist : founded, 
1841, Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (incorpo- 
rated 1843) : established and superintended for eighteen 
years ' Pharmaceutical Journal ' ; M.P. for St. Albans, 
1850: brought forward bill to regulate qualifications of 
pharmaceutical chemists, 1851 ; fellow of Chemical, Lin- 
nean, and Zoological societies, and of Society of Arts ; 
published works relating to pharmacy. [iv. 162] 

BELL, JAMES (1524-1584), Roman catholic priest: 
educated at Oxford: adopted protestantism, c. 1563, but 
became reconciled to Roman church, 1581, and was executed 
at Lancaster as a heretic. [iv. 163] 

BELL, JAMES (/. 1551-1596), reformer: B.A. 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1551 ; fellow of Trinity 
College and lecturer in rhetoric, 1556 ; published religious 
works. [iv. 164] 

BELL. JA MES (1769-1833), geographical author ; gave 
up his business as a weaver and became classical tutor to 
university students, r. 1806; edited and annotated Rollin's 
Ancient History,' 1828: published' System of Geography,' 
1830. His 'Gazetteer of England and Wales' appeared in 
1836. [iv. 164] 

BELL. JOHN (d. 1556), bishop : educated at Balliol 
College. Oxford: LL.B. Cambridge. 1504; LL.D. Oxford, 
1531 ; vicar-general and chancellor of diocese of Worcester, 
1518: prebendary of Lichfield, St. Paul's, Lincoln, and 
Southwell : one of Henry VIII's chaplains : employed by 
Henry in matters relating to his divorce: bishop of Wor- 
cester, 1537; undertook revision of Epistles to Thessalo- 
nians in Testament of 1542 ; resigned bishopric. 1543 : 
benefactor of Balliol College. [iv. 165] 

BELL, JOHN (1691-1780), traveller: sent by Russian 
emperor on embassy to Persia, 1715-18, and to China, 
1717-22; merchant at Constantinople ; published account 
of journey to China, 1763. [iv. 166] 

BELL, JOHN (1747-1798), artillerist : served in artil- 
lery in Gibraltar and England : invented military and 
nautical contrivances ; first lieutenant, 1794. [iv. 167] 

BELL. JOHN (1763-1820), surgeon, brother of Sir 
Charles Bell [q. v.] ; educated at Edinburgh; F.R.C.S. 
Edinburgh, 1786 : held appointment at Royal Infirmary, 
but was excluded on limitation of number of sun." 
1800 ; travelled to Italy for his health, 1 817 : died in Italy. 
His works include Anatomy of Human Body ' and ' Prin- 
ciples of Surgery' (1801-8), 'Observations on Italy' ap- 
pearing posthumously in 1825. [iv. 167] 

BELL, JOHN (1745-1831), publisher: refused to join 
the combination of publishing firms which issued 'John- 
son's Poets ' ; brought out ' Bell's British Poete,' 109 vote., 
1777-82, and similar editions of 'Shakespeare' and the 
' British Theatre ' ; first printer to discard long f (s). 

[iv. 168] 

BELL, JOHN (1764-1836), lawyer : B.A. Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, 1786 ; senior wrangler ; fellow ; M.A., 
1789 ; studied at Middle Temple and Gray's Inn ; called to 
bar, 1792 ; king's counsel, 1816. [iv. 169] 

BELL, SIR JOHN (1782-1876), general ; ensign, 1805 ; 
served in Peninsular war : C.B., 1815 : chief secretary to 
Cape of Good Hope government, 1828-41 ; lieutenant- 
governor of Guernsey, 1848-54 ; colonel, 1850 ; G.O.B.aud 
general, 1860. [iv. 170] 

BELL, JOHN (1811-1895), sculptor ; studied at Royal 
Academy, where he exhibited between 1832 and 1879. 
His works include the Wellington monument at the 
Guildhall, 1855-6, and the Guards' Memorial in Waterloo 
Place, 1868-60 ; published writings ou subjects connected 
with his art. [Suppl. i. 165] 

BELL, JOHN GRAY (1823-1866), bookseller : son of 
Thomas Bell (d. 1860) [q. v.] ; bookseller in London, 
1848, and in Manchester, 1854-66; issued antiquarian 
works. [iv. 170] 

BELL, JOHN MONTGOMERIE (1804-1862), Scottish 
advocate ; called to Edinburgh bar, 1825 ; advocate- 
depute, 1847; sheriff of Kincardine, 1851; published 
treatise ou Scottish law of arbitration, 1861. [iv. 170] 

BELL, JONATHAN ANDERSON (rf. 1865), architect ; 
educated at Edinburgh : studied art in Rome, 1829-30 ; 
executed drawings for architectural publications, includ- 
ing Le Keux's ' Memorials of Cambridge.' [iv. 170] 

BELL, MARIA, LADY (d. 1825), amateur painter; 
pupil of William Hamilton, R.A. (her brother), and Rey- 
nolds ; exhibited at Royal Academy, 1809-24. [iv. 171] 

BELL, PATRICK (1799-1869), inventor of reaping 
machine ; studied at St. Andrews ; constructed machine 
for reaping, 1828; minister of Carmylie, Arbroath, 1843; 
hon. LL.D. St. Andrews. [iv. 171] 

BELL, Sm ROBERT (d. 1577), judge ; educated at 
Cambridge ; autumn reader at Middle Temple, 1565 ; 
M.P. for Lyme Regis, 1562 : speaker, 1572-6 : knighted ; 
serjeant-at-law ; chief baron of exchequer, 1577. 

[iv. 172] 

BELL, ROBERT (1800-1867), journalist; educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin ; settled in London, 1828 : editor 
of the ' Atlas ' weekly journal ; indicted for libelling 
Lord Lyndhurst ; found guilty, but escaped punishment ; 
contributed to Lardner's ' Cabinet Cyclopaedia,' 1830 seq. : 
began an edition of English poets, of which 24 vols. ap- 
peared, 1854-7, and produced several dramatic pieces, 
novels, and other writings. [iv. 173] 

BELL, ROBERT CHARLES (1806-1872), line-en- 
graver: practised at Edinburgh ; engraved 'Preston 
Pans ' (completed 1872), after Sir William Allen, for Royal 
Scottish Association. [iv. 174] 

BELL, THOMAS (/. 1573-1610), anti-Romanist 
writer ; perhaps held benefice in Lancashire : became 
Roman catholic, studied at Douny and Rome, and was 
priest, 1581; sent to England, 1582; arrested, c. 1592; 
recanted ; wrote polemics against Romanism. 

[Suppl. i. 166] 

BELL, THOMAS (1733-1802), divine: educated at 
Edinburgh ; minister of Relief congregation at Jedburgh, 
1767, and at Glasgow, 1777 ; translated religions works 
from Dutch and Latin. [iv. 174] 

BELL, THOMAS (1785-1860), antiquary : land valuer 
and surveyor ; promoter of Newcastle Literary nnd Philo- 
sophical Society, and a founder of Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries. [iv. 174] 



BELL, THOMAS(1792-1880), dental surgeon ; studied 
at Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals ; F.R.G.S., 1844 ; 
dental surgeon at Guy's, 1817-61 ; lecturer on compara- 
tive anatomy ; professor of zoology, King's College, Lou- 
don, 1836 ; F.R.S., 1828 ; vice-president. Zoological So- 
ciety ; secretary of Royal Society, 1848-53 ; president of 
Liimenn Society, 1853-61 ; published zoological works and 
an edition of White's ' Selborne.' [iv. 175] 

BELL, WILLIAM (ft. 1699), lawyer: educated at 
Balliol College, Oxford ; studied at Clement's Inn ; clerk of 
peace for Hampshire. [iv. 175] 

BELL, WILLIAM (1625-1683), divine; B.A. St. 
John's College, Oxford, 1647 ; fellow ; ejected from benefice 
m Norfolk by parliamentary visitors ; B.D., 1661 ; pre- 
bendary of St. Paul's, 1665 ; chaplain to king, 1667. 

[iv. 175] 

BELL, WILLIAM (17407-1804?), portrait painter; 
gained Royal Academy gold medal, 1771. [iv. 176] 

BELL, WILLIAM (1731-1816X divine ; M.A. Magda- 
lene College, Cambridge, 1756; domestic chaplain and 
secretary to Princess Amelia, daughter of George III ; 
prebendary of Westminster, 1766 ; D.D., 1767 ; rector of 
Christ Church, London, 1780-99 ; treasurer of St. Paul's ; 
published sermons and other religious works, [iv. 176] 

BELLAMONT, EARL OF (1636-1701). [See OOOTE, 

BELLAMONT, VISCOUNT (1604 ?-1660). [See BARD, 

BELLAMY, DANIEL, the elder (6. 1687), miscel- 
laneous writer ; educated at St. John's College, Oxford ; 
published religious, dramatic, and other works, [iv. 177] 

BELLAMY, DANIEL, the younger (d. 1788), divine : 
M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1759; vicar of St. 
Stephen's, near St. Albans, 1749 ; published miscellaneous, 
religious, and dramatic works. [iv. 178] 

BELLAMY, GEORGE ANNE (1731 ?-1788), actress; 
illegitimate daughter of Lord Tyrawley ; educated in a 
convent at Boulogne : on returning to England became 
acquainted with Garrick and went on stage; first ap- 
peared in ' Love for Love,' at Covent Garden, 1742 ; suc- 
cessfully played Juliet to Garrick's Romeo in the rivalry 
with Barry and Mrs. Cibber, 1750 ; died in reduced cir- 
cumstances ; published her ' Apology,' 1785. [iv. 178] 

BELLAMY, RICHARD (1743 ?-1813), bass singer; 
Mas. Bac.; gentleman of Chapel Royal, 1771; vicar 
choral of St. Paul's, 1777 ; almoner and master of choris- 
ters, 1793-1800. [iv. 179] 

BELLAMY, THOMAS (1746-1800), miscellaneous 
writer : hosier and subsequently bookseller's clerk ; started 
'General Magazine and Impartial Review,' 1787, and other 
unsuccessful periodicals; published poetical, dramatic, 
and other works. [iv. 179] 

singer ; son of Richard Bellamy [q. v.] ; sang at Handel 
Westminster, 1784 ; 


Dublin theatre, 1797 : embarked' unsuccessfully in various 
theatrical enterprises ; engaged at Covent Garden, and 
later at Drury Lane ; choirmaster of Spanish chapel, 1819. 


BELLASIS, EDWARD (1800-1873), lawyer; edu- 
cated at Christ's Hospital ; called to bar at Inner Temple, 
1824 ; practised in court of cliancery and in county pala- 
tine of Lancaster ; engaged as barrister in parliamentary 
business, 1836-66 ; serjeant-at-law, 1844; one of commis- 
sioners to examine working of Heralds' College, 1869 ; 
evinced great interest in Tractarian movement, 1833-45, 
and took part in discussion produced by Pius IX's bull in 
1850 ; entered the Roman catholic communion, 1860 : 
magistrate of Middlesex and Westminster: published 
religious writings, and left an autobiography and manu- 
script verses. [iy. 180] 

BELLEMAN or BELMAIN, JOHN (/. 1653), French 
tutor of Edward VI ; left manuscript translation into 
French of Edward VI's second Prayer-book. [iv. 182] 


1008), a magnate of Normandy; knighted, 1073; sup- 
ported Duke Robert iu the revolt against William I, 

1077 ; pardoned, but on the death of the Conqueror again 
joimil Duke Robert against William Rufus ; took part in 
defence of Rochester, and on surrender was recom-iUil to 
the king, 1088; captured and imprisoned by Duke 
Robert, but was soon released ; engairwl in war with his 
neighbours in Normandy; joined Henry of Coutances 
(Henry I) in suppressing revolt of citizens of Rouen, 
1090 ; captain of king's forces in Rufus's abortive inva- 
sion of France, 1097 ; engaged in war with Helias of 
Maine, 1098 ; captured Helias and delivered him to 
Rufus, who continued the war ; earl of Shrewsbury, 1098 ; 
did homage to Henry I, 1100, but with his brothers and 
Duke Robert conspired against him, 1101 ; outlawed, 
1102 ; fortified himself in Shrewsbury ; forced to surren- 
der ; returned to Normandy ; after several attempts to 
obtain allies against Henry, made peace with him, 1 106 ; 
soon afterwards he joined Fulk of An jou against Henry ; 
sent, 1112, by Louis of France as ambassador to Henry, 
who seized and kept him hi close confinement until his 
death. [iv. 182] 

BELLENDEN, ADAM (d. 1639 ?), bishop ; son of Sir 
John Bellenden [q. v.] ; M.A. Edinburgh, 1590 ; minister 
at Falkirk, 1608 ; 'suspended,' 1614; released, 1615 ; left 
presbyterian church, and was made bishop of Dunblane, 
1616, and of Aberdeen, 1635 ; deprived of see on abolition 
of episcopacy in Scotland, 1638. [iv. 186] 

BELLENDEN, SIR JOHN, of Auchnoul or Auchi- 
noul (d. 1577); Scottish lawyer; justice-clerk, 1647; 
privy councillor to Mary Queen of Scots, 1561 ; implicated 
in murder of Rizzio, but soon restored to favour ; joined 
nobles against Mary at Bothwell; privy councillor to 
Regent Murray; employed hi framing pacification of 
Perth, 1573. [iv. 187] 

JOHN (./I. 1533-1687), poet; educated at St. Andrews 
and Paris ; D.D. Sorbonne ; translated, by command of 
James V of Scotland, into Scottish vernacular, Boece's 
' Historia Scotoruin ' (1536) and Livy, first published in 
1822 ; archdeacon of Moray and canon of Ross ; opposed 
Reformation and withdrew to the continent, [iv. 186] 

1591), Scottish judge ; eldest son of Sir John Bellenden 
[q. v.] ; justice-clerk, 1678 ; privy councillor, 1579 : judge, 
1584 ; instrumental in Earl of Arran'8 downfall, 1585 ; ac- 
companied James VI in his matrimonial excursion to 
Norway and Denmark, 1589-90. [iv. 188] 

BELLENLEN, WILLIAM (d. 1633 ?), Scottish pro- 
fessor ; employed in diplomatic service by James VI and 
Mary Queen of Scots ; professor at university of Paris ; 
produced works illustrating Roman history by extracts 
from Roman authors. [iv. 189] 

1671), created Lord Bellenden, 1661, and treasurer-depute 
and privy councillor of Scotland, 1661 ; supported Lauder- 
dale against Middleton's faction. [iv. 189] 

SELLERS, FETTIPLAOE (1687-1750?), dramatist 
and philosophical writer ; F.R.S., 1711 ; produced a 
tragedy which was acted at Drury Lane, 1732, and philo- 
sophical works, including 'A Delineation of Universal 
Law,' 1750. [iv. 190] 

SELLERS, JOHN (1654-1725), philanthropist ; mem- 
ber of Society of Friends ; devised schemes for the aboli- 
tion of war, education of poor children, improvement of 
prisons, and establishment of hospitals. He wrote many 
short works, the most important being 'Proposals for 
Raising a Colledge of Industry of all useful Trades and 
Husbandry,' 1695. [iv. 190] 

SELLERS, WILLIAM (fl. 1761-1774), landscape- 
painter : contributed to exhibitions of Free Society of 
Artists, 1761-78. [iv. 192] 

BELLEW, HENRY WALTER (1834-1892), surgeon- 
general ; studied at St. George's Hospital, London ; 
M.R.O.P., 1866 ; served in Crimea, 1854-5 ; assistant sur- 
geon, Bengal medical service, 1856 ; surgeon, 1867 ; deputy 
surgeon-general, 1881 ; served with Major (Sir) Henry 
Lumaden [q. v.] on Candahar mission ; C.S.I., 1873 ; chief 
political officer at Oabul ; retired as surgeon-general, 
1886; published journals, works on oriental languages, 
and other writings. [Suppl. i. 167] 




(1823-1874), author, preacher, and public reader; son of 
Captain Rot>ert Higgins; educated at St. Mary's Hall, < >x- 
foni ; assumed his mother's maiden name, Bellew, 1844 ; 
after holding two curacies in England, he was chaplain of 
St. John's Cathedral, Calcutta, 1851-6 ; successively minis- 
ter at several London churches ; was converted to Roman 
Catholicism, 1868, and devoted himself to literature and 
public readings : published miscellaneous works, [iv. 192] 

BELLEW, RICHARD (fl. 1585), legal reporter ; pub- 
lislu-d reports in Norman-French of cases in time of 
Richard 11. [iv.193] 

BELLIN, SAMUEL (1799-1893), engraver ; practised 
in Kim'land. r. 1834-70. His plates are all from popular 
English painters of his day. [Suppl. i. 168] 

BELLINGER, FRANCIS (d. 1721), physician ; L.C.P., 
1708; published medical works. [iv. 193] 

BELLIN GHAM, SIR EDWARD (d. 1549), lord deputy 
of Ireland ; served in Hungary with Sir Thomas Seymour, 
and with Earl of Surrey in Boulogne and Isle of Wight 
(1545); privy councillor of Edward VI : lord deputy of 
Ireland. 1548 ; suppressed rebellion in King's and Queen's 
counties. [iv. 193] 

BELLINGHAM, RICHARD (1592?-! 672), governor 
of Massachusetts ; recorder of Boston, Lincolnshire, 1625- 
1633 ; deputy-governor of Massachusetts, 1635 ; governor, 
1641 ; held the office uninterruptedly, 1665-72 ; assistant 
major-general, 1664. [iv. 194] 

BELLLNG8, RICHARD (d. 1677), Irish historian ; 
studied at Lincoln's Inn ; composed a sixth book to 
Sidney's ' Arcadia,' 1629 ; Irish M.P. ; secretary to supreme 
council of Irish confederation, 1642 ; royalist, 1645-9, re- 
tiring to France till Restoration ; wrote a history of con- 
temporary Irish affairs (part printed 1882). [iv. 194] 




BELLOT, HUGH (1542-1596), bishop; B.A. Christ's 
College, Cambridge, 1564 ; M.A. and fellow of Jesus Col- 
lege, 1567 ; D.D., 1579 ; bishop of Bangor, 1585 ; member 
of council of Wales; bishop of Chester, 1595; assisted 
William Morgan in translating bible into Welsh. 

[iv. 195] 

BELLOT, THOMAS (1806-1857), surgeon and philo- 
logist ; M.R.C.S., 1828 ; surgeon in navy, 1831 ; F.R.C.S., 
1844; hi charge of naval hospital of Therapia on Bos- 
phorus, 1854-6 ; published 'Sanscrit Derivations of Eng- 
lish Words ' (1856), and some classical translations. 

[iv. 195] 

FAIR HANDH (</. 1203 ?), divine ; brought up in house- 
hold of archbishop Theobald ; treasurer of York, c. 1168 ; 
friend and adviser of Becket during controversy with 
Henry II ; bishop of Poitiers, 1162 ; papal legate, c. 1177 ; 
one of five chief ecclesiastics sent to convert Toulouse, 
1178 ; elected archbishop of Narbonue, 1181, but trans- 
ferred by pope to see of Lyons ; resigned, 1193 ; came to 
England to perform vows at Becket's tomb ; retired to St. 
Bernard's abbey of Glair vaux, c. 1194 ; said to have written 
a history and other learned works, now lost. [iv. 196] 

RUFUS (d. 1128), bishop; follower of Roger of Mont- 
gomery and Earl Hugh, but afterwards adherent of 
Henry I ; royal agent, till 1123, in Shropshire, the forfeited 
palatinate of Robert of Belleme ; bishop of London, 1108 ; 
devoted revenue of bishopric to carrying out the rebuild- 
ing of St. Paul's ; founded St. Osyth's Priory, Essex, where 
he died. [iv. 198] 

bishop ; nephew of Richard de Beimels [q. v.] ; at an early 
age prebendary of St. Paul's and prebendary of St. 
Alkmund's, Shrewsbury; converted estates of secular 
canons of St. Alkmund to foundation of college at Lilies- 
hall of canons regular of the Arroasian branch of Augus- 
tinian order ; bishop of London, 1162. [Iv. 200] 

BELOE, WILLIAM (1756-1817), divine ; educated at 
Bene't College, Cambridge: for three years assistant 

master under Parr at Norwich grammar school ; rector ot 
All Hallows, London Wall, 17l ; keeper of printed books 
at British Museum, 1803-6 ; contributed to Tooke's ' Bio- 
graphical Dictionary,' and established with Archdeacon 
Nares the British Critic,' 1793. Works include Anecdotes 
of Literature and Scarce Books,' 1806-12, the 'Sexa- 
genarian,' consisting of personal recollections, and several 
classical translations. [iv. 201] 

BELPER, first BAIION (1801-1880). [See STRUTT, 

BELSHAM, THOMAS (1750-1829), Unitarian divine ; 
minister of independent congregation at Worcester, 1778 ; 
professor of divinity at Daventry, 1781-9, and, having 
adopted unitarianism. at Hackney College, 1789-96 ; minis- 
ter of Gravel Pit chapel, Hackney, 1794, and Essex Street 
chapel, 1805 ; published theological works. [iv. 202] 

BELSHAM, WILLIAM (1762-1827), political writer 
and historian ; brother of Thomas Belsham [q. v.] ; pub- 
lished philosophical and historical works in support of 
whig principles. [iv. 203] 

BEL80N, JOHN (fl. 1688), catholic gentleman ; re- 
nowned for knowledge of history and controversial 
matters. [iv. 203] 

BELSON, THOMAS (d. 1589), catholic gentleman; 
executed for assisting catholic priests. [iv. 204] 

BELT, THOMAS (1832-1878), geologist ; made geo- 
logical investigations in Australian gold-diggings, 1852-62; 
superintendent of Nova Scotia Gold Company's mines, 
1862; conducted gold-mining operations of Chontales 
Company, Nicaragua, 1868-72 ; fellow, Geological Society ; 
died at Denver, Colorado ; published works chiefly relating 
to glacial period. [iv. 204] 

BELTZ, GEORGE FREDERICK (1777-1841), Lan- 
caster herald ; gentleman usher of scarlet rod of order of 
the Bath, and Brunswick herald, 1814 ; portcullis pursui- 
vant, 1817-22 ; Lancaster herald, 1822 ; published genealo- 
gical writings. [iv. 204] 

actor, engineer, and traveller ; born at Padua ; came to 
London, 1803, and exhibited feats of strength at Astley's 
Amphitheatre ; toured in Spain and Portugal, and intro- 
duced improved hydraulic machines in Egypt, 1815 ; en- 
gaged in archaeological exploration in Egypt, and pub- 
lished an account of his discoveries, 1820 ; died of dysen- 
tery at Gato, Benin, while on journey of exploration to 
Timbuktu. [iv. 205] 

(d. 1332), bishop ; archdeacon and, 1328, bishop of St. 
Andrews ; chamberlain of Scotland, e. 1331 , on Baliol's 
invasion fled to Bruges, where he died. [iv. 206] 

BENAZEOH, CHARLES (1767?-1794), painter: son 
of Peter Paul Benazech [q. v.] ; studied under Greuze in 
Paris. His best-known pictures are of incidents in French 
Revolution. [iv. 207] 

BENAZECH, PETER PAUL (1744 V-1788?), line- 
engraver ; pupil of Francis Vivares. [iv. 207] 

BENBOW, JOHN (1663-1702), vice-admiral; served 
as master's mate in Mediterranean, 1678 ; master, 1679 ; 
probably in merchant service, 1681-9 ; captain, 1689 ; suc- 
cessively master attendant of Chatham and Deptford 
dockyards, 1690-6 ; master of the fleet in battle off Beachy 
Head, 1690, and Barfleurand La Hogue, 1692 ; commanded 
bombarding flotilla at St. Malo, 1693 and 1696, and at 
Dunkirk, 1694 ; commander-in-chief of squadron before 
Dunkirk, and, later, that in the Soundings, 1696 ; com- 
mander-in-chief in West Indies, 1698-1700, and in Downs, 
1700-1 ; vice-admiral of the blue, 1701 ; again in West 
Indies, 1701-2 ; encountered French under Du Casse off 
Santa Marta, and followed them for several days, but gave 
up the pursuit because his captains protested against his 
plan ; died of wounds at Port Royal. [iv. 207] 

BENBOW, JOHN (1681 7-1708), traveller, son of John 
Benbow (1653-1702) [q. v.] ; volunteer in navy, 1695; 
joined merchant service ; served in East Indies as fourth 
mate, and subsequently second mate, 1701 ; wrecked off 
Madagascar, captured by natives, but escaped and returned 
to England. [iv. 211] 

BENDIGO (1811-1889). [See THOMPSON, WILLIAM.] 



BENDINGS. WILLIAM (.ft. 1180), judge; one of 
Henry IPs envoys to Ireland to fetch Keimund Fitz- 
grrald. 1176 : appointed to northern circuit, 1179 : shi-rifT 
of Dorset and Somerset, 1184. [iv. 212] 

BENDISH, BRIDGET (1650-1726), daughter of 
General Henry Ireton, by Bridget, Oliver Cromwell's eldest 
daughter ; married Thomas Bendish, 1670 ; said to have 
compromised herself in Rye House plot, 1683. [iv. 212] 

BENDLOWEB, EDWARD (1603 ?-1676> [See BEX- 

BENDLOWEB, WILLIAM (1516-1584), lawyer : edu- 
cated at St. John's College, Cambridge; called to bar 
at Lincoln's Inn : serjeant-at-law, 1555 ; M.P. successively 
for Helston, Penrhyn, and Dunheved, 1553-4 : a governor 
of Lincoln's Inn, 1576 ; some of his reports published 
posthumously. [iv. 213] 

BENEDICT (d. 1193), chancellor to archbishop of 
Canterbury, 1174: prior of Christ Church, Canterbury, 
1175; abbot of Peterborough, 1177-93; built a large 
portion of his church ; wrote histories of the passion and 
Thomas Becket's miracles. [iv. 213] 

BENEDICT BISCOP (628? -690), founder of monas- 
teries : thegn of Oswiu, king of Northumbria ; monk of 
monastery of Lerins, 665-7 ; conducted Theodore of Tarsus 
from Rome to Canterbury, 669; abbot of St. Peter's, 
Canterbury, 669; built, 674, at mouth of river Wear, 
monastery of St. Peter, which by papal letter was exempted 
from external control, 678 : established sister monastery 
of St. Paul at Jarrow ; collected an extensive library. 

[iv. 214] 

BENEDICT CiiKi/VDoxirs or OALBDONIU8 (.ft. 1519), 
abbot of Scottish monastery at Vienna ; opponent of 
Luther. [iv. 216] 

BENEDICT OK GLOI'CESTKK (/. 1120), monk of St. 
Peter's, Gloucester ; compiled a life 'of St. Dubricius. 

[iv. 216] 

BENEDICT OK NORWICH (fl. 1340), abbot of Austin 
friars at Norwich ; suffragan of Norwich ; linguist, 
scientist, and theologian. [iv. 216] 

BENEDICT, SIH JULIUS (1804-1885), musician; 
born at Stuttgart ; pupil of J. C. L. Abeille, Hummel, and 
Weber; conductor at Karuthnerthor Theatre, Vienna, 
1823-5, and at San Carlo and Fondo theatres, Naples, 
1825-35 ; conducted series of Italian comic operas at 
Lyceum, 1836 ; conductor of English opera, Drury Lane ; 
accompanied Jenny Liiid on American tour, 1850 ; con- 
ductor of Italian opera, 1852 ; for many years conducted 
Norwich festival ; knighted, 1871 ; in 1862 was performed 
his well-known ' Lily of Killarney.' [iv. 216] 

BENEFACTA, RICHARD (d. 1090 ?). [See CLARE, 

BENEFIELD, SKUASTIAN (1559-1630), divine ; B.A. 
and M.A. Corpus Christi College, Oxford; D.D., 1608; 
Margaret professor of divinity, 1613 ; rector of Meysey- 
Hampton, Gloucestershire ; published scholarly religious 
works. [iv. 217] 

BENESE, RICHARD (d. 1546), divine ; B.O.L. Ox- 
ford, 1519 ; canon of Augustinian priory of Mertou, which 
he surrendered to Henry VIII, 1538 ; published a work on 
land surveying. [iv. 218] 


BENET or BENEDICTTJS, M A Gi8TER(rf. 1226), bishop 
of Rochester ; keeper of great seal on deposition of Long- 
champ, 1191 : bishop of Rochester, 1215. [iv. 218] 

BENET, WILLIAM <,/. 1533), ambassador : LL.D. : 
canon of Leighlin, 1522 ; occasionally acted as Cardinal 
w<il .-rv'< c'liinni iirv ; accompanied embassy to Rome, 
152H, (in bu.-inr-- coimc-i-tod with Henry VIII's divorce; 
jiiubassidor at. Home. 1529-33 ; died at Susa in Piedmont. 

[iv. 218] 

BENEZET, ANTHONY (1713-1784), philanthropist: 
I Kirn at St. Qnentin, France, whence his family cann- to 
r.ip/land on account of their nrotestant opinions ; joined 
Society of Friends ; emigrated to America, 1731 ; school - 
muter in Friends' school, Philadelphia, 1742; founded 
school for female*, 1755 : interested himself in cause of 
negroes and Indians ; published pamphlets embodying his 
religious and social opinions. [Iv. 219] 

BENFIELD, PAUL (d. 1810), Indian trader; civil 
servant of Enst India Company, 1764 ; acquired large for- 
tune by trade contracts, and moneyleuding ; ordered 
home and resigned the service, the character of a trans- 
action between him and uawab of the Carnatic being 
called in question, 1777 ; M.P. for Oricklade, 1780; subse- 
quently restored to his position ; finally returned to Eng- 
land, 1793 ; lost fortune in unfortunate speculations; died 
in Paris in indigent circumstances. [iv. 220] 

author; came to London, 1800; made acquaintance of 
the Lambs, Mrs. Inchbald, Campbell, Sinirke the painter, 
and others ; published poem ' On the Slave Trade,' illus- 
trated with engravings after Smirke, 1809; wrote two 
novels, several historical works, and translated one 
volume of Klopstock's letters. [iv. 221] 

BENHYEM or BENHAM, HUGO DK (d. 1282), 
bishop of Aberdeen, 1272 ; wrote theological works. 

[iv. 222] 

BENISCH, ABRAHAM (1811-1878), hebraifit; born 
of Jewish parents at Drosau, Bohemia ; studied medicine 
at Vienna; settled in England, 1841; edited 'Jewish 
Chronicle,' 1854-69, and 1876-8 ; zealously promoted cause 
of his co-religionists ; published works on Hebrew lite- 
rature, [iv. 222] 

BEN ISRAEL, MANASSEH (1604-1657). [See 

BENJAMIN, JUDAH PHILIP (1811-1884), lawyer ; 
born of Jewish parents of English nationality in St. Croix, 
West Indies ; educated at Yale ; called to the bar. New 
Orleans, 1832; counsellor of supreme court, New Orleans, 
1848 ; senator for Louisiana, 1852 and 1857 ; on secession 
of South Carolina cast in his lot with the South and wus 

I attorney-general, and, later, acting secretary of war, in 
cabinet of Da vis's provisional government for the Southern 
confederacy, 1861 ; secretary of state, 1864 ; on fall of 
confederacy came to England; studied English law at 
Lincoln's Inn ; called to the bar, 1866 ; joined northern 
circuit ; published a work on contract of sale (1868), 
which was immediately successful ; ' Palatine silk ' for 
county of Lancaster ; obtained large practice, chiefly in 
colonial appeals before the privy council ; retired, 1883 ; 
several of his speeches published. [iv. 222] 

BENLOWES, EDWARD (1603 ?-1676), poet, educated 
at St. John's College, Cambridge ; inherited estate of Brent 
Hall, but squandered his money on friends, among whom 
were many distinguished men ; his chief work, ' Theophila, 
or Love's Sacrifice" (1652), was illustrated by Hollar and 
others. [iv. 226] 

BENN, GEORGE (1801-1882), historian; educated 
under Sheridan Knowles at Belfast ; engaged in distilling 
near Downpatrick ; subsequently discovered the presence 
of iron ore in Glenravel hills, which were successfully 
worked ; published writings relating to history of Bel- 
fast, [iv. 227] 

BENN or BEN, WILLIAM (1600-1680), divine; edu- 
; cated at Queen's College, Oxford : chaplain to Marchioness 
! of Northampton; preacher at All Saints, Dorchester, 
I 1629-62 ; ejected under Act of Uniformity ; a volume of 
! his sermons was published posthumously. [iv. 228] 

BENNET, BENJAMIN (1674-1726), nonconformist 
divine; ordained, 1699; colleague with Richard Gilpin 

I [q. v.] at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1703 ; published hymns and 
religious and historical works including 'Memorial of 

j Reformation in England,' 1717. [iv. 228] 

BENNET, CHRISTOPHER (1617-1655), physician; 

1 M.A. Lincoln College, Oxford, 1639; incorporated M.A. 

Cambridge, where he graduated M.D., 1646 ; F.C.P., 1049 ; 

and censor, 1654 : published treatise on consumption, 

1654. [iv. 229] 

BENNET, GEORGE (1760-1835), hebraist; presby- 

terian minister at Carlisle, and subsequently of Strath- 

uritflo, Fife ; devotal much time to study of Hebrew ; 

, one of principal contributors to * British Critic ' ; pub- 

| lished'Olam Haimshuiuoth, a View of the Intermediate 

SUite,' 1800. [Iv. 229] 

BENNET. HENRY (fl. 1561). of Calais ; translator ; 
published, 1501, a volume of translations from German 
reformers. [iv. 230] 




1G85) member of Cabal ministry: pnin.lson of Sir John musician ; studied under , I. C. Bach and Schroeter; organist 

Bennet [<j v.]. educated nt Westminster and Christ of St. Andrew's, Plymouth, 1793 ; published musical com- 

Chnrch, oxford ; joined royal forces as volunteer ; travelled positions. [iv. 240] 

in Framv and Italy: au'i-nt of Prince Charles at Madrid, ; BENNETT, AGNES MARIA (rf. 1808), novelist: 

1658 ; keener of privy purse after Restoration ; secretary wn)tr S| . yi . n novd publisbed between 1785 and 1816, 

of state, 1062-74 ; M.P. ; centre of opposition to ( arcn. Ion, j f lih were tmnslate(1 into French, [iv. 240] 
166S created Lord Arlington, 1663 ; probably ultimately 
ret>onibie for -outbreak of first Dutch war; arranged 
conclusion of triple alliance, 16G8 : member of Cabal; 

conclusion of triple ,,,^ 

arranged secret treaty of Dover, 1670; peer and, 
1C72 ; unsuccessful!:, impeached in House of Commons as 
instrument of the king's evil measures, 1674 ; lord cham- 
berlain, 1674 ; spent his last years in ratirement. 

[iv. 230] 

BENNET, JOHN (ft. 1600), musician ; composed and 
published many excellent madrigals, 1599-1614. [iv. 233] 

BENNET, Sm JOHN (d. 1627), ecclesiastic and 
civilian; alucated at Christ Church, Oxford ; junior 
proctor, 1585 ; LL.D., 1589 : prebendary of York, 1591 ; 
vicar-general in spirituals to Archbishop of York ; chan- 
cellor of the diocese ; M.P. for Ripon, 1597 and 1603, and 
York, 1601 ; member of council of the north, 1599 ; | 
knighted, 1603 ; judge of prerogative court of Canterbury ; J-WK oury, 
chancellor to Queen Anne of Denmark ; M.P. for Oxford 
University, 1614 and 1620 ; impeached, 1621, for admini- 
stering estates of intestates in consonance with wishes of 
highest bidder ; trial discontinued by the Lords owing to 
his illness, but resumed in Star-chamber, 1622 ; sentenced 
to fine, imprisonment, and permanent disability from 
holding office ; sentence remitted, with exception of fine, 
1624. [iv. 233] 

BENNET, JOHN (d. 1686), controversial writer; 
M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1683; published (1683) a 
pamphlet in 

draughtsman on wood ; worked on staff of ' Punch.' 

[iv. 241] 

BENNETT, EDWARD TURNER (1797-1836), zoolo- 
gist ; surgeon in London ; promoted establishment of ento- 
mological society, 1832, which ultimately developed into 
London Zoological Society ; published zoological works. 

[iv. 241] 

BENNETT, GEORGE JOHN (1800-1879), actor; 
served in navy, 1813-17 ; appeared at Coveut Garden as 
Richard III and Hotspur, 1823 ; in Covent Garden company 
1830-41 ; with Macready at Drury Lane, 1841-3, and with 
Phelps at Sadler's Wells, 1844-62. [iv. 241] 

BENNETT, JAMES (1786-1856), printer and book- 
seller at Tewkesbury, 1810-52 ; published 'History of 

[iv. 242] 

BENNETT, JAMES (1774-1862), congregational 
minister ; minister at Romsey, 1797-1813 ; tutor and 
pastor at Rotherham, 1813 ; transferred to London, 1828 ; 
secretary to London Missionary Society ; publisbed works, 
chiefly theological. [iv. 242] 

BENNETT, JAMES GORDON (1800-1872), jour- 
nalist ; went to America, 1819 ; obtained employment in 
printing and publishing offices at Boston ; successively on 
staff of 'Charleston Courier,' 'National Advocate,' and 
Enquirer'; started the short-lived 'New York Globe'; 

. u . vu , ~- , -. v *~~~ v , .. 

reply to Samuel Johnson's 'Julian the contributed to ' New York Mirror ': founded ' New York 

[iv. 235] 

BENNET, JOSEPH (1629-1707), nonconformist divine; 
B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1650; obtained living 
of Brightling, 1658; ejected under Act of Uniformity, 
1662 ; subsequently took charge of nonconformist congre- 
gations at Hellingly and Hastings. [iv. 235] 

BENNET, ROBERT (d. 1617), bishop ; B.A. Trinity 
College, Cambridge, 1569 ; incorporated at Oxford, 1572 ; 
master of hospital of St. Cross, Winchester, 1683 ; dean 
of Windsor, 1595 ; registrar of order of Garter, 1696 ; 
bishop of Hereford, 1603. [iv. 236] 

BENNET, ROBERT (1605-1683), parliamentary 
colonel during civil war; member of council of state, 
1653 ; M.P. for Cornwall, 1653, for Launceston and Looe, 
1654, and Launceston, 1659. [iv. 236] 

BENNET or BENNETT, ROBERT (d. 1687), author ; 
B.D. Oxford ; rector of Waddesden, 1648 ; ejected, 1662 ; 
subsequently preached to small congregation at Ayles- 
bury ; published 'Theological Concordance of Synonymous 
Terms in Holy Scriptures,' 1657. [iv. 237] 

BENNET, SIR THOMAS (1592-1670), judge; LL.D. 
All Souls' College, Oxford, 1624 ; member of Gray's Inn ; 

Herald,' of which for some time he prepared the entire 
contents, 1835 ; subsidised Stanley's expedition to find 
Livingstone, 1871-2. He made great improvements in 
the system of obtaining news, and regularly employed 
men of literary attainments. [iv. 243] 

BENNETT, Sm JAMES RISDON (1809-1891), phy- 
sician ; son of Rev. James Bennett [q. v.] ; M.D. Edin- 
burgh, 1833 ; physician to Aldersgate Street dispensary, 
1837 ; assistant physician to St. Thomas's Hospital, 1843, 
and physician, 1849 ; physician to City of London Hos- 
pital for Diseases of Chest, 1848 ; F.R.S., 1876 ; knighted 
and made president Royal College Physicians, 1876 ; pub- 
lished medical treatises. [Suppl. i. 168] 

BENNETT, Sm JOHN (1814-1897), sheriff of London 
and Middlesex ; brother of William Cox Bennett [q. v.] ; 
watchmaker inCheapside, 1846-89 ; sheriff of London and 
Middlesex, 1872 ; knighted ; common councillor for ward 
of Cheap, 1862-89 ; thrice elected alderman, but each 
election annulled. [Suppl. i. 169] 

BENNETT, JOHN HUGHES (1812-1876), physician 
and physiologist; apprenticed as surgeon at Maidstoue, 
1829 ; one of presidents of Royal Medical Society : M.D. 
Edinburgh, 1837 ; proceeded to Paris ; founded, and was 
first president of, Parisian Medical Society; studied in 

admitted to College of Advocates, 1626 ; master in chan- Germany ; lectured on histology at Edinburgh, 1841 ; 

eery, 1C35-70 ; knighted, 1661. 

[iv. 237] 

BENNET. THOMAS (1646?-1681), grammarian; 
M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1669 ; corrector of University 
Press ; obtained livings of Steventon by Ahingdon and 
Hungerford ; published work known as ' Oxford [Latin] 
Grammar,' 1673. [iv. 237] 

BENNET, THOMAS ( 1673-1 7.'8), divine; M.A. 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 1694 ; fellow ; lecturer at 
St. Olave's, Southwark, deputy chaplain to Chelsea Hos- 
pital, and morning preacher at St. Lawrence Jewry, c. 
1711; presented to St. Giles, Cripplegate : D.D., 1711: 
published works, including controversial treatises directed 
against dissenters and q tinkers, a paraphrase of the 'Book 
of Common Prayer, with Annotations' (1708), and a 
Hebrew grammar (1726). [iv. 238] 

BENNET, WILLIAM (1746-1820), bishop of Cloyue; 
educated at Harrow and Emmanuel College, Cambridge ; 
M.A., 1770; fellow. 1773 ; D.D., 17iH> : bishop of Cork and 
Ross, 1790-4, and of Cloyne, 1794-1820 ; F.S.A., 1790 : pub- 
lished archaeological writings. [iv. 239] 

F.R.S. and F.C.P. Edinburgh; physician to Royal Dis- 
pensary, and pathologist to Royal Infirmary; editor of 
'London and Edinburgh Monthly Journal of Medical 
Science,' 1846 ; professor of Institutes of Medicine, Edin- 
burgh, 1848-74 : LL.D. Edinburgh, 1875. His works in- 
clude important treatises on clinical medicine, physiology, 
pathology, pneumonia, cancerous and cancroid growths, 
and leucocythtemia. [iv. 244] 

BENNETT. JOHN JOSEPH (1801-1876), botanist : 
studied at Middlesex Hospital : was, till 1870, keeper of 
Banksian herbarium and library on its transfer to British 
Museum in 1827 : F.R.S., 1841 ; F.L.S., 1828, and secre- 
tary, 1840-60 ; published botanical papers. [iv. 246] 

BENNETT, WILLIAM COX (1820-1895), miscel- 
laneous writer : watchmaker at Greenwich : on staff of 
' Weekly Dispatch,' 1869-70 ; member of London council 
of the Education League ; published songs and other 
writings. [Suppl. i. 168] 

ritualist divine ; born at Halifax, Nova Scotia ; educated 
at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford ; M.A., 1829 ; 




usher at Westminster School, 1826-8 ; minister of Portman 
Chapel, 1836-43, ami of St. Paul's. Knightsbridge, 1840 ; 
attracted hostile imti'-e owing to his ritualistic innova- 
tions ami. in consequence, resigned incumbency, 185(1 : 
vicar of Frome Sehvood, Somerset, 1852-86; published 
sermons and controversial and other religious writings. 

[Suppl. 1. 169] 
ID (177* 

miniaturist ; pupil of Kir Thomas Lawrence ; exhibited 
at Royal Academy, 1812-16 and 1834-5. [iv. 247] 

musical composer ; in choir of King's College, Cambridge, 
1824-6 ; studied violin under Oury and Spagnoletti, and 
piano under Cipriani Potter, and Crotch at Royal Aca- 
demy of Music, 1826-36 ; attracted Mendelssohn's atten- 
tion by his first concerto (1832), which was the occasion 
of a long intimacy ; organist at Wandsworth church, 
1834; attended the Lower Rhine Festival conducted by 
Mendelssohn, 1836, and visited the Rhine, where he con- 
ceived the idea of the ' Naiads,' which was produced at the 
Society of Musicians, 1837 ; conducted performance of the 
' Naiads ' at the Gewaudhaus, Leipzig, 1837 ; took pro- 
minent part in forming Bach Society, 1849 ; appointed 
permanent conductor at Philharmonic Society's concerts, 
1855, and professor of music at Cambridge, 1856 ; M us. 
Doc., 1856 ; composed the ' May Queen,' 1858 ; principal 
of Academy of Music, 1866; received Beethoven gold 
medal from Philharmonic Society, 1867 : lion. M.A. Cam- 
bridge, 1867 ; D.O.L. Oxford, 1870 ; knighted, 1871. His 
works include overtures to the 'Tempest' (1832) and 
'Merry Wives of Windsor' (1833); 'Paradise and the 
Peri' (1862), symphony in G minor (1864), 'Woman of 
Samaria ' (1867), and ' Ajax ' (1872). [iv. 247] 

BENNIS, GEORGE GEARY (1790-1866), author ; for 
some years grocer in Limerick ; director of a librairie des 
Strangers, Paris, 1830-6 ; librarian to British embassy ; 
editor of ' Galignaui's Messenger ' ; published miscellaneous 
works. [iv. 251] 

BENOIST, ANTOINE (1721-1770), draughtsman and 
engraver ; born at Soissous ; teacher of drawing in Eng- 
land, [iv. 252] 

BENOLT, THOMAS (</. 1534), herald ; Berwick pur- 
suivant in Edward IV's reign ; Rougecroix pursuivant in 
Richard Ill's reign ; Windsor herald under Henry VII; 
Norroy king-at-arms, 1510 : Clarencieux king-at-arms, 
1511 ; issued the challenges for tournaments at Field of 
Cloth of Gold, 1520. [iv. 252] 

BENSLEY, ROBERT (1738 ?-1817 ?), actor : appeared 
at Drury Lane as Pierre (' Venice Preserved '), 1765, sub- 
sequently playing Edmund ('King Lear'), Buckingham 
('Richard III '), and Merlin ('Cymon'): at Covent 
Garden, 1767-75; alternated between Drury Lane and 
Haymarket, 1775 to 1796, when he retired from stage with 
a benefit performance of the 'Grecian Daughter,' in 
which he took Evauder to Mrs. Siddons's Euphrasia. 

[iv. 263] 

BENSLEY, THOMAS (d. 1833), printer: produced 
Macklin's folio bible (1800), Hume's 'History of England,' 
and an octavo Shakespeare ; originated some mechanical 
adjustments adopted by the 'Times,' 1814. [iv. 254] 

BENSLY, ROBERT LUBBOCK (1831-1893), orien- 
talist: educated at King's College, London, and Gonville 
and Oaius College, Cambridge : B.A., 1855 ; lecturer in 
Hebrew, 1861-89 : fellow, 1876-93 ; under-librarian of the 
university, 1864-76 ; Lord Almoner's professor of Arabic, 
1887-93 ; member of Old Testament revision committee, 
1870; published translations and works connected with 
oriental research. [Suppl. i. 171] 

BENSON, CHRISTOPHER (1789-1868), divine; M.A. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1816 ; first Hulsean lecturer, 
Cambridge, 1820 ; canon of Worcester, 1825 ; for several 
years master of the Temple; published religious works, 
including ' Chronology of our Saviour's, Life' (1819). 

[iv. 255] 

BENSON, EDWARD WHITE (1829-1896), archbishop 
of Canterbury ; educated at King Edward's School, Bir- 
mingham, and Trinity College, Cambridge: B.A., 1862; 
senior chancellor's medallist : master at Rugby, 1862 ; 
fellow of Trinity, 1863 ; ordained deacon, 1863 ; first mas- 
ter of Wellington College, 1869-72 ; examining chaplain 
of Wordsworth, bishop of Lincoln, 1868 ; prebendary of 
Lincoln, 1869 ; chancellor of Lincoln Minster, 1872 ; first 

bishop of Truro, 1877 ; formed divinity school at Trnro ; 
served on royal commission upon ecclesiastical courts, 
1881 ; archbishop of Canterbury, 1882 ; advocated Parish 
Councils Bill in House of Lords, 1893 ; member of 'sweat- 
ing ' committee of House of Lords ; introduced Clergy 
Discipline Bill, passed, 1892 ; obtained appointment of 
royal commission to inquire into working of Education 
Acts, 1886 ; created house of laymen to sit in connection 
with convocation of his province, 1886 ; vigorously op- 
posed disestablishment of Welsh church, and organised 
Central Church Committee for Church Defence and In- 
struction, 1893 ; presided and delivered judgment at trial of 
Dr. Edward King, bishop of Lincoln, for alleged ritual 
offences, 1889-90 : made preaching tour in Ireland, 1896 ; 
published sermons and other works, including ' Cyprian : 
his Life, his Times, his Work' (posthumously, 1897), and 
'The Apocalypse' (posthumously, 1900). [Suppl. i. 171] 

BENSON, GEORGE (1699-1762), divine ; educated at 
Glasgow ; pastor of congregation of protestant dissenters 
at Abingdon, 1723 ; embraced Arminian doctrines; joint 
pastor of presbyterian congregation at Birmingham, c. 
1742 ; D.D. Aberdeen, 1744 ; pastor of congregation of 
protestant dissenters in Poor Jewry Lane, Orutchedfriars, 
1749-62 ; published theological works, including para- 
phrases of St. Paul's Epistles and the Seven Catholic 
Epistles, and, in 1738, a ' History of the First Planting of 
the Christian Religion.' [iv. 255] 

BENSON, Sm JOHN (1812-1874), architect and en- 
gineer; county surveyor to East Riding of Cork, 1846 
engineer to Cork harbour commissioners, 1850 ; architect 
of Great Industrial Exhibition, Dublin, 1853 ; knighted, 
1853. [iv. 257] 

BENSON, JOSEPH (1749-1821), Scottish divine ; edu- 
cated under presbyterian minister, but subsequently 
joined methodists ; opened school in Cumberland, c. 1765 ; 
went to London, 1766; appointed by Wesley classical 
master of Kiugswood school ; entered St. Edmund Hall, 
Oxford, 1769 ; presented to parish of Rowley, near West 
Bromwich; became famous as a preacher; published 
controversial and other religious works. [iv. 257] 

BENSON, MARTIN (1689-1752), bishop ; educated at 
Charterhouse and Christ Church, Oxford ; prebendary of 
Durham, 1724 ; chaplain to Prince of Wales, 1726; rector 
of Bletchley, 1727; D.D. Cambridge, 1728; bishop of 
Gloucester, 1735. [iv. 258] 

', ROBERT, BAROX BINGLKY (1676-1731), 
politician ; M.P. for Thetford, 1702-5, and York, 1705-13 ; 
treasury lord, 1710; chancellor, under-treasurer of ex- 
chequer, and privy councillor, 1711 ; raised to peerage, 
1713 ; ambassador-extraordinary to Spain, 1713 ; trea- 
surer of household, 1730. [iv. 259] 

BENSON, ROBERT (1797-1844), lawyer ; M.A. Trinity 
College, Cambridge, 1821 ; called to bar at Middle Temple, 
1821 ; practised in equity courts ; recorder of Salisbury, 
1836. His works include, 'Memoirs of Rev. Arthur 
Collier '(1837). [iv. 259] 

BENSON or BOSTON, WILLIAM (rf. 1549), divine ; 
member of Benedictine house at Boston, Lincolnshire; 
B.D. Cambridge, 1521 ; D.D., 1528 ; abbot of Benedictine 
monastery of St. Mary and St. Modwen, Burton-on-Trent, 
1631 ; abbot of monastery of Westminster, 1633 ; surren- 
dered monastery to the king, and was dean of Westminster, 
1540. [iv. 259] 

BENSON, WILLIAM (1682-1754), critic and poli- 
tician; sheriff of Wiltshire, 1710; published 'Letter to 
Sir Jacob Bankes . . . concerning the late Minehead 
Doctrine,' 1711; M.P. for Shaftesbury, 1715; surveyor- 
general of works in place of Sir Christopher Wren ; auditor 
of the imprest ; a generous patron of literature ; erected 
monument to Milton in Westminster Abbey, [iv. 261] 

BENSTEDE, SIR JOHN DK (d. 1323 ?), judge ; keeper 
of great seal, 1297, 1298, and 1304-5 ; chancellor of ex- 
chequer, 1305-7 ; keeper of wardrobe, 1308 ; one of com- 
mission of trailbaston on northern circuit, 1306 ; justice 
of common bench, 1307, and of common pleas, 1309. 

[Iv. 261] 

BENT, JAMES THEODORE (1862-1897), explorer 
and archaeologist ; educated at Repton school and Wadham 
College, Oxford ; B.A., 1875 ; entered Lincoln's Inn, 1874 : 
travelled abroad ; studied local traditions and customs in 
Karpathos, Samoa, and Tliasos, 1886-7, and engaged in 





archaeological research on coast of Asia Minor, 1888-9, 
Bahrein Islands, 1889,Cilicia Tracheia, 1890, Mashonaland, 
1891, Abyssinia, 1893, and the Arabian peninsula, 1893-7 ; 
published works relating to his travels. [Suppl. i. 179] 

BENTHAM, EDWARD (1707-1776), divine; entered 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1724; vice-principal, 
Magdalen Hal! 1730 ; fellow of Oriel, 1731 ; M.A., 1732 ; 
prebendary of Hereford, 1743 ; D.D., 1749 ; canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford, 1764 ; regius professor of divinity, 1763 ; 
published philosophical, religious, and other works. 

[iv. 262] 

BENTHAM GEORGE (1800-1884), botanist: son of 
Sir Samuel Bentham [q. v.], and nephew of Jeremy Bent- 
ham [q. v.] ; lived in France, 1814-27 ; studied at Mont- 
auban ; published translations in French from works of 
Jeremy Bentham (Paris, 1823), and 'Catalogue des Plantes 
indigenes des Pyrenees,' &c. (1826) ; studied at Lincoln's 
Inn, 1826 ; published, 1827, ' Outlines of a new System of 
Logic,' in which the doctrine of qualification of predicate 
was first clearly set forth ; F.L.S.,1828 ; honorary secretary 
of Horticultural Society, 1829-40 ; published memoirs of 
genera and natural orders of Indian plants, 1832-6 ; pub- 
lished ' Handbook of British Flora,' 1858 ; worked on de- 
scriptive botany at Kew after 1861, and produced works 
on flora of Hongkong and Australia, 'Genera Plantarum' 
(7 vols., 1863-78), and ' Outlines of Botany ' ; vice-president, 
Linnean Society, 1858; president, 1861-74; member of 
Royal Society, 1862 ; received royal medal, 1859 ; C.M.G., 
1878. [iv. 263] 

BENTHAM, JAMES (1708-1794), divine; M.A. 
Trinity College, Cambridge, 1738; vicar of Stapleford, 
Cambridgeshire, 1733-7 ; minor canon of Ely, 1737 ; rector 
of Feltwell St. Nicholas, Norfolk, 1768-74, and of North- 
wold, 1774-9; prebendary of Ely, 1779; published ' His- 
tory of Ely Cathedral,' 1771, and two works embodying 
suggestions for improvement of the fen country. 

BENTHAM, JEREMY (1748-1832), writer on juris- 
prudence ; educated at Westminster and Queen's College, 
Oxford ; M.A., 1766 ; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, of 
which society he became a member in 1817 ; made very 
little effort to succeed as a barrister, but turned his 
mind to physical science and speculations on politics and 
jurisprudence ; produced, between 1776 and 1780, work 
printed in 1780 as ' Introduction to Principles of Morals 
and Legislation'; published anonymously, 1776, 'Frag- 
ment on Government,' a masterly criticism on Black- 
stone's 'Commentaries,' which obtained for him the 
friendship of Lord Shelburne ; wrote, in Russia, ' Defence 
of Usury,' and a series of letters on a ' Panopticon,' or 
house for inspection of industries, by which he hoped to 
improve the condition of prison discipline, the scheme 
meeting with considerable favour, though a partial 
failure ; published ' Protest against Law Taxes ' and 
* Supply without Burden, or Escheat vice Taxation,' 1795 ; 
directed his attention to defects of poor laws, 1797-8; 
completed criticism on working of English libel law, 
1809; wrote, at Ford Abbey, ' Chrestomathia,' 'The 
Church of England and its Catechism,' and 'Not Paul, 
but Christ ' ; published ' A Catechism of Parliamentary Re- 
form,' 1817 ; aided in establishing ' Westminster Review,' 
1823 ; published 'Petition for Justice,' 1829, letters advo- 
cating sale of public offices, 1830, and 'Pannomial Frag- 
ments,' 1831. In his numerous works Bentham sought to 
compass the whole field of ethics, jurisprudence, logic, 
and political economy. To the last science his contribu- 
tions are of small account, and to the literature of logic 
he made no very valuable additions ; his nephew, George 
Bentham's ' Outlines of a New System of Logic ' contains 
his ideas on the subject. His influence on jurisprudence 
and ethics can scarcely be over-estimated. His ' Intro- 
duction to Principles of Morals and Legislation ' ex- 
pounded many schemes which since his time have been 
applied to the amendment of the administration of jus- 
tice. In the history of ethics he stands out as one of the 
ablest champions of utilitarianism. [iv. 268] 

BENTHAM, JOSEPH (1594 ?-1671), divine ; rector of 
Bronghton and, later, of Neather Wickenden, Bucking- 
hamshire ; sequestered by order of parliament, 1 643 ; re- 
stored to parish of Broughton, 1660 ; published sermons 
and religious treatises. [iv. 280] 

BENTHAM, SIB SAMUEL (1757-1831), naval archi- 
tect and engineer ; brother of Jeremy Bentham [q. v.] ; 

educated at Westminster; apprenticed as shipwright: 
travelled in Russia and Siberia, studying methods of 
working metals, 1780-2; received rank of lieutenant- 
colonel from Prince Potemkin, who made him superinten- 
dent of his shipbuilding yard at Kritchev ; directed 
equipment of flotilla at Cherson for service against 
Turks, 1787 ; commanded flotilla in the Liman, 1788, and 
received military cross of 8t George, rank of brigadier- 
general, and sword of honour; returned to England, 
1791 ; assisted Jeremy Bentham in fitting up his Panop- 
ticon ; inspector-general of navy works, 1795-1807 ; .in- 
troduced numerous improvements iu machinery of dock- 
yard and build of ships ; commissioner of the navy, 1807-12 ; 
published papers on professional subjects. [iv. 281] 

BENTHAM, THOMAS (1513-1578), bishop; per- 
petual fellow, Magdalen College, Oxford, 1546; M.A., 
1547 ; ejected from fellowship, 1553 ; bishop of Lichfield 
and Coventry, 1659 ; D.D., 1565 ; translated Ezekiel and 
Daniel (1568) in the Bishops' Bible. [iv. 284] 

BENTINCK, LORD GEORGE, whose full Christian 
(1802-1848), statesman; fifth child and second surviving 
son of fourth Duke of Portland ; cornet, 10th hussars, 
1819 ; private secretary to Canning (who married Ben- 
tinck's mother's sister) when Canning was foreign secre- 
tary and leader of House of Commons : major, 2nd life 
guards, 1825 ; M.P. for King's Lynn, 1826-48 ; devoted 
himself to horse-racing ; rode his first public match at 
Goodwood, 1824; introduced many improvements in 
management of racecourse ; strongly opposed Sir Robert 
Peel's measures for suspension of restrictions on imported 
corn to meet failure of potato crop in Ireland and insuffi- 
cient supply of corn in England ; accepted leadership of 
protectionists, 1846 ; sold his racing stud, 1846 ; proposed 
a scheme, which was rejected, for employment of dis- 
tressed Irish on construction of railways in Ireland, 1847 ; 
resigned leadership, December 1847 ; chairman of com- 
mittee to inquire into interests of sugar and coffee 
planters, 1848 ; advocated unsuccessfully maintenance of 
protective duty on foreign sugar. [iv. 297] 

1878), general ; ensign, Coldstream guards, 1813 ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel, 1851; served in Crimea; colonel, 1854; 
K.O.B., 1856 ; general, 1867. [iv. 284] 

BENTINCK, JOHN ALBERT (1737-1775), captain ; 
grandson of William Bentinck, first earl of Portland 
[q. v.] ; midshipman, 1753 ; commander, under Lord 
Anson at St. Malo, 1758 ; captain, 1768 ; employed in 
cruising, 1760-2 ; held various commands at Portsmouth, 
1766-73 ; count of the empire. [iv. 285] 

(1649-1709), son of Henry Bentinck of Diepenheim ; page 
of honour'in William of Orange's household ; gentleman 
of prince's bedchamber ; accompanied William to Eng- 
land, 1670 ; D.C.L. Oxford, 1670 ; sent by William on 
mission to Charles II to negotiate the marriage with 
Princess Mary, which took place in 1677 : took large share 
in preparations for William's invasion of England, 1688 ; 
created Baron Cirencester, Viscount Woodstock, and Earl 
of Portland, and appointed groom of the stole, first gentle- 
man of the bedchamber and privy councillor, on corona- 
tion of William and Mary ; obtained command of regi- 
ment of Dutch guards, and subsequently held rank of 
lieutenant-general in English army; became the most 
trusted agent of William's foreign policy ; accompanied 
king on his Irish campaign, 1690, at Landen, 1693, and 
in Dutch campaign, 1694 ; K. G., 1697 ; conducted negotia- 
tions for peace of Ryswyk, 1697 ; went on an embassy to 
France to treat concerning Spanish succession, 1698; 
signed first partition treaty, 1698; resigned places in royal 
household from jealousy of Albemarle, 1699 ; took active 
part in direction of Scottish affairs, and incurred much 
odium by collapse of Darien scheme ; 
tion treaty, 1700; his impeachment in House of 
after debates on partition treaties dismissed, 1701. 

[iv. 285] 

1839), governor-general of India ; second son of William 
Henry, third duke of Portland [q.v.]: captain, 1792; 
lieutenant-colonel, 24th light dragoons, 1794 ; on Duke of 
York's staff in Netherlands, 1794; attached to head- 
quarters staff of Marshal Snwarrof 8 army in Italy and 
served in campaigns of 1799 ; with Austrian forces, 1801 ; 



governor of M;nlni<. isn3; major-general ; refiillcd after 
mutiny at Vcloro, for which he was held mainly respon- 
sible, 1807 ; commanded brigade at Corufia ; lieutenant- 
general; commander-in-chief of British fonvs in Si.-ily. 
1811; served in Spain, 1813 ; commanded successful ex- 
pedition against Genoa, 1814 ; governor-general of Bengal, 
1887 ; effected important financial reforms, and greatly 
improved condition of revenue, reorganised judicial de- 
partment, and extended system of employment of natives 
in official positions ; first governor-general of India, 1833 ; 
met Macaulay, with whom he contracted a warm friend- 
ship ; returned to England, 1835 ; liberal M.P. for Glasgow, 
1837. [iv. 2tt"2] 

third DUKK OF PORTLAND (1738-1809), statesman: edu- 
cated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford; M.P. for 
Weobly, Herefordshire, 1760; succeeded to dukedom, 
1762 ; lord chamberlain of household and privy councillor, 
1765; married Lady Dorothy Cavendish, daughter of 
William, fourth duke of Devonshire, 1766 ; lord lieutenant 
of Ireland, 1782; prime minister, 1783; chancellor of 
Oxford University, 1792; allied with Pitt at time of 
French revolution ; home secretary, 1794-1801 ; K.G. and 
lord lieutenant of Nottingliamshire, 1794 ; greatly as- 
sisted passing of Act of Union with Ireland, 1798 ; lord 
president of the council in Addington's and Pitt's cabi- 
nets ; retired on death of Pitt, but returned to public life 
when Pitt's friends came again into power, 1807 ; prime 
minister, 1807 ; resigned, 1809. [iv. 302] 

DISH, fifth DUKK OK PORTLAND (1800-1 879), succeeded to 
his brother's title of Martinis of Titchfield, 1824 ; M.P. for 
King's Lynn, 1824-6; succeeded to dukedom, 1854; de- 
puty lieutenant of Nottinghamshire, 1859-79 ; lived life 
of a recluse. [iv. 304] 

BENTLEY, CHARLES (1806-1854), painter : member 
of old Water-Colour Society, 1844 ; painted chiefly coast 
and river scenes. [iv. 305] 

BENTLEY, GEORGE (1828-1895), publisher and 
author : son of Richard Bentley (1794-1871) [q. v.] ; edu- 
cated at King's College, London ; entered his father's 
office, c. 1845 ; edited ' Temple Bar Magazine,' 1866-95 ; 
succeeded his father as publisher in ordinary to the 
queen: member of Stationers' Company and F.R.G.S. 
Among the more notable novelists whom he introduced 
to the public are Wilkie Collins, Mrs. Henry Wood, Miss 
Rhoda Broughton, Miss 'Marie Corelli,' Mr. 'Maarten 
Maartens,' and Mrs. Riddeil. [Suppl. i. 180] 

BENTLEY, SIR JOHN (d. 1772), vice-admiral ; en- 
tered navy, c. 1720 ; lieutenant, 1734; commander after 
battle of Toulon, 1744 ; served at Finisterrc and in Bay of 
Biscay, 1747, and at blockade of Brest, 1759 ; knighted, 
1759 ; commissioner of navy, 1761 ; promoted to flag, 
1763 : vice-admiral, 1770. [iv. 305] 

BENTLEY, JOSEPH CLAYTON (1809-1851), land- 
scape painter and line-engraver ; exhibited paintings at 
London and provincial exhibitions from 1833. Some of 
his best engravings are in Vernou Gallery. [iv. 306] 

BENTLEY, NATHANIEL (1735 ?-1809), beau ; called 
DIRTY DICK ; known for many years as the ' Beau of Lead- 
euhall Street' (where he kept a warehouse): frequently 
presented himself at court, but in later life developed 
habits of squalor, the filth of his premises becoming 
proverbial. [iv. 306] 

BENTLEY, RICHARD (1662-1742), scholar and critic ; 
B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1680; master of 
Spalding school, Lincolnshire, 1682; appointed chaplain 
to Stillingfleet, bishop of Worcester, 1690 ; brought into 
great repute as u minute and accurate scholar by his 
critical letter to Mill in Mill's edition of the 'Chronicle of 
Malt-las,' 1691 ; delivered the first course of Boyle lectures, 
taking as his subject 'A Confutation of Atheism,' 1692 ; ! 
prebendary of Worcester, 1692 ; keeper of royal libraries 
and F.R.S., 1694; chaplain in ordinary to 'king, 1695; 
contributed to second edition of William Wottou's ' Re- 
flections on Ancient and Modem Learning ' (1697), an 
essay in which he proved the ' Letters of Phalaris ' to be 
forgeries, and reviewed an edition of them edited, in 1696, 
by tin- Hon. Charles Boyle, who had printed in his preface 
an insolent reference to Bentley ; answered by Boyle and 
his f rieuds in ' Dr. Beiitley's Dissertations on the Epistles 

of 1'lmlaris,' &c., 1698: retaliated in 1699, with his 
'Dissertation on the Letters of Phalnris,' which effect- 
ually crushed his aggressors and takes rank as a perma- 
nent masterpiece of literature ; master of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, 1700-42 ; having committed a number of petty 
cncroiiclinu-nts on the privileges of the fellows, lie was, 
1714, brought to trial before the bishop of Ely (Moore), 
who died before delivering sentence, leaving judgment 
against Bentley among his papers ; ruled with practically 
despotic power,and in 1733was again brought before bishop 
of Ely (Dr. Greene) and deprived of his mastership, but 
retained it because the successive vice-masters, who alone 
could execute the sentence, refused to act against him. 
His works include valuable editions of many classical 
authors, including a daring Horace, 1711, and a somewhat 
unsympathetic edition of ' Paradise Lost,' 1732. Among his 
numerous contributions to classical scholarship may be 
mentioned his discovery and restoration of the ' digamma ' 
to certain words in the Homeric poems. [iv. 306] 

BENTLEY, RICHARD (1708-1782), miscellaneous 
writer; youngest sou of Richard Bentley (1662-1742) 
[q. v.] ; entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 1718 ; fellow, 
1723 ; lived many years in south of France and in Jersey ; 
constant correspondent of Horace Walpole until 1 701, when 
there was a rupture between them ; executed drawings 
for editions of Gray's poems printed by Walpole, 1763 ; 
wrote, after 1761, some unsuccessful plays. [iv. 314] 

BENTLEY, RICHARD (1794-1871), publisher ; edu- 
cated, at St. Paul's School ; joined his brother Samuel 
[q. v.] in printing business, 1819 ; in partnership (1829) 
with Henry Oolburn ; started ' Bentley's Miscellany,' with 
Dickens as editor, 1837; published 'Young England' 
newspaper, 1845, and ' Bentley's Quarterly Review,' 1859 ; 
one of his successful ventures was the issue of 127 volumes 
of 'Standard Novels.' [iv. 316] 

BENTLEY, ROBERT (1821-1893), botanist; studied 
medicine at King's College, London; M.R.O.S., 1847; 
F.L.S., 1849 ; lectured on botany, London Hospital ; pro- 
fessor of botany at London Institution and King's College, 
and of botany and materia medica to Pharmaceutical 
Society ; edited ' Pharmaceutical Journal ' ; published 
botanical writings. [Suppl. i. LSI] 

BENTLEY, SAMUEL (1785-1868), printer and anti- 
quary ; brother of Richard Bentley (\794-1871) [q. v.] ; 
educated at St. Paul's School ; in partnership with John 
Nichols, his brother Richard [q. v.], 1819, and, later, with 
his nephew, John Bentley, Wilson, and Fley. He pre- 
pared and published several antiquarian works, including 
' Excerpta Historica ' (1831). [iv. 317] 

BENTLEY, THOMAS (1693 ?-1742). classical scholar; 
grandson of Thomas Bentley, half-brother of Dr. Richard 
Bentley (1602-1742) [q. v.] ; educated at St. Paul's School 
and Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A., 1715; fellow; 
librarian of Trinity ; LL.D., 1724 ; published annotated 
editions of classical authors, including Horace (1713), and 
Callimachus (1741). [iv. 318] 

BENTLEY, THOMAS (1731-1780), manufacturer of 
porcelain ; apprenticed to woollen and cotton trades in 
Manchester ; removed to Liverpool, 1754, where he was a 
prominent member of the body of dissenters called Octa- 
gonians ; entered into partnership with Josiah Wedgwood 
for manufacture and sale of ornamental pottery, 1768; 
came to London, 1769. [iv. 317] 

BENWELL, JOHN HODGES (1764-1785), genre 
painter : studied at Royal Academy ; executed drawings 
in water-colours combined with crayons. [iv. 319] 

BENWELL, MARY (/. 1761-1800), portrait painter; 
exhibited crayon portraits and miniatures at Incorporated 
Society of Artists and Royal Academy, 1761-91. [iv. 319] 

BENWELL, WILLIAM (1765-1796), claasical scholar ; 
M.A. Trinity College, Oxford, 1789 ; rector of Ohilton, 
Suffolk. He edited Xeuophou's ' Memorabilia,' 1804. 

BENYNG or DK BININ WILLIAM (/. 1250), bio- 
grapher; prior of Cistercian abbey of Newbattle until 
1243 ; abbot of Oupar, 1243-68 ; wrote life of John Scot, 
bishop of Dunkeld. [iv. 320] 

BEORHTRIC or BRIHTRIC, king of the West-Saxons 
(d. 802), succeeded Oynewulf, 785; married Eadburh, 
daughter of Offa, king of the Mercians, 787 ; died from 



the effects 01 poisou prepared by Eudlmrh for her bus- 
baud's favourite. During bis reign the Northmen first 
landed (787) in England. [iv. 320] 

BEORHTWULF or BERTTTLF, king of the Mcn-iuns 
(d. 852), succeeded Wiglaf, 839; defeated by invading 
Danes, H51. [iv.320] 

BEORN, Karl of the Middle Angles (d. 1049), son 
of rif and Kstrith, Gnat's sister : received earldom, e. 1045 ; 
murdered by onier of Godwine's eldest son, Sweyn, who 
had been banished. In (;, and whose lands had been divided 
netwtvn I'.eorn and Harold. [iv. 320] 

BEORNWULF, king of the Mercians (d. 826), 
til-nosed CYolwult and succeeded to kingdom, 823 ; settled, 
at councils held at Clevesho, 824 and 825, the long dispute 
!,,twtfii see of Canterbury and Mercian crown : defeated 
it Hllandune by Ecgberht, king of Wessex, 825 ; killed in 
light against Kast Anglians. [iv. 321] 

BERANGER, GABRIEL (d. 1817), artist; born in | 
Rotterdam ; opened print shop and artist's warehouse, 
Dublin, 1750; antiquarian draughtsman in Dublin ex- 
chequer office ; executed drawings of antiquities in many 
parts of Ireland. [iv. 322] 

BERCHET, PETER (1659-1720), painter; boni in 
France ; worked on decorations of William Ill's palace at 
Loo ; executed paintings in several important buildings 
in En-land. [iv. 322] 

BERCHTHTTN, SAINT (d. 733), abbot; first abbot of 
Beverley, 700. [iv. 322] 

BERDMORE, SAMUEL (1740-1802), master of Char- 
terhouse ; B.A. Jesus College, Cambridge, 1759 ; fellow : 
M.A., 1762 ; master of Charterhouse School, 1769-1791 ; 
D.D., 1773 ; published works of criticism on poetry. 

[iv. 323] 

BERE, RICHARD (</. 1524), scholar; abbot of Glas- 
tonbury, 1493 ; accompanied an embassy to Rome, 1503 ; 
engaged with archbishop Warbam in dispute concerning 
genuineness of relics of St. Dunstau at Glastonbury, which 
was still unsettled when he died. [iv. 323] 


BEREFORD, RALPH DE (fl. 1329), judge ; served on 
commissions of oyer and terminer in various counties, 
1314-24 ; justice itinerant, c. 1330. [iv. 324] 

BEREFORD, RICHARD DE (fl. 1283-1317), judge; 
treasurer of Irish exchequer, 1300 ; justice of assize for 
six English counties, 1310 ; chancellor of Ireland, 1314. 

[iv. 324] 

BEREFORD, WILLIAM DE (d. 1326), judge; pro- 
bably justice itinerant, c. 1292 ; appointed justice of 
common bench, 1294 and 1307 ; one of twenty-one Eng- 
lish members of parliament appointed to confer on 
Scottish affairs with Scottish representatives, 1305; chief- 
justice of common bench, 1309. [iv. 324] 

BERENGABJA (d. after 1230), queen of Richard I : 
daughter of Sancho VI of Navarre ; married and 
crowned at Limasol, Cyprus, 1191; proceeded to Acre 
and remained there till 1192, when she travelled to Sicily, 
Rome, Pisa, Genoa, Marseilles, and Poitou ; was perhaps 
with Richard at Chaluz when he received his death wound ; 
founded, 1230, Cistercian monastery at Espan, in Maine, 
where she was buried. [iv. 325] 

BERENGER, RICHARD (d. 1782), for many years 
gentleman of horse to George III ; famous for his charm- 
ing manner in social life ; published works on horseman- 
ship and some poems and essays. [iv. 326] 

BERESFORD, JAMES (1764-1840), miscellaneous 
writer; M.A. Mertou College, Oxford, 1798; fellow; 
rector of Kibworth Beauchamp, Leicestershire; author 
of ' Miseries of Human Life,' 1867. [iv. 327] 

BERESFORD, JOHN (1738-1805), Irish statesman ; 
second son of Marcus, earl of Tyrone; B.A. Trinity 
College, Dublin, 1757; called to bar, 1760, but never 
practised; M.P. for Waterford, 1760-1805; privy conn 
cillor, 1768 ; first commissioner of revenue, 1780 ; intro- 
duced reforms in methods of revenue collection and 
greatly improved architecture and street communication 
of Dublin : principal adviser of Pitt in his Irish policy 

Erivy councillor of England, 1786; dismissed from office 
y Lord Fitzwilliam, 1795, but reinstated on Fitzwilliam's 
recall ; helped to bring about the union, 1801 : retired 
from office, 1802. [iv. 327] 

(1773-1862), primate of Ireland; educated at Eton and 
Christ Church, Oxford ; M.A., 1796 ; D.D., 1805 ; priest, 
1797 ; dean of St. Macartin's, Clogher, 1799 ; bishop of Cork 
and Ross, 1805, of Raphoe, 1807, and of Clogher, 1819 ; 
archbishop of Dublin and privy councillor in Ireland, 1820 ; 
archbishop of Armagh and primate of Ireland, 1822 ; vice- 
chancellor of Dublin University, 1829, and chancellor, 1851 ; 
published speeches and sermons. [iv. 328] 

BERESFORD, SIR JOHN POO (1766-1844), ad- 
miral ; natural son of Lord de la Poer (afterwards 
Marquis of Waterford) ; entered navy, 1782 ; captain, 
1795 ; successfully engaged French in Hampton roads. 
1795; commanded in North Sea, 1803, and on North 
American station, 1806 : commanded blockade of Lorient, 
1808-9; senior officer off Brest, 1810, in North Sea, 1811, 
and on American coast. 1812-14; commanded Royal 
Sovereign yacht, 1814 ; baronet and rear-admiral, 1814 ; 
K.C.B., 1819 ; commanded at Leith, 1820-3, and at Nore, 
1830-3; vice-admiral, 1821; admiral, 1H3K; represented 
various constituencies in parliament between 1812 and 
1835. [iv. 329] 

archbishop of Armagh : M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 
1828 ; D.D., 1840 ; rector of Kildallon, co. Cavan, 1824 ; 
vicar of Drung and Larali, c. 1827 : archdeacon of 
Ardagh, 1839 ; bishop of Kilniore and Ardagh, 1854 ; 
bishop of Clogher and archbishop of Armagh, 1862; 
Irish privy councillor ; honorary D.C.L. Oxford, 1864. 

[Suppl. i. 182] 

KOKU (1788-1854), general; illegitimate son of George 
de la Poer Beresford, marquis of Waterford ; entered 
military school, Strasburg, 1785 ; ensign, 1785 ; served 
in Nova Scotia, 1786 ; captain, 1791 ; at Toulon, 1791-3 ; 
in Corsica, at captures of Martello, Bastia, Calvi, and San 
Fiorenzo, 1794 ; brevet-major ; lieutenant-colonel, 1794 ; 
commanded Connaught rangers in reconquest of West 
Indies, 1795, in Jersey, 1797-9, India, 1800, and Egypt, 
1801-3 ; brevet-colonel, 1803 ; commanded first brigade 
at capture of the Cape, 1805 ; in conjunction with Sir 
Home Popham captured Buenos Ayres, but being com- 
pelled subsequently to capitulate, was there imprisoned 
for six months ; returned to England, 1807 ; occupied 
Madeira as governor and commander-in-chief, in name of 
king of Portugal, 1807-8 ; major-general and commandant 
of Lisbon, 1808 ; fought at Ooruna, 1809 ; marshal in 
Portuguese army ; local lieutenant-general in Portugal, 
1809 ; reorganised Portuguese army ; K.B. and Conde de 
Trancoso in Portuguese peerage, 1810 ; with valuable 
assistance from Colonel Hardinge, quartermaster-general 
of Portuguese army, won battle of Albuera, 1811 ; 
wounded at Badajoz ; present at Vittoria and battles of 
Pyrenees, 1813 ; commanded centre of army at battles of 
Nivelle, the Nive, and Orthez, 1814 ; created Lord Beres- 
ford of Albuera and Cappoquin, co. Carlow, after battle 
of Toulouse ; resumed command of Portuguese army at 
Lisbon; lieutenant-general, 1812; governor of Jersey, 
1814 ; returned to England, 1822 ; lieutenant-general of 
ordnance and colonel of 16th regiment, 1822 ; Viscount 
Beresford, 1823 ; general, 1825 ; master-general of ord- 
nance, 1828-30 ; published pamphlets defending his con- 
duct at Albuera against attacks by Colonel Napier. 

[iv. 330] 

BEREWYK, JOHN DE (d. 1312), judge ; entrusted 
with charge of vacant abbey of St. Edmund, 1279, and of 
see of Lincoln 1279-81 ; treasurer of Queen Eleanor, 1284 ; 
justice itinerant, 1292. [iv. 385] 

historical student ; born at Oletzko, East Prussia ; edu- 
cated at Kbnigsberg University; manifested advanced 
democratic opinions in outbreak of 1848 : emigrated to 
California, 1850 ; came to London with view of studying 
Tudor period of history, 1857 ; after research in Spanish 
archives at Simancas, published (1862-8) calendar of 
Simancas documents relating to English affairs between 
1485 and 1525 ; died at Madrid. [iv. 335] 

BERGNE, JOHN BRODRIBB (1800-1873), numis- 
matist and antiquary: entered foreign office, 1817, and 
was superintendent of treaty department, 1854-73 ; mem- 
bar of commission to revise slave trade instructions, 
1865 ; a founder and treasurer (1843-57) of the Numis- 
matic Society; F.S.A.; contributed to 'Numismatic 
Chronicle.' ' [iv. 336] 



BERINGTON, CHARLES (1748-1798), catholic di- 
vim-; educated at Douay and in Knirlish seminary, Paris; 
D.D., 1776 : member of catholic committee, 1788 ; vicar- 
apostolic of midland district, 1795; renounced, under 
compulsion of the holy see, the committee's doctrines, 
1797. [iv. 337] 

BERINOTON, JOSEPH (1746-1827), catholic divine : 
educated at St. Omer ; ordained priest in France ; leader 
of fifteen priests known as ' Staffordshire Clergy ' ; priest 
at Oscott, 178C, and subsequently in London district, from 
which he was twice suspended for opinions expressed in 
certain of his works ; priest at Buckland, Berkshire, 
1814-27; published philosophical, historical, and theo- 
logical works. [iv. 337] 

BERKELEY, FAMILY OF. Roger, first tenant of 
Berkeley, 1086, was succeeded by his nephew William, and 
by William's son. Part of Berkeley, with the castle, passed 
in Henry II's reign to Robert Fitz-Harding, whose family 
intermarried with the Berkeleys, and has held the pro- 
perty for seven hundred years. From one of Fitz-Harding's 
descendants sprang the Berkeley family of Beverston Castle, 
important in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ; while from 
another came the Berkeleys of Stoke Gifford, Gloucester- 
shire, of Bruton and Pylle, Somerset (now represented by 
Edward Berkeley-Portman, Baron, 1837, and Viscount 
Portman, 1873), and of Boycourt, Kent. Berkeley Castle 
ultimately passed to James Berkeley, who was summoned 
to parliament, 1421-61, in right of his possession of the 
castle. From James's youngest son was descended Chief 
Baron Sir Robert Berkeley (d. 1656) [q. v.], of Spetchley. 
James's eldest son, William, died childless, after which 
the castle passed into the family of his nephew Maurice. 
Maurice's descendant, George (d. 1698) [q. v.], was created 
Viscount Dursley and Earl of Berkeley, 1679, after whom 
the earldom descended to Frederick Augustus, fifth earl. 
The fifth earl alleged that he secretly married, in 1785, a 
lady whom he publicly married in 1796. His secret 
marriage not being proved, the title of sixth earl went to 
Thomas Moreton Fitzhardinge Berkeley, the eldest of his 
sous born after the public marriage. [iv. 339] 

1855), member of parliament ; sou of Frederick Augustus, 
fifth earl of Berkeley ; officer in 1st life guards ; M.P. 
for Cheltenham, 1832 ; re-elected, 1835, 1837, 1841, 1848, 
and 1852 ; defeated, 1847, and his election in 1848 declared 
void. [iv. 343] 

r, ELIZA (1734-1800), authoress, nte Frin- 
sham ; married Bishop George Berkeley (1685-1753) [q. v.], 
1761 ; published with prefaces volumes from manuscripts 
of her husband (d. 1795) and eldest son (d. 1793). 

[iv. 344] 

(1794-1870), politician ; fourth son of Frederick Augustus, 
fifth earl of Berkeley ; born before his parents' marriage 
in 1796 ; educated at Christ Church, Oxford ; M.P. for 
Bristol, 1837, and 1841-70 : repeatedly advocated ballot, 
but without success, 1848-70. [iv. 345] 

1G58), succeeded to family honours. 1613; K.B., 1616; 
canon-commoner, Christ Church, Oxford, 1619; M.A., 
1623 ; spent much time in foreign travel. [iv. 346] 

(1628-1698), statesman ; younger son of George Berkeley 
(1601-1658) [q. v.] ; succeeded as Baron Berkeley, 1658 ; 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford ; one of commissioners 
to invite Charles to England from The Hague, 1660 ; on 
council for foreign plantations, 1661 ; original member of 
lt<>\ ul African Company, and F.H.S., 1663 ; created Viscount 
Dursley and Earl of Berkeley, 1679; governor of Levant 
Company, 1680 ; a master of Trinity House, 1681 ; member 
of East India Company ; privy councillor, 1685 ; member 
of provisional government after flight of James II, 1688. 

BERKELEY, GEORGE (16937-1746), politician, 
fourth son of Charles, second earl of Berkeley ; educated 
at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge ; M.A., 
1713; M.P. for Dover, 1718, and for Heydon, Yorkshire, 
1734-46 ; master-keeper and governor of St. Katharine's, 
near the Tower, 1723. [iv. 348] 

BERKELEY, GEORGE (1685-1753), bishop of Oloyne ; 
educated at Kilkenny, and Trinity College, Dublin ; M.A. 

and fellow, 1707 ; studied philosophy and published ' Essay 
towards a New Theory of Vision,' 1709, 'Treatise con- 
cerning Human Knowledge,' 1710, and 'Dialogues be- 
tween Hylas and Philonous,' 1713 ; junior dean, 1710-11 ; 
junior Greek lecturer, 1712 ; came to England, 1713, and 
became associated \vith Steele, Addisou, Pope, Swift, and 
others ; chaplain to Lord Peterborough while ambassador 
to king of Sicily, 1713-14 ; travelled as tutor to son of 
Bishop St. George Ashe [q. v.], 1716-20 ; dean of Derry, 
1724 ; circulated proposals for founding, in the Ber- 
mudas, college for training of missionaries, 1725 ; senior 
fellow, Dublin, 1717 ; divinity lecturer and senior Greek 
lecturer, 1721; D.D., 1721; Hebrew lecturer and senior 
proctor, 1722 ; came to England, 1724, and obtained charter 
for proposed college, 1725 ; went to America, 1728, and 
returned on failure to receive from government money 
for furthering his scheme, 1732 ; published ' Alciphron,' 
1732 ; bishop of Oloyne, 1734 ; published ' Querist,' 1735-7, 
in which he made a number of suggestions upon uses of 
money : retired to Oxford, 1762, and there died. As a 
philosopher he aimed at discrediting materialism. He 
formed a link between Locke and Hume. [iv. 348] 

FITZHARDINGE (1800-1881), writer ; sixth son of 
Frederick Augustus, fifth earl of Berkeley; educated at 
Corpus Christi College and Sandhurst; joined Cold- 
stream guards, 1816, and subsequently entered 82nd foot ; 
M.P. for West Gloucestershire, 1832-52; his romance, 
'Berkeley Castle,' savagely reviewed in 'Fraser's Maga- 
zine,' 1836 ; Berkeley, in consequence, publicly assaulted 
Fraser, the publisher (who brought an action against 
him and obtained damages), and fought a duel with Dr. 
Maginn, the author ; proposed, 1836, and obtained, 1841, 
admission of ladies to gallery of House of Commons; 
devoted himself largely to field-sports after 1852 ; pub- 
lished autobiographical, sporting, and other works. 

[iv. 356] 

BAUON BERKELEY (1753-1818), admiral ; entered navy, 
1766 ; accompanied Caroline Matilda to Denmark ; with 
Captain Cook during survey of coast of Newfoundland and 
Gulf of St. Lawrence ; lieutenant, 1772 ; on Victory at 
Ushant, 1778 ; surveyor-general of ordnance, 1786 ; wounded 
at victory of 1 June 1794 ; rear-admiral, 1799 ; vice- 
admiral, on Halifax station, 1805 ; held chief command 
on Portuguese coast and in Tagus, 1808-12 ; admiral, 
1810 ; M.P. for Gloucester, 1781-1812 ; G C.B., 1814. 

[iv. 358] 

BERKELEY, GEORGE MONCK (1763-1793), miscel- 
laneous writer; son of Eliza Berkeley [q.v.], educated 
at Eton, St. Andrews, Magdalen Hall, Oxford, and Inner 
Temple; LL.B. Dublin, 1789: his works include two 
dramatic pieces, and 'Poems' edited by his mother 
(1797). [iv. 359] 

BERKELEY, GILBERT (1501-1581), bishop: B.D. 

Oxford, c. 1539 ; bishop of Bath and Walls, 1560 ; chan- 

! cellor of Wells, 1560-2 ; D.D., 1563 ; opposed attempt of 

burgesses of Wells to obtain renewal of their ancient 

corporation, 1574. [iv. 359] 

(1680-1736), admiral ; captain of frigate in Channel, 1701 ; 
served in Mediterranean with Sir George Rooke and Sir 
Olowdisley Shovell, 1704-7; raised to flag-rank, 1708; 
with Byug in the Forth, 1708 ; lord-lieutenant of Glou- 
cestershire, 1710-11 and 1714: first lord commissioner of 
admiralty, 1717-27 ; lord high admiral and commander- 
in-chief in channel, 1719 ; K.G., 1718. [iv. 360] 

STRATTON (d. 1678), soldier ; ambassador from Charles I 
to Christina of Sweden to propose alliance to help elector 
palatine, 1637 ; knighted, 1638 ; held commission in army 
raised to coerce Scots ; M.P. for Heytesbury, 1640 ; impri- 
soned in Tower on accusation of conspiring to corrupt 
army in interest of king; received bail: royalist com- 
mander-in-chief in Devonshire; took Exeter, 1643; de- 
feated at Alresford, 1644; lieutenant-colonel of Devon- 
shire and Cornwall, 1645 ; surrendered Exeter to Fairfax, 
i 1646 ; unsuccessfully attempted to mediate between king 
! and parliamentary leaders, 1647 ; accompanied Charles in 
< his flight until the king went to Oarisbrooke ; retired to 
I France ; governor to Duke of York, 1652 ; accompanied 
I Duke of York under Turenne in Flanders, 1652-5, and in 
Netherlands, 1656; raised to peerage, 1668; on admiralty 
staff, 16CO ; lord-president of Conuaught for life, 1661 ; 




privy councillor, 1663 ; one of masters of ordnance, 1663; 
on committee of Tangier, 16G5 ; lord-lieutenant of 1 ivland, 
1670-2 ; one of the ambassadors extraordinary at con- 
gress of Nimeguen, 1676-7 ; published An apology for his 
share in jin-cilinu's connected with Charles I'a Sight 
from Hampton Court. [iv. 361] 

STRATTOX (1663-1697), admiral; second son of John 
Berkeley (d. 1678) [q. v.], lieutenant, 1685 ; rear-admiral 
of fleet under Lord Dartmouth, 1688 ; vice-admiral of red 
squadron under Admiral Herbert, 1689 ; successively vice- 
admiral of blue, and admiral of blue under Killigrew, 
iK-lavall, and Shovell, 1693 ; took part in attack on Brest, 
1694 ; bombarded Dieppe and Havre, 1694 ; combined 
with Dutch in ineffectual bombardment of St. Malo, 1695 ; 
engaged in harassing French coast, 1695-7. [iv. 364] 

admiral, son of fifth Earl of Berkeley ; entered navy, 1802 ; 
flag-lieutenant, 1810 : commanded flagship at Cork, 1828- 
1831 ; in Mediterranean, 1841 ; admiral, 1862 ; with brief 
intervals M.P. for Gloucester, 1831-57, and held seat at 
admiralty, 1833-57 ; raised to peerage, 1861 ; privy coun- 
cillor and K.O.B., 1855 ; G.C.B., 1861. [iv. 365] 

BERKELEY, MILES JOSEPH (1803-1889), botanist; 
educated at Rugby and Christ's College, Cambridge; 
M.A., 1828 ; honorary fellow, 1883 ; curate of St. John's, 
Margate, 1829 ; perpetual curate of Apethorpe and Wood 
Newton, 1833 ; rural dean of Roth well ; vicar of Sibber- 
toft, Northamptonshire, 1868 ; F.L.S., 1836; F.R.S., 1879. 
His works include 'Introduction to Cryptogamic Bo- 
tany,' 1857, 'Outlines of British Fungology,' I860, and 
the volume on fungi in Smith's 'English Flora,' 1836. 

BERKSHIRE, EAUL OP (1579-1623). 



[Suppl. i. 183] 

BERKELEY, ROBERT (</. 1219), justiciar; eldest 
son of Maurice Berkeley (d. 1190) ; succeeded to manor of 
Berkeley, 1 J90 ; justiciar at Derby, 1208 ; sided with barons 
against John, and Berkeley Castle being forfeited, he died 
still dispossessed. [iv. 366] 

BERKELEY, Sm ROBERT ( 1584-1656), judge ; called 
to bar at Middle Temple, 1608 ; high sheriff of Worcester- 
shire, 1613; called to degree of coif, 1627; king's serjeant 
and justice of court of king's bench, 1632 ; supported king 
in imposition of ship-money, 1635-7, and was impeached 
in House of Lords, 1641; fined, and incapacitated from 
holding office, 1642. [iv. 366] 

BERKELEY, ROBERT (1713-1804), author of ' Con- 
siderations on Oath of Supremacy,' and ' Considerations on 
Declaration against Trausubstantiation.' [iv. 367] 

BERKELEY, Sm WILLIAM (1639-1666), vice-admi- 
ral ; lieutenant, 1661 ; commander, 1662 ; rear-admiral of 
red squadron under Duke of York, 1664; in Channel, 
1664-5 ; lieutenant-governor of Portsmouth, 1665 ; killed 
in battle with Dutch off North Foreland. [iv. 368] 

BERKELEY, SIR WILLIAM (d. 1677), governor of 
Virginia : brother of John, first baron Berkeley of 
Stratton [q. v.] ; M.A. Merton College, Oxford, 1629 ; one 
of commissioners of Canada, 1632; gentleman of privy 
chamber to Charles I ; governor of Virginia, 1641 ; de- 
prived of office by parliament, but reappointed at Re- 
storation ; retunial to England, 1677; published 'The 
Lost Lady,' a tragedy, 1638. [iv. 368] 

BERKENHOTJT, JOHN (17307-1791), physician ; 
studied in Germany ; entered Prussian army ; cap- 
tain ; obtained commission in English army, 1756 ; 
studied medicine at Edinburgh and at Leyden, where he 
graduated doctor of physic, 1765 ; accompanied govern- 
ment commissioners to America, 1778-80 ; published 
' Outlines of Natural History of Great Britain,' 1769-71, 
3 vols. ; ' Biographia Literaria,' 1771, and several medical 
and other works. [iv. 369] 

BERKLEY, JAMES JOHN (1819-1862), engineer; 
educated at King's College, London ; pupil of Robert 
Stephenson, 1839; chief resident engineer, Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway, 1849; completed line from Bom- 
bay to Tanna (twenty miles), initiating Indian rail- 
way system, 1853 ; completed line from Bombay to 
Calcutta, Madras, and Nagpore (1,237 miles), 1856 ; held 
several municipal appointments in Bombay ; M.I.O.E., 1856. 

[iv. 370] 

PHEN (d. 1287), bishop of Chichester, 1262 ; one of those 
chosen after the battle of Lewes to nominate council of 
nine to exercise royal power, 1264 ; sapended by cardinal- 
legate, 1266, and summoned to Rome, where he remained 
till 1272. [iv. 371] 


(d. 1328), lord justice of Ireland ; knighted, 1312 ; com- 
mander-in-chief of English forces in Ireland, 1318 : de- 
feated Edward Bruce near Dundalk; created Earl of 
Louth, 1318 ; lord justice of Ireland, 1321 ; slain in quarrel 
between Anglo-Irish families of Oriel. [Iv. 371] 

BERMINGHAM, MICHEL (6. 1685), surgeon ; mem- 
ber of Academy of Surgery, Paris ; published medical 
writings (1720-50). [iv. 372] 

BERMINGHAM, PATRICK (d. 1532), judge ; chief 
justice of king's bench in Ireland, 1613-32 ; chancellor of 
green wax of exchequer, Ireland, 1521. [iv. 372] 

BERMINGHAM, WILLIAM (d. 1311), archbishop 
of Tuam, 1289 ; litigated on visitatorial powers with 
Dominican friars of Athenry, who obtained judgment 
against him from lord chancellor, 1297; attempted un- 
successfully to unite sees of Auuadowu and Tuam. 

[iv. 372] 

BEBNAL, RALPH (d. 1854), politician: M.A. 
Christ's College, Cambridge, 1809 ; barrister, 1810 ; M.P. 
for Lincoln, 1818-20, Rochester, 1820-41, and 1847-52, 
and Weymouth, 1841-7 ; chairman of committees, c. 1830- 
1850 ; president British Archaeological Society, 1853. His 
collection of works of art sold for 71,OOOZ., 1855. [iv. 373] 

BEKNAL OSBORNE, RALPH (1808-1882), poli- 
tician ; eldest son of Ralph Bernal [q. v.] ; educated at 
Charterhouse and Trinity College, Cambridge; ensign, 
71st regiment, 1831 ; liberal M.P. for Chipping Wycombe, 
1841 ; married daughter of Sir Thomas Osborne, whose 
name he assumed, 1844 ; secretary of admiralty, 1852-8 ; 
M.P. for Middlesex, 1847, 1852, Dover, 1857-59, Liskeard, 
1859-65, Nottingham, 1866-8, and Waterford, 1869-74. 


BERNARD (/. 865), traveller in Palestine ; called 
SAPIENS ; erroneously identified with Bernard, a Scottish 
monk, and with another native of Scotland who, accord- 
big to Dempster, preached the crusade in Scotland, 1095- 
1105 ; set out from Rome between 863 and 867, and on 
return from Palestine proceeded to monastery of Mont 
St. Michel, Brittany ; wrote a description of his journey in 
Palestine. A ' History of Jerusalem ' and other works 
have also been attributed to him. [iv. 374] 

BERNARD (/. 1093), warrior ; of Neufmarche or ' of 
Newmarch'; came to England with Conqueror; joined 
Norman lords against Rufus, 1088, and was defeated at 
Worcester ; invaded and settled in Brecheiniog ; founded 
and endowed priory of St. John at Brecknock, [iv. 376] 

BERNARD (d. 1333 ?), bishop : chancellor of Scotland, 
r. 1307; abbot of Arbroath, e. 1311; prolably drew up 
letter from Scottish nation to John XXII, claiming right 
to choose its own king ; bishop of Sodor, 1324 ; wrote 
Latin poem on victory of Bannockburn. [iv. 376] 

[See EYSTON.] 

BERNARD, CHARLES (1660-1711), surgeon: sur- 
geon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 1686: Serjeant- 
surgeon to Queen Anne, 1702 ; master of Barber Surgeons' 
Company, 1703. [Iv. 377] 

BERNARD, DANIEL (d. 1588), brother of John 
Bernard (d. 1567 ?) [q. v.] ; D.D. Christ Church, Oxford, 
1585 ; canon of Christ Church, 1577 ; vice-chancellor of 
Oxford, 1686. [iv. 382] 

BERNARD, EDWARD (1638-1696), critic and as- 
tronomer ; educated at Merchant Taylors' School and St. 
John's College, Oxford ; fellow, 1658 ; M.A., 1662 ; D.D..1684; 
studied oriental mathematical manuscripts at Leyden, 
1668 ; chaplain to Dr. Mews, bishop of Bath and Wells, 



1673 ; Savilian professor. Oxford, 1673-91 ; F.R.S., 1673 ; 
tutor at Paris to Dukes of drift on an.l Northumberland, 
sons of Charles II by Duchess of Cleveland, 1676 ; re- 
turned to Oxford, 1677: obtained living of Brinhtwell, 
Berkshire, 1691 : left works in manuscript which were 
purchased by the Bodleian. His writings include ' De 
mensuris et ponderilms antiquis Hhri tres' (16HN), 'Ety- 
mologicon Britannicum* (UW9), 'ObrDOOiOfifl Samari- 
nopsis' (1691), and some astronomical work*. 

[iv. 378] 

BERNARD, FRANCIS (1687-lr.9H). physician ; M.D. 
Cambridge, 1678: F.O.P., 1687 ; assistant physician to St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, 1678; physi. n in onlinary to 
James II, 1698. His library of medic; I books was re- 
puted to be the largest ever made in England, [iv. 380] 

BERNARD, SIR FRANCIS (1711 ?-1779), governor of 
Massachusetts Bay : educated at Westminster and Christ 
Church, Oxford: M.A., 1736; called to bar at Middle 
Temple ; bencher : practised on midland circuit ; governor 
of province of New Jersey, 1758, and of Massachusetts 
Bay, 1760; his thorough administration of the home 
government's policy, for which he was as a reward 
created baronet in 1769, undoubtedly hastened the war ; 
recalled, 1769 ; D.C.L. Oxford, 1772. He published politi- 
cal writings. [iv. 380] 

BERNARD, HERMAN HEDWIQ (1786-1857), he- 
braist; for many years Hebrew teacher at Cambridge; 
published works relating to Hebrew literature and history. 

[iv. 381] 

BERNARD, JOHN (d. 1567?), author ; B.A. Queen's 
College, Cambridge, 1544 : Trotter's priest, 1544 ; fellow, 
c. 1545 ; M.A., 1647 ; bursar, 1551-2 : wrote protestant 
religious tract in Latin, published (1568), by his brother 
Thomas Bernard [q. v.]. [iv. 381] 

BERNARD, JOHN (1756-1828), actor : light come- 
dian on Norwich circuit, 1774 ; member of Bath company, 
1777; in Ireland, 1780-4; played Archer in 'Beaux' 
Stratagem ' at Co vent Garden, 1787 ; again at Co vent 
Garden, 1793-6 ; played in New York, 1797, Philadelphia, 
1797-1803, Boston, 1803 : joint manager of Federal 
theatre, Boston, 1806-10 ; travelled in United States and 
Canada, 1810-17 ; made last appearance, Boston, 1819 ; 
selections from his 'Reminiscences' appeared after his 
death. [iv. 382] 

BERNARD, JOHN PETER (d. 1750), biographer : 
graduate of Leyden ; taught literature and mathematics 
in London after 1733 ; contributed largely to 'General Dic- 
tionary, Historical and Critical,' 1734-41. [iv. 383] 

BERNARD, MOUNTAGUE (1820-1882), international 
lawyer, B.C.L. Trinity College, Oxford ; Vinerian scholar 
and fellow ; called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1846 ; one 
of founders of 'Guardian,' 1846; first professor of inter- 
national law, Oxford, 1859-74; judge of chancellor's 
court; on commission of naturalisation and allegiance, 
1868 ; fellow of All Souls' College, c. 1870 ; one of high 
commissioners who signed treaty of Washington, 1871 ; 
privy councillor ; member of judicial committee of 
council ; D.C.L. ; member of University of Oxford Com- 
mission, 1877; original member of Institut de Droit 
International (founded, 1873); published works relating 
to international law. [iv. 383] 

BERNARD, NICHOLAS (d. 1661X divine ; educated 
at Cambridge ; chaplain and librarian to archbishop 
Ussher ; dean of Kilmore, 1627 ; incorporated M.A. Ox- 
ford, 1628 ; prebendary of Dromore and dean of Ardagh, 
1637 ; preacher of Gray's Inn, 1651 ; chaplain and al- 
moner to Oliver Cromwell ; published religious, historical, 
and other works, including a life of archbishop Ussher, 
1656. [iv. 884] 

BERNARD, RICHARD (1568-1641), puritan divine; 
M.A. Christ's College, Cambridge, 1598 ; vicar of Worksop, 
1601 presented to Batcombe, 1613. His numerous publi- 
cations include an edition, with translations, of 'Terence' 
(1598), ' Bible Battels, or the Sacred Art Military ' (1629), 
works directed against the separatists, and various reli- 
gious and other treatises, some of which enunciated bene- 
volent schemes which have since been generally adopted. 

[iv. 886] 

BERNARD, THOMAS (d. 1682), divine ; brother of 
John Bernard (d. 1607 ?) [q. v.] ; M.A. King's College, 
Cambridge, 1583 ; B.D. Oxford, 1667 ; canon of Christ 
Church, Oxford, 1646 ; Cranmcr's chaplain, 1647. 


BERNARD, SIR THOMAS (1750-1818), philan- 
thropist ; son of Sir Francis Bernard [q. v.] ; educated at 
Harvard; secretary to his father in America; came to 
England ; called to bar at Middle Templa, 1780 : con- 
veyancer : with bishop of Durham, Wilberforce, and 
others, founded Society for Bettering Condition of Poor, 
1796 ; set on foot plan of Royal Institution, Piccadilly, 
1799; established British Institution for Promotion of 
Fine Arts, 1805 ; chancellor of diocese of Durham ; M.A. 
lAinbeth and LL.D. Edinburgh, 1801. He was con- 
nected with foundation of many societies for relief of 
poor, and was a liberal benefactor of the Foundling 
Hospital. [iv. :iH7] 

BERNARD, WILLIAM BAYLE (1807-1875), drama- 
tist ; born at Boston, America, of English parents ; came 
to England, 1820; clerk in army accounts office, 1826-:tO; 
wrote many dramatic pieces of considerable merit, the 
greater number being still imprinted. [iv. 389] 

BERNARDI, JOHN (1657-1736), major: son of 
Genoese nobleman living in Worcestershire ; ran away, 
and subsequently went to Holland with his uncle, Colonel 
Anseline, and enlisted in States army, afterwards exchang- 
ing into an English independent regiment ; received Eng- 
lish commission under Fenwick, 1674 : captain, 1686 ; 
accompanied James II on Irish expedition from St. Ger- 
mains ; served in Scotland, and was captured after James's 
defeat at the Boyne, 1690 ; died hi Newgate, after nearly 
forty years' imprisonment. [iv. 889] 

BERNAYS, ALBERT JAMES (1823-1892), chemist ; 
educated at King's College school ; Ph.D. Giesseu ; analyst 
and lecturer on chemistry at Derby, 1845; lecturer on 
chemistry at St. Mary's Hospital, London, 1855-60, and at 
St. Thomas's Hospital, 1860-92 ; fellow of Chemical Society 
and of Institute of Chemistry ; published popular works 
on chemistry. [Suppl. i. 183] 

second BARON (1467-1533). [See BOOR- 

(&. 1388 ?), writer ; said to have been daughter of Sir 
James Berners (whose son was created Baron Berners, 
temp. Henry IV) prioress of Sopwell nunnery, Hertford- 
shire ; probably spent youth at court and shared in the 
woodland sports then fashionable; published work on 
field-sports and heraldry, ' The Boke of St. Albans ' (1486). 
The ' Boke ' contained treatises on ' Hawking,' ' Hunting,' 
4 Lynage of Coote Armiris,' and the ' Blasyug of Armys.' 
An edition printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 149, contained 
also a ' Treatyse on Fysshynge with an Angle.' [iv. 390] 

BERNHER, AUGUSTINE (/. 1554), servant of 
Latimer; of Swiss or Belgian origin; minister of con- 
gregation in London during Mary's reign : attended 
Latimer while imprisoned in Tower, 1553, and with other 
bishops at Oxford, 1554 ; a constant friend of the martyrs 
during Marian persecution ; rector of Button in Eliza- 
beth's reign ; wrote religious works. [iv. 392] 

BERNICIA, kings of. [See IDA, d. 569 ; ADDA, d. 
665; ETHKLFHID, d. 617; OSWALD, 606?-642; OSWY, 
612 ?-670.] 

BERNINGHAM, RICHARD DB (ji. 1313), justice 
itinerant ; frequently summoned to parliament, 1313- 
1324 ; included in judicial commissions ; collector of scu- 
tages in Yorkshire, 1314-16 ; knight of Yorkshire, 1323. 

iv. 893] 

BERRIDGE, JOHN (1716-1793), evangelical clergy- 
man; M.A. Clare Hall, Cambridge, 1742; fellow; in- 
ducted to college of Evertou, Bedfordshire, 1755, where he 
remained till death ; became acquainted with Wesley and 
Whitefleld, 1768; began preaching tours in neighbouring 
counties, 1759; at first an Arminian and afterwards a 
Calvinist; published religious works. [iv. 393] 

BERRIMAN, JOHN (1691-1768), divine; M.A. St. 
Edmund Hall, Oxford, 1720 ; rector of St. Olave's and St. 
Milan's ; published religious works and edited his brother 
William's ' Christian Doctrines ' (1751). [iv. 394] 

BERRIMAN, WILLIAM (1688-1750), divine; brother 
of John Berriman [q. v.] ; educated at Merchant Taylors' 
School and Oriel College, Oxford; M.A., 1711; D.D., 
1722 ; domestic chaplain to Dr. Robinson, bishop of Lon- 
don, 1720 ; fellow of Eton College, 1727 ; Boyle lecturer, 
1730-1 ; published theological works. [iv. 3s>4] 


BERROW, CAPEL (1715-1782), divine ; educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School und Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge; M.A., 1758 ; successively lecturer of St. Benedict 
and Paul's Wharf, rector of Rossington, and chaplain to 
Honourable Society of Judges and Serjeants in Serjeants' 
Inn ; published theological works. [iv. 395] 

BERRY, CHARLES (1783-1877), Unitarian minister; 
educated for independent ministry, but subsequently de- 
veloped heretical views ; minister of Great Meeting, Lei- 
cester, 1803-59; opened (1808) a school, which he con- 
ducted for over thirty years ; one of founders of Literary 
and Philosophical Society, and town museum, Leicester. 

[iv. 395] 

BERRY, SIR EDWARD (1768-1831), rear-admiral; 
volunteer in East Indies, 1779-83 ; lieutenant, 1794 ; dis- 
tinguished himself under Nelson at Porto Ferrajo, 1796, 
;i ml at Cape St. Vincent, 1797 ; commander, 1796 ; Nelson's 
flag-captain at battle of Nile, of which he wrote an ac- 
count, 1798 ; captured by French while carrying de- 
spatches ; returned to England, and was knighted, 1798 ; 
served at blockade of Malta, 1800, Trafalgar, 1805, and 
St. Dominpo, 1806 ; baronet, 1806 ; K.C.B., 1815 ; rear- 
admiral, 1821. [iv. 396] 

BERRY, JAMES (/. 1655), major-general ; clerk in 
ironworks, Shropshire, c. 1642 ; took service under Crom- 
well ; captain-lieutenant at battle of Gainsborough, 1643 ; 
president of council of adjutators, 1647 ; employed in 
suppressing attempted rising in Nottinghamshire, 1665 ; 
major-general of Hereford, Shropshire, and Wales, 1655 ; 
member of Cromwell's House of Lords ; member of council 
of state and of committee who nominated to offices, 1659 ; 
imprisoned (1660) by council of state in Scarborough 
Castle. [iv. 397] 

BERRY, SIR JOHN (1635-1690), admiral; entered 
navy, 1663 ; served as boatswain in West Indies ; captain, 
1665 ; commanded squadron against French and Dutch 
at St. Nevis and St. Kitts, 1667 ; knighted for services at 
battle of Solebay, 1672; conducted Duke of York to 
Scotland in the Gloucester, which was wrecked off York- 
shire coast with considerable loss of life, 1682 : vice- 
admiral of squadron sent against Tangier, 1683 ; com- 
missioner of navy, 1683. [iv. 398] 

BERRY, MARY (1763-1852), authoress; travelled in 
Holland, Switzerland, Italy, and France, 1783-5 ; began 
at Florence, 1783, 'Journals and Correspondence,' which 
she completed, 1852 ; made acquaintance of Horace Wal- 
pole, 1788, who addressed many letters to her and 
her sister Agnes in most affectionate terms, and wrote 
for their amusement his 'Reminiscences of Courts of 
George I and II'; removed, 1791, to Little Strawberry 
Hill, a house of Walpole's, which, on his death, he left to 
the sisters. To Mary and Agnes, and their father, Robert 
Berry, Walpole entrusted his literary remains, and in 1798 
the 'Works of Horace Walpole' appeared, nominally 
edited by Robert Berry, but in reality by Mary. She 
published Mme. du Demand's letters from the originals at 
Strawberry Hill, 1810. Her works include ' Life of Rachel 
Wriothesley' (1819), 'Social Life of England and France 
from 1660 to 1830 ' (1828-31). [iv. 399] 

BERRY, WILLIAM (1774-1851), genealogist; clerk 
in College of Arms, 1793-1809; published: 'History of 
Guernsey,' 1815; genealogical peerage of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, begun in 1832 and never completed ; 
' Encycloptedia Heraldica,' 1828-40, and several county 
genealogies. [iv. 401] 

1257), justice itinerant ; sub-sheriff of Kent, 1257 : sheriff, 
1257-8; constable of Dover Castle; justice itinerant in 
Leicestershire, 1262, and in Norfolk, Suffolk, and Lincoln- 
shire, 1263. [iv. 401] 

616), daughter of Haribert, king of Franks; married 
.Etbelberht, king of Kent ; came to England with Liud- 
hard, bishop of Senlis, and introduced Christianity at St. 
M:irtin's Church, Canterbury, where Augustine audi his 
companions afterwards preached. [iv. 402] 

BERTHEATJ, CHARLES (1660-1732), pastor of 
church of Chareuton, Paris, and, after edict of Nantes 
(1685), of French church, Threadueedle Street, London. 

[iv. 402] 

BERTHON, EDWARD LYON (1813-1899), inventor ; 
studied surgery in Liverpool and Dublin ; travelled on 


continent ; invented screw-propeller for ships, which he 
abandoned on its rejection by admiralty, 1835 ; studied at 
Magdalene College, Cambridge ; M.A., 1849 ; curate of 
Lymiugton, 1845 ; held living of Holy Trinity, Fareham, 
1847-55 ; invented a nautical log, which was condemned 
by admiralty ; designed collapsible boat, which was tried 
and adversely reported upon by admiralty ; held living of 
Romsey : recurred to design of collapsible boats, which at 
length were approved by admiralty ; published remini- 
scences. [Suppl. i. 184] 

BERTIE, Sm ALBEMARLE (1755-1824), admiral : 
lieutenant, 1777 ; captain, 1782 ; In action of First of 
June, 1794 ; rear-admiral, 1804 ; vice-admiral, 1808 ; 
commander-in-chief at Cape of Good Hope ; commanded 
at capture of Mauritius, 1810 ; baronet, 1812 ; admiral, 
1814 ; K.C.B., 1815. [i v . 402] 

SUFFOLK (1520-1580), only child of William Willoughby, 
eighth baron Willoughby of Eresby; married, 1536, 
Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk (d. 1545), and c. 1552, 
Richard Bertie ; distinguished for her zeal for the Refor- 
mation, [iv. 403] 

(1608 ?-1666), royalist ; served in Low Countries ; raised 
regiment of cavalry for king, 1642 ; prisoner after Edge- 
hill ; after being exchanged, fought at Naseby ; as privy 
councillor and gentleman of bedchamber, accompanied 
Charles in his flight, in Isle of Wight ; privy councillor, 
and one of judges for trial of regicides, 1660 ; K.G., 1661. 

[iv. 403] 

ERESBY (1555-1601), soldier ; son of Richard and Catha- 
rine Bertie [q. v.], who were fleeing from Marian persecu- 
tion when he was born, at Lower Wesel, Cleves ; naturalised 
in England, 1559 ; succeeded to barony of Eresby, 1580 ; 
sent to Denmark to discuss commercial relations with Eng- 
land, 1582, and petition to Frederick II to help Henry of 
Navarre, 1585 ; governor of Bergen-op-Zoom, 1586 ; helped 
to surprise Axel, 1586 ; succeeded Norris in command of 
cavalry, 1587; assisted Leicester in attempt to relieve 
Sluys, and succeeded him as commander of English forces 
in Low Countries, 1587; defended Bergen against 
Spaniards, 1588; returned to England, 1589; nominated 
to command of army sent to aid Henry of Navarreiat 
Dieppe, 1589; took part in capture of Vendome, Mons, 
Aleucon, and Falaise ; returned home, 1590 ; governor of 
Berwick and warden of East March, 1598-1601. [iv. 404] 

BERTIE, RICHARD (1517-1582), husband of the 
Duchess Dowager of Suffolk ; B.A. Corpus Christi College. 
Oxford, 1537 ; joined household of Thomas Wriothesley. 
lord chancellor (afterwards Earl of Southampton); fled 
from Marian persecution to Wesel, Cleves, 1556, removed 
thence successively to Strasburg and Weinheim, and ulti- 
mately to Poland, where the king placed him in earldom 
of Kroze, Samogitia ; returned to England after 'Mary's 
death ; knight for county of Lincoln, 1563 ; M.A. Cam- 
bridge, 1564. [iy. 407] 

1642), admiral ; eldest sou of Peregrine Bertie [q. v.] ; 
accompanied expedition against Spain, 1597 ; at siege of 
Amiens, 1598 ; retired to Lincolnshire ; drained and re- 
claimed fens lying between Kyme Eau and the Glen, 
1635-8; lord high chamberlain, 1626: /served in Low 
Countries, 1624, and in Buckingham's naval expeditions; 
Earl of Lindsey, 1626 ; admiral of fleet for relief of 
Rochelle, 1628; K.B., and privy councillor, 1630; lord 
high admiral of England, 1636"; governor of Berwick, 
1639: raised counties of Lincoln and Nottingham for 
king, 1642 ; died from wounds received at Edgehill. 

[iv. 408] 

BERTIE, SIR THOMAS (1758-1825), vice-admiral; 
entered navy, 1773; lieutenant, 1780; commander, 1782; 
married daughter of Peregrine Bertie, esq., whose name 
he assumed, 1788; post-captain, 1790; with Nelson at 
Copenhagen, 1801: at blockade of Cadiz, 1802; vice- 
admiral and knight, 1813. [iv. 409] 

BERTIE, VERB (d. 1680), judge : son of Montague 
Bertie [q. v.] ; called to bar at Middle Temple, 1659 ; 
master of benchers, 1674 ; eerjeant-at-law, before 1665 ; 
baron of exchequer, 1675 ; justice of common pleas, 1678 ; 
discharged from office in 1679. [iv. 410] 




i>"v (1740-1799), politician, succeeded to earldom, 1760; 
1 u< -a tod at \\Y~tmiiist4Tand Magdalen Collcw, Oxford; 
M.A.. 17G1 ; adopted democratic principles and became a 
friend and supporter of Wilkes; published 'Thought* on 
Burke's Letter on Affairs of America,' 1777, and a eulogy 
on French revolution, 1798, both of which pamphlets 
gained considerable popularity. [iv. 410] 

BERTON, WILLIAM OF (/. 1376), chancellor of Ox- 
ford ; B.D. Merton College, Oxford, 1376 ; D.D., and 
chancellor of the university, c. 1380 ; issued decree con- 
deniniiiir Wyeliffe's sacramental doctrine; signed con- 
demnation of Wycliffe's 'conclusions,' 1382. [iv. 411] 


BERTRAM. CHARLES (1723-1765), sometimes self- 
styled CHAHLKS Jci.irs: literary forger: English teacher 
in school for naval Mdete,OapanlM8ni produced between 
1747 and 1757 an alleged transcript of a manuscript work 
on Roman antiquities by Richard of Oirencester, a four- 
teenth-century chronicler and an inmate of Westmin- 
ster, together witli a copy of an ancient itinerary of 
Britain, at many points supplementing and correcting 
the itinerary of Antoninus: imposed on Dr. William 
Stukeley and most English antiquaries : published works 
of Gildas and Nenuius, with the text of his forgery and a 
commentary on it, at Copenhagen, 1757, and several philo- 
logical works. His imposture was finally exposed by B. B. 
Woodward in 'Gentleman's Magazine,' 1866-7. [iv. 412] 

BERTRAM. ROGER (d. 1242), judge and baronial 
leader; deprived of castle and barony of Mitford for 
share in barons' rebellion, 1215 ; justice itinerant for 
Northumberland, Cumberland, and Lancashire, between 
1225 and 1237. [iv. 413] 

BERTRAM, ROGER (.ft. 1264), baronial leader : son 
of Roger Bertram (rf. 1242) [q. v.] ; captured by Henry III 
at Northampton, 1264 ; freed by victory at Lewes ; sum- 
moned to De Moutfort's parliament, 1264. [iv. 414] 

BERTRIC (d. 802). [See BEORHTRIC.] 

BERWICK, DUKK OF (1670-1734). [See FrrzJAMK-s, 

BERWICK, third B'AKON (<l. 1842). [See HILL, 

BERWICK. EDWARD (6. 1750), Irish divine; scholar 
of Trinity College, Dublin : rector of Olougish, and 
domestic chaplain to Earl of Moira ; published classical 
and theological works. [iv. 414] 

BESSBOROUGH, fourth EAHL OF (1781-1847). [See 

JOSEPH (1683 ?-1757), quaker convert from 
Anglican church; writing master at Colchester; pub- 
lished controversial and other works, including 'Suffer- 
ings of the Quakers from 1650 to 1689,' 1753. [iv. 414] 

BESSEMER, Snt HKNHY (1813-1898), engineer and 
inventor ; engaged at Charlton in his father's business as 
manufacturer of gold chains and type-founder : came to 
London, 1830, and traded in art work in white metal ; in- 
vented perforated die for impressing date on stamps 
affixed to deals, 1833, and soon afterwards produced 
plumbago pencils ; invented type-composing machine, c. 
1838 ; engaged in manufacture of bronze powder and 
gold paint by an original process, 1840 ; made experiments 
with view to obtaining stronger material for gun manu- 
facture than that in use ; patented combination of cast 
iron and steel, 1855, and in the same and following years 
obtained patents for the manufacture of steel by new 
process from melted pig-iron through which air under 
pressure or steam was blown with object of abstracting 
carbon ; described process in paper read at Cheltenham 
meeting of British Association for Advancement of 
Science, 1866 : established, 1859, steel works at Sheffield, 
where he made a speciality of gun-making, and subse- 
quently was extensively occupied in manufacture of steel 
rails ; invented swinging saloon for sea-going vessels, 
which was tried with small success, 1876 : received 
Albert gold medal from Society of Arts, 1872 ; one of 
founders, 1868, and president. 1871-3, of Iron and Steel 

Institute : M.I.O.E., 1877 ; F.U.S., 1879 ; knighted, 1879. 
The Bessemer steel manufacture was introduced into the 
United States and developed by Alexander L. Holley 
(1867-70), and at present it is probably equal to that of 
the rest of the world collectively. [Suppl. i. 185] 

BEST, CHARLES (fl. 1602), poet; contributed to 
Francis Davidson's ' Poetical Rapsodie.' [iv. 415] 

BEST, GEORGE (rf. 1584 ?), navigator ; accompanied 
Frobisher in voyages to discover North-west Passage, 
1576, 1577, and 1578, of which he published an account, 
1578. [iv. 415] 

BEST, afterwards BESTE, HENRY DIGBY (1768- 
1836), author; M.A., and fellow, Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford, 1791 ; curate of St. Martin's, Lincoln ; published 
'Christian Religion Defended against Philosophers and 
Republicans of France,' 1793; entered Roman catholic 
church, 1799 ; lived some years in France and Italy after 
1818, and published accounts of his residence there, 1826 
and 1828. His 'Personal and Literary Memorials' 
appeared in 1829. [iv. 416] 

BEST, PAUL (1590?-1657), controversialist; M.A. 
Jesus College, Cambridge ; fellow of Catharine Hall, 1617; 
served under Gustavus Adolphus ; studied Unitarian theo- 
logy in Germany; returned to England: submitted his 
conclusions on doctrine of the Trinity to Roger Ley, a 
fellow-student at Cambridge, who appears to have made 
them public, with result that Best was imprisoned in the 
Gatehouse, 1645 ; released, 1647, having addressed three 
petitions to House of Commons. [iv. 417] 

', SAMUEL (1738-1825), pretended prophet; 
according to various accounts a servant in London and 
a Spitalfields weaver ; inmate of Shoreditch workhouse, 
1787, where, under name of 'Poor-help,' he received 
visitors and professed to foretell their future : gained con- 
siderable reputation, and subsequently removed to Kings- 
laud Road. [iv. 418] 

BEST, THOMAS (1570?-1638 ?), navy captain; 
perhaps son of George Best [q. v.]: went to sea, 1583 ; 
inflicted on Portuguese at Surat defeats which effected 
recognition of English trading rights as equal to those of 
Portugal, 1612 ; opened trade with Siam, 1613 ; appointed 
chief commander at Bantam, but, owing to disagreement 
with East India Company, was dismissed, 1617; senior 
officer in Downs, 1623; commanded expedition against 
Dutch, who had blockaded a Dunkirk privateer at Aber- 
deen ; served in disastrous expedition to Rhe, 1627 ; master 
of Trinity House, 1634, probably till death. [iv. 418] 

(1767-1846), judge : educated at Wadham College, Oxford; 
barrister, Middle Temple, 1789 ; joined home circuit ; ser- 
jeant-at-law, 1799 ; whig M.P. for Petersfield, 1802 ; re- 
corder of Guildford, 1809 ; tory M.P. for Bridport, 1&12; 
solicitor-general, 1813, and attorney-general, 1816, to 
Prince of Wales ; chief-justice of Chester, 1818 ; elevated 
to king's bench, 1818; knighted, 1819; chief- justice of 
common pleas and privy councillor, 1824; raised to peer- 
age, 1829; a deputy speaker of the House of Lords; 
D.O.L. Oxford, 1834. [iv. 420] 

BEST, WILLIAM THOMAS (1826-1897), musician ; 
studied engineering at Liverpool, where he became or- 
ganist of baptist chapel, Pembroke Road, and subsequently 
adopted musical profession; organist at church for the 
blind, 1847, and to Liverpool Philharmonic Society, 1849 ; 
organist at Royal Panopticon (now the Alhambra), e. 
1853, and at St. Martin's-in- the- Fields, and Lincoln's Inn ; 
organist to Liverpool corporation, 1865-94 ; inaugurated 
organ at Albert Hall, 1871 ; for some years organist of 
West Derby church. He published ' The Art of Organ 
Playing,' 1869, besides pianoforte and vocal pieces and 
organ compositions, including ' Benedicite,' 1864, ,and a 
service in F, also editing much of the music of Handel 
and Bach. [Suppl. i. 191] 

BESTON, JOHN (d. 1428), prior of Carmelite con- 
vent, Bishop's Lynn : doctor in theology, Cambridge and 
Paris ; wrote theological works. [iv. 421] 

BETAGH, THOMAS (1739-1811), Jesuit : professor of 
languages at seminary of Society of Jesus, Pont-a-Mous- 
son ; schoolmaster at Dublin, where he became parish 
priest and vicar-general of diocese. [iv. 421] 


BETHAM, EDWARD (1707-1783), divine: fellow, 
1731, ami bursar. King's College, Cambridge; held living , 
of Greeuford, Middlesex, where he founded and endowed I 
charity schools (1780); one of preachers at Whitehall; 
fellow of Eton, 1771. [iv. 422] 

BETHAM, JOHN (d. 1709), catholic priest ; educated 
and ordained at Douay ; studied at Paris ; doctor of the 
Sorbomif, H',77: chaplain to James II in England, and 
later at St. Gennains ; opened and presided over St. i 
Gregory's Seminary, Paris, 1701 ; published sermons. 

BETHAM, MARY MATILDA (1776-1852),' minia- 
turist and woman of letters ; eldest daughter of William 
Bethaui [q. v.] ; published 'Biographical Dictionary of 
Celebrated Women,' 1804; gave Shakespearean readings i 
in London ; exhibited miniature portraits at Royal Aca- 
demy; formed friendships with the Lambs, Coleridge, 
Southey, and others ; published three volumes of verse. 

[iv. 423] 

BETHAM, WILLIAM (1749-1839), antiquary ; head- 
master of endowed school at Stonham Aspel, Suffolk, 
1784-1833 ; rector of Stoke Lacy, 1833 ; published ' Genea- 
logical Tables of Sovereigns of the World,' 1795, and 
Baronetage of England,' 1801-5. [iv. 423] 

BETHAM, SIR WILLIAM (1779-1853), Ulster kiug- 
of-arms ; son of William Betham (1749-1839) [q. v.] ; 
deputy-keej>er of records in ' the tower,' Dublin Castle, 
1806 ; sub-commissioner under record commission, 1811- 
1812 ; knighted, 1812 ; Ulster king-of-arms, 1820 ; member 
of Royal Irish Academy, 1826. Published : ' Irish Anti- 
quarian Researches,' 1827 ; ' The Gael and Cymbri,' 1834 ; 
and ' Etruria Celtica,' 1842. [iv. 424] 

BETHEL, SLINGSBY (1617-1697), republican; in 
business in Hamburg, 1637-49; M.P., Kuaresborough, 1659 ; 
member of council of state, 1660 ; chosen sheriff of Lon- 
don and Middlesex, 1680, though unable to serve in conse- 
quence of not having taken oaths commanded by Corpora- 
tion Act ; subsequently qualified and elected, the election 
and taking of the oaths being the subject of several pam- 
phlets; in Hamburg, 1682-9. His chief work is 'The 
World's Mistake in Oliver Cromwell,' 1668. [iv. 425] 

BETHELL, CHRISTOPHER (1773-1859), bishop of 
Bangor; M.A. King's College, Cambridge, 1799; D.D., 
1817 ; dean of Chichester, 1814-24 ; prebendary of Exeter, 
1830 ; bishop of Gloucester, 1824, of Exeter, 1830, and of 
Bangor, 1830-59 ; published theological works. 

[iv. 426] 

(1800-1873), lord chancellor : B.A. Wadham College, Ox- 
ford, 1818 ; fellow ; called to bar at Middle Temple, 1823 ; 
practised in equity courts ; Q.O., 1840 ; liberal M.P. for 
Aylesbury, 1851, and for Wolverhamptou, 1852 ; vice-chan- 
cellor of duchy of Lancaster, 1861 ; solicitor-general in 
'government of all the talents,' 1852; attorney-general, 
1856 ; supported Succession Duty Bill, Oxford University 
Bill (1854), Probate and Administration Bill (1857), and 
other important measures ; first of the Statute Law Re- 
vision Acts passed under his guidance, 1861 ; introduced 
the second of these acts, 1863 ; lord chancellor, with title 
of Baron Westbury of Westbury in Wiltshire, 1861 ; passed 
an unsuccessful act to facilitate the proof of title to and 
the conveyance of real estate, 1862 ; sat as member of 
judicial committee of privy council to hear appeals on 
' Essays and Reviews ' cases, 1864, and acquitted defendants 
on all counts ; resigned office on passing of vote of censure 
on him in House of Commons as being inattentive to 
public interests, 1865 : retired to Italy, but soon returned 
to sit on appeals in House of Lords and privy council ; 
arbitrator in wiuding-npof affairs of European Assurance 
Society, a work which his death interrupted. He had 
extraordinary power of sarcastic speech and an un- 
equalled mastery of luminous exposition. [iv. 426] 

BETHUNE, ALEXANDER (1804-1843), Scottish 
poet; employed as a labourer; published 'Tales and 
Sketches of Scottish Peasantry,' which were immediately 
successful, 1838 ; produced, with his brother John, ' Lec- 
tures on Practical Economy,' 1839 ; turnkey in Glasgow 
prison; brought out his 'Scottish Peasants' Fireside,' 
1842; prevented by his last illness from undertaking 
editorship of ' Dumfries Standard.' [iv. 431] 

niajor-geueral ; appointed to Madras artillery, 1804 ; as 


subaltern accompanied Sir John Malcolm to Persia, 1810 ; 
employed in disciplining Persian army ; returned to Eng- 
land, 1821 ; went back to Persia, 1834; served in war of 
succession, 1835, and in 1836-9 as major-general in Asia ; 
died at Tabriz. [iv. 432] 

BETHUNE, JOHN (1812-1839), poet; brother of 
Alexander Bethune [q. v.] ; apprenticed as carver ; set up 
weaving looms with his brother, 1825, but failed in the 
business : overseer of estate of Inchtyre, 1835 ; contributed 
to his brother's 'Tales of Scottish Peasantry,' and various 
Scottish periodicals. [iv. 432] 

BETHUNE, JOHN DRINKWATER (1762-1844), his- 
torian of the siege of Gibraltar ; sou of one John Drink- 
water; ensign in royal Manchester volunteers, c. 1777; 
stationed at Gibraltar during siege by Spanish, 1779-83, 
of which he published an account, c. 1786 ; captain ; sta- 
tioned at Gibraltar, 1787 ; military secretary and deputy 
judge-advocate during English occupation of Corsica ; 
published ' Narrative of Battle of St. Vincent ' ; lieutenant- 
colonel, 1796 ; placed on half -pay as colonel ; commissary 
general of Helder force, 1799 ; member and subsequently 
chairman of parliamentary commission of military in- 
quiry, 1805; comptroller of army accounts, 1811-35; as- 
sumed surname of Bethune. [iv. 433] 

1851), Indian legislator ; sou of John Drinkwater Bethune 
[q. v.] ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge ; called to 
bar, 1827 ; counsel to home office ; legislative member of 
supreme council of India, 1848 ; effected several important 
legislative reforms, and established school for native girls 
at Calcutta. [iv. 434] 

BETHUNE, ROBERT DE (d. 1148). [See ROBERT.] 

BETTERTON, THOMAS (1635 ?-1710), actor and 
dramatist; probably first acted in company licensed to 
Rhodes, a bookseller, 1659, his chief successes being in 
' Pericles,' the ' Mad Lover,' the ' Loyal Subject,' the ' Bond- 
man,' and the ' Changeling ' ; joined Sir John Davenant's 
company at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, 1661 ; visited 
Paris by royal command, with view of introducing in 
England improvements in dramatic representation ; played 
Hamlet, 1661, and Mercutio, Sir Toby Belch, Macbeth, 
and Bosola (' Duchess of Malfi '), 1662-6 ; associated after 
Davenant's death (1668) with Harris and Davenaut's son 
Charles in management of Dorset Garden Theatre, 1671 ; 
played Orestes in Charles Davenant's ' Circe,' CEdipus in 
Dryden and Lee's ' CEdipus, ' Timon of Athens, King Lear, 
Troilus, and other characters in adaptations of Shake- 
speare by Dryden, Shad well, and Tate; amalgamated with 
the rival company of Drury Lane, 1682 ; opened ' theatre 
in Little Lincoln's Inn Fields,' 1695 ; produced success- 
fully Cougreve's ' Love for Love,' Cougreve undertaking to 
provide a play each year, a promise which was not kept ; 
opened theatre erected by Sir John Vanbrugh in Hay- 
market, 1705, but resigned management to Oongreve and 
Vanbrugh; performances of 'Love for Love '(1709) and 
the ' Maid's Tragedy' (1710) given for his benefit at Hay- 
market ; highly esteemed as an actor by most of his con- 
temporaries. His dramas include the 'Roman Virgin,' 
acted 1670, adapted from Webster's 'Appius and Vir- 
ginia,' the 'Prophetess,' 1690, an opera from the 'Pro- 
phetess ' of Beaumont and Fletcher, ' King Henry IV,' 1700 
(in which he played Falstaff), from Shakespeare, the 
'Amorous Widow,' c. 1670, from Moliere's ' Georges Dandin,' 
and the ' Bondman,' 1719, from Massinger. [iv. 434] 

BETTES, JOHN (</. 1570 ?), miniature painter ; exe- 
cuted oil-painting of Queen Elizabeth and engravings for 
Hall's ' Chronicle.' [iv. 441] 

(1780-1808), naval captain; lieutenant, 1804; served in 
West Indies ; carried Nelson's despatches from Antigua to 
England, and was promoted post-captain, 1805 ; killed in 
engagement off Bergen. [iv. 441] 

BETTS, JOHN (d. 1695), physician ; B.A. Corpus 
Christi College, Oxfonl, 1647 ; M.D., 1654 ; physician to 
Charles II : F.C.P., 1664 ; censor, College of Physicians, 
1671, 1673, 1685, and 1686 ; ' elect,' 1686 ; published medical 
works. [iv. 442] 

actor, called the 'Young Rose! us'; played Romeo at 
Belfast, and Hamlet and Prince Arthur, at Dublin 
1803 ; played at Cork, Waterford, Glasgow, Edinburgh 





Birmingham, and at Covent Garden and Drury Lane, 1804 ; 
appeared on alternate niphts at Drury Lane and Coveut 
Garden, 1805, adding' Richard III and Macbeth to his 
Shakespearean repertoire ; last appeared as boy actor at 
Bath, 1808; fellow-commoner of Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, 1809 ; returned to stage, 1812, and finally retired, 
1824. [iv. 442] 

BEULAN, a priest to whom the author of 'Hlstoria 
Britonum' (perhaps 'Nennius') dedicated bis work. 
Some historical writings have been attributed to him. 

[iv. 443] 

BEUNO or BEINO, ST. (d. 660?), monk; related to 
St. Cadoc the Wise of Llancarfan and to St. Kentigern ; 
became a monk ; established religious society at Clynnog 
Fawr, Carnarvonshire, 616 ; founded several churches. 

[iv. 444] 

BEVAN, EDWARD (1770-1860), physician and 
apiarian ; studial at St. Bartholomew's Hospital ; M.D. 
St. Andrews, 1818; after some years' practice retired to 
Bridstow, near Ross, Herefordshire, where he developed an 
apiary ; one of founders of Entomological Society, 1833 ; 
published ' The Honey-Bee : ite Natural History, Physio- 
logy, and Management,' 1827. [iv. 444] 

SEVAN, JOSEPH GURNET (1753-1814), quaker ; 
entered his father's business of chemist and druggist, 
1776 ; retired, 1794 ; able quaker apologist. His works 
include 'Refutation of Misrepresentations of Quakers,' 
1800, 'Thoughts on Reason and Revelation,' 1805, 'The 
Life of St. Paul,' 1807, and memoirs of Robert Barclay, 
Isaac Peuington, and Sarah Stephenson. [iv. 445] 

SEVER, JOHN (d. 1311), chronicler. [See JOHN OF 


SEVER, THOMAS (1725-1791), scholar and civilian ; 
LL.D. All Souls' College, Oxford, 1768 ; admitted to Doctors' 
Commons, 1758 ; judge of Cinque Ports and chancellor of 
Lincoln and Bangor ; lectured on civil law, Oxford, 1762 ; 
published a 'History of Legal Polity of the Roman State,' 
1781. [iv. 446] 

BEVERIDOE, WILLIAM (1637-1708), bishop ; M.A. 
St. John's College, Cambridge, 1660; vicar of Baling, 
1661-72; published 'Collection of Canons received by 
Greek Church,' 1672 ; vicar of St. Peter's, Cornhill, 1672 ; 
prebendary of St. Paul's, 1674 ; D.D., 1679 ; prebendary of 
Canterbury, 1684 ; bishop of St. Asaph, 1704. Several re- 
ligious works by him were published posthumously. 

[iv. 447] 

BEVERLEY, CHARLES JAMES (1788-1868), na- 
turalist; assistant-surgeon in navy, 1810; accompanied 
Polar expeditions under Ross (1818) and Parry (1819-20); 
and assisted in preparation of examples of Arctic zoology ; 
full surgeon and F.R.S., 1821. [iv. 448] 

BEVERLEY, HENRY ROXBY (1796-1863), actor ; 
played low comedy parts at Adelphi, 1838 ; manager of 
Victoria Theatre, 1839, and later of the Suuderland theatre 
and other houses, principally in north of England. 

[iv. 449] 

BEVERLEY, ST. JOHN OP (d. 721). [See JOHN.] 

BEVERLEY, JOHN OF (d. 1414), Carmelite ; doctor 
and professor of divinity at Oxford ; B.D., 1393 : canon of 
St. John's Church, Beverley ; probably same with John 
of Beverley the lollard, who was drawn and hanged at St. 
Giles's Fields ; left works in manuscript. [iv. 449] 

BEVERLEY, JOHN (1743-1827), esquire bedell of 
Cambridge University ; M.A. Christ's College, Cambridge, 
1770; esquire bedell, 1770-1827; held office under the 
admiralty. His works include an account of Cambridge 
University customs. [iv. 450] 

Oxford benefactor ; rector of Kayiugham, Yorkshire ; 
endowed University College, Oxford. [iv. 450] 


scene-painter ; employed ( 1830) at Theatre Royal, Man- ' 
Chester, managed by his father, William Roxby(1765-184J), | 
who had taken the name of Beverley ; subsequently ac- 
companied his father on tour, and was with his brother, 
Henry Beverley [q. v.], at Victoria Theatre, London, 1839 ; 
principal artist at Princess's Theatre, 1846 : painted scenes 
for Vestris and Mathews at Lyceum, 1847-55 ; executed 
dioramic views for 'Ascent of Mont Blnnr,' exhibited by 
Albert Smith at Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, 1852 ; scenic 

director at Covent Garden, 1853 ; bepran (1854) connection 
with Drury Lane, which lasted till 1884, and worked 
exclusively for that theatre, 1868-79 ; painted panorama 
of Lakes of Killarucy for Grand Theatre, Islington, 1884; 
exhibited pictures at Royal Academy between 1865 and 
1880. [Suppl. I. 192] 

SEVILLE, ROBERT (d. 1824), barrister-at-law ; 
called to bar at Inner Temple; practised on Norfolk 
circuit ; registrar to Bedford Level corporation, 1812-24 ; 
published treatise on law of homicide. [Iv. 450] 

BEVOT, ELWAY (/. 1605-1631), composer : of Welsh 
origin ; gentleman-extraordiunry of Chapel Royal, 1605 ; 
according to Wood organist of Bristol, 1589 till 1637, 
when, as Roman catholic, he was dismissed from appoint- 
ments; published 'Brief Instruction of Art of Musickc,' 
1631, and composed some church music. [iv. 451] 

BEVIS or BEVANS, JOHN (1693-1771), aatonomer ; 
M.A. Christ Church, Oxford, 1718 ; physician In London 
before 1730 ; fitted up an observatory at Stoke Newlugton, 
c. 1738; complied ' Urauographia Britannica,' 1745-50, 
which was not published, the intending publisher becom- 
ing bankrupt ; fellow, 1765, and foreign secretary, 1766-71, 
of Royal Society. He was a diligent observer, and pub- 
lished astronomical and medical works. [iv. 451] 

BEWICK, JANE (1787-1881), writer of memoirs; 
daughter of Thomas Bewick [q. v.], a memoir of whom, 
written by himself, she edited and issued, 1862. [iv. 452] 

BEWICK, JOHN (1760-1795), wood-engraver; 
younger brother of Thomas Bewick [q. v.], to whom he 
was apprenticed at Newcastle, 1777; obtained employ- 
ment in London on blocks for children's books, 1782; 
executed illustrations for ' Gay's Fables ' (1788), ' Emblems 
of Mortality,' a copy of Holbein's 'Icoues' (1789), 'Pro- 
verbs Exemplified ' (1790), 'Progress of Man and Society' 
(1791), ' Looking-Glass for the Mind' (1792), and other 
works. As an engraver he falls far below his brother. 

[iv. 453] 

BEWICK, ROBERT ELLIOT (1788-1849), wood- 
engraver, son of Thomas Bewick [q. v.], whose partner 
he became, 1812 ; assisted in ' Fables of jEsop ' (1818) and 
History of British Fishes.' [iv. 454] 

BEWICK, THOMAS (1753-1828), wood-engraver; 
apprenticed to Ralph Beilby [q. v.], 1767, and was soon 
entrusted with most of Beilby's wood-engraving business ; 
executed cuts for several children's books, 1771-4 ; came 
to London, 1776, and shortly afterwards went again to 
Newcastle and entered into partnership with Beilby ; 
engraved blocks for ' Gay's Fables ' (1779), ' Select Fables ' 
(1784), 'General History of Quadrupeds' (1790), for which 
Beilby supplied the letterpress, ' History of British Birds' 
(1797 and 1804), the text being by the Rev. Mr. Cotes, and 
'Fables of JEsop' (1818), in which he was assisted by his 
son, R. E. Bewick [q. v.], and two of his pupils; left un- 
finished illustrations for a 'History of British Fishes' 
The 'ChillinghamBulT (1789) was one of his most am- 
bitious works. [iv. 455] 

BEWICK, WILLIAM (1795-1866), portrait and his- 
torical painter : pupil of Haydon, 1817-20 ; copied 
Michael Angelo's Prophets and Sibyls in Sistine Chapel, 
1826-9 ; exhibited copies, 1840 ; took part in Westminster 
Hall competition, 1843. He excelled in reproducing 
Rembrandt. [iv. 460] 

BEWLEY, WILLIAM (d. 1783), friend of Dr. Burncy ; 
practised medicine at Massiugham, Norfolk ; contributed 
largely to ' Monthly Review.' [iv. 460] 

BEXFIELD, WILLIAM RICHARD (1824-1853), com- 
poser ; articled to Dr. Buck, organist of Norwich Cathe- 
dral ; Mus. Bac. Oxford, 1846 : organist at Boston, Lin- 
colnshire, and, 1848, of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate : Mus. Doc. 
Cambridge, 1849 ; wrote oratorio, ' Israel Restored,' 1851. 

BEXLEY, first BARON (1766-1881). [See VANSI'TTART, 

BIANCONI, CHARLES (1786-1875), promoter of the 
Irish car system in Ireland ; born at Tregolo, Lombardy ; 
itinerant vendor of prints in Ireland : opened as carver 
and gilder a shop in Carrick-on-Suir, 1806 ; instituted car 
to carry passengers, goods, and mail-bags between Clonmel 
and Cahir (8 miles), 1815, the result of which was that a 
car system was formed and rapidly extended ; deputy-lieu- 
tenant, 1803 ; friend uid adherent of O'Counell. [iv.461] 




BIBBY, THOMAS (1799-1863), Irish poetical writer: 
educated lit Kilkenny and Trinity College, Dublin ; one 
of the best Greek scholars of his day ; lived latterly in 
eccentric retirement; published two dramatic poems 
'Gerald of Kildare,' 1864, and ' Silken Thomas,' 1S59. 


DK (jl. 1270), poet; accompanied Prince Ed ward to Holy 
Laud, 1270 ; wrote two French poems. [Iv. 463] 

BIBER, GEORGE EDWARD (1801-1874), mis- 
cellaneous writer: bom at Ludwigsburg, Wlirtemberg, 
an,l *t ud led at lyceum there: Ph.D. Tlibingen ; LL.D. 
Oiittingeu ; took part in agitation for German unity, 
and retired successively to Italy and the Orisons ; 
master in lV*talo/,/.i institution, Yverdun ; head of classical 
school at Hampstead, and later at Coombe Wood : became 
naturalised ; vicar of Holy Trinity, Roehampton, 1842-74 ; 
member of council of English Church Union, 1863-4; 
published works dealing with theological questions; 
edited 'John Bull,' 1848-56. [iv. 463] 

BICHENO, JAMES EBENEZER (1785-1861), states- 
man ; called to bar at Middle Temple, 1822 ; joined Ox- 
ford circuit ; F.L.S., 1812, and secretary, 1824-32 ; pub- 
lished ' Ireland and its Economy,' 1830 : member of 
commission to investigate condition of poor in Ireland, 
c. 1833 : colonial secretary in Van Diemeu's Laud, 1842, 
where he died ; wrote works on economic and scientific 
subjects. [v. 1] 

BICKERSTAFF, WILLIAM (1728-1789), antiquary ; 
under-master of Lower Free grammar school, Leicester, 
1750 ; held successively various curacies in Leicestershire ; 
contributed papers on antiquarian subjects to ' Gentle- 
man's Magazine.' [v. 2] 

BICKERSTAFFE, ISAAC (d. 1812?), dramatic 
writer ; page to Lord Chesterfield, when lord lieutenant 
of Ireland; produced between 1756 and 1771 many suc- 
cessful dramatic pieces, including 'Love in a Village* 
(1762); fled abroad, being suspected of a capital crime, 
1772 ; died abroad in degraded circumstances. [v. 2] 

BICKERSTETH, EDWARD (1786-1850), evangelical 
divine; received appointment in General Post Office, c. 
1800 ; in partnership with his brother-in-law, a solicitor 
at Norwich, 1812; abandoned practice of law, and was 
ordained ; one of secretaries of Church Missionary Society, 
1816-30, during which time he travelled as 'deputation' ; 
assistant minister of Wheler Episcopal Chapel, Spital- 
fields; rector of Watton, Hertfordshire, 1830. Took an 
active part in opposing the Tractarian movement ; one 
of the founders of the Parker Society and of the Irish 
Church Missions Society ; frequently acted as ' deputa- 
tion ' for Society for Conversion of Jews, and other reli- 
gious associations. His works include ' Help to Studying 
the Scriptures ' and ' Christian Psalmody,' a collection of 
over seven hundred hymns. [v. 3] 

BICKERSTETH, EDWARD (1814-1892), dean of 
Lichfield ; M.A. Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, 1839 ; 
D.D., 1864 ; vicar of Aylesbury and archdeacon of Buck- 
inghamshire, 1853 ; honorary canon of Christ Church, 
Oxford, 1866 ; dean of Lichfield, 1875 ; during several 
years prolocutor over lower house of convocation of 
Canterbury ; published religious writings 

[Suppl. i. 194] 
1897), bishop of 

South Tokyo, Japan ; B.A. Pembroke College, Cambridge, 
1873 ; fellow, 1875 ; M.A., 1876 ; ordained deacon, 1873 ; 
priest, 1874 ; head of Cambridge mission to Delhi, 1877- 
1882; rector of Framlingham, 1882; bishop of South 
Tokyo, Japan, 1886. [Suppl. L 194] 

1861), master of rolls, brother of Edward Bickersteth 
(1786-1850) [q.v.]; studied medicine in London and 
Edinburgh: Hewitt scholar, Oaius College, Cambridge, 
1802 ; senior wrangler and senior Smith's mathematical 
prizeman, 1808 ; B.A. and fellow ; called to bar at Inner 
Temple, 1811 ; bencher, 1827 ; M.A., 1811 ; gave valuable 
evidence before commission on procedure of court of 
chancery, 1824 : K.C., 1827 ; sworn privy councillor, ap- 
jiointed master of rolls, and created Baron Langdale of 
Langdale. Westmoreland, 1836; temporarily speaker of 
House of Lords, 150; head of commission entrusted with 
seal, 1850. [v. 4] 

BICKERSTETH, ROBERT (1816-1884X bishop of 
Ripon; graduated at Queens' College, Cambridge, 1841; 
lion, secretary of Irish Church Missions, 1860; canon 
iv-i.lontiary nnd treasurer, Salisbury Cathedral, 1864; 
bishop of Ripon, 1857 ; gained considerable reputation as 
evangelical preacher, [v. 6] 

BICKERTON, Sin RICHARD (1727-1792), vice-admi- 
ral ; entered navy, 1739 ; lieutenant in West Indies, 1746- 
1748 ; post-captain in Mediterranean, 1759, West Indies, 
and Channel, 1761 ; knighted, 1773 ; baronet, 1778 ; assisted 
in second relief of Gibraltar, 1781 ; commodore of first 
class in East Indies, 1782-4 : commander-in-chief at Lee- 
ward Islands, 178C-7 ; rear-admiral, 1787 ; vice-admiral, 
1790 ; port-admiral at Plymouth till death. [v. 6] 

admiral : son of Sir Richard Bickerton [q. v.] ; entered 
navy, 1771 ; lieutenant, 1777 ; commander, 1779 ; in 
Channel, 1779-80, West Indies, 1781 and 1787-90, and 
Channel, 1793-4, West Indies and Newfoundland, 1794, 
North Sea, 1795, and Channel, 1797-9 ; rear-admiral, 1799 ; 
served at Cadiz and on Egyptian coast ; commauder-in- 
chief in Mediterranean ; second in command under Nelson, 
1804-5; admiral, 1810; commander-in-chief at Ports- 
mouth, 1812 ; K.O.B., 1815 ; general of marines, 1830. 


BICKHAM, GEORGE, the younger (d. 1758), en- 
graver ; son of George Bickham (d. 1769) [q. v.] ; pub- 
lished essay on drawing, also humorous and other 
engravings. [v. 8] 

BICKHAM, GEORGE, the elder (<f. 1769), writing 
master and engraver; published portraits, engravings, 
and (1743) ' The Universal Penman.' [v. 8] 

BICKIEY, THOMAS (1518-1596), bishop of Chiches- 
ter: chorister in free school of Magdalen College, Ox- 
ford ; fellow, 1541 ; one of Edward VI's chaplains at 
Windsor ; retired to France during Mary's reign ; chan- 
cellor in Lichfield Cathedral and warden of Merton 
College, Oxford, after Elizabeth's accession; bishop of 
Chichester, 1585. [v. 8] 

BICKNELL, ALEXANDER (d. 1796), author ; pub- 
lished works, including fiction and histories, between 
1777 and 1785. [v. 9] 

BICKNELL, ELHANAN (1788-1861), patron of art : 
collected, between 1838 and 1850, at his residence at 
Herne Hill, Surrey, many valuable pictures by masters 
of the modern British school. [v. 9] 

BICKNELL, HERMAN (1830-1875), author, oriental- 
ist, and traveller ; son of Elhanan Bicknell [q. v.] ; edu- 
cated at Paris, Hanover, University College, and St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital ; graduated at College of Sur- 
geons, 1854; military surgeon in Hong Kong, 1865, India, 
1856-60, and at Aldershot ; resigned commission, and de- 
voted himself to languages and to travelling in all parts 
of the world. Translations from Hafiz by him were pub- 
lished posthumously. [v. 10] 

BICKNELL, M (1695 ?-1723), actress : first heard 

of as playing at the Haymarket in Gibber's 'Careless 
Husband,' 1706 ; at Drury Lane, from 1708 to 1721, when 
she was the original Lady Wrangle in Gibber's ' Refusal ' ; 
last appeared, 1723. [v. 11] 

archbishop of Dublin; prebendary of Maynooth and 
treasurer of Ireland ; elected archbishop of Dublin, 1310, 
but his election set aside by Edward II ; consecrated, 
1317 ; lord justice of Ireland, 1318 ; went on embassies to 

i France. 1323 and 1324 ; joined conspiracy formed in 

I France to overthrow the Despensers ; sided with Queen 
Isabella against Edward II, 1326 ; papal collector, 1330 : 
during last years of his life, engaged in dispute with arch- 

i bishop of Armagh concerning primacy of Ireland; 

, founded college in St. Patrick's Church, 1320. [v. 11] 

BIDDER, GEORGE PARKER (1806-1878), engineer : 
exhibited, when very young, by his father as a 'calcu- 
lating phenomenon ' ; educated at Edinburgh ; took to 
engineering, and became associated with Robert Stephen- 
son in London and Birmingham railway, 1834 ; obtained 
work in connection with parliamentary committees ; a 
founder of the Electric Telegraph Company. His con- 
structive works include the Victoria Docks, London. 
I [v. 12] 




BIDDLE, JOHN (1615-1662), Unitarian : M.A. Mag- 
dalen Hall, Oxford, 1641 ; master of free school of St. Marv- 
le-< 'rypt, Gloucester ; imprisoned in Gloucester by parlia- 
mentary commissioners, his religious views being called in 
question, but released on bail, 1 045 ; brought before par- 
liamentary commission at \Vist minster, ami. having pub- 
lished works refuting Godhead of Holy Spirit, was re- 
manded to prison, 1647 ; liberated on bail, but soon after- 
wards again confined in Newgate ; released by decree of 
oblivion, 1652 ; published ' A Two-fold Catechism,' 1654, 
and was imprisoned in Gatehouse, 1654-5 ; became en- 
tangled in dispute with a baptist pastor, and was exiled 
to Scilly Islands, 1655-8; released, but rearrested; sub- 
sequently diiil from disease contracted in prison. His 
controversial writings attracted considerable attention. 

[v. IS] 

BLDDLECOMBE, SIR GEORGE (1807-1878), captain 
and author : midshipman in mercantile marine, 1823 ; 
second master in royal navy, 1833 : in active service, and 
engaged in naval surveys, c. 1828-64 ; master attendant 
at Woolwich yard, 1864-8 ; staff -captain and C.B., 1867 : 
knighted, 1873 ; published works relating to naval 
matters. [v. 16] 

1878), general ; lieutenant, 1829 ; master of Queen Victoria's 
household, 1851 ; colonel, 1854 ; K.C.B., 1863 ; keeper of 
Queen Victoria's privy purse, 1867: lieutenant-general, 
1873 ; brevet-general and privy councillor, 1877. [v. 17] 

evangelical divine; M.A. Queen's College, Oxford, 1787; 
incumbent of Bengeworth, near Eveshaui, 1793-1803, and 
of St. James's, Bristol, 1799-1838 ; published theological 
works. [v. 17] 

BIDGOOD, JOHN (1624-1690), physician ; educated at 
Exeter College, Oxford ; Petreian fellow, 1642 : bachelor 
of physic, 1648 ; excluded from fellowship by parliamen- 
tarian visitors, 1649-60; M.D. Padua; practised at Chard 
and subsequently at Exeter ; incorporated M.D. Oxford, 
1660 ; F.C.P., 1686. [v. 18] 

BLDLAKE, JOHN (1755-1814), divine and poet ; M.A. 
and D.D. Christ Church, Oxford, 1808 ; minister at Stone- 
house ; chaplain to prince regent and Duke of Clarence ; 
Bamptou lecturer, 1811 ; afflicted with blindness, 1811 ; 
published religious and poetical works. [v. 18] 

BIDWILL, JOHN OARNE (1815-1853), botanist and 
traveller ; became merchant at Sydney, New South Wales ; 
accompanied exploring expeditions in New Zealand and 
made several botanical discoveries; contributed to the 
* Gardener's Chronicle.' [v. 18] 

BIFFIN or BEFFIN, SARAH (1784-1850), miniature 
painter ; born without arms or legs, but contrived to use 
pencil and paintbrush with her mouth ; travelled about 
the country exhibiting her powers, 1812 ; received medal 
from Society of Artists, 1821. [v. 19] 

BIFIELD, NICHOLAS (1579-1622). [See BYFIF.LD.] 

BIGG, JOHN STANYAN (1828-1866), poet and journal- 
ist; published 'The Sea King,' a metrical romance, 1848; 
edited in Ireland ' Downshire Protestant '; returned and 
became editor and proprietor of ' Olverston Advertiser,' 
1860-5. His most important poem, ' Night and the Soul ' 
(1854), shows that his sympathies were with the 'Spas- 
modic School.' [v. 19] 

BIGG, WILLIAM REDMORE (1765-1828), painter ; 
pupil of Edward Penny, R.A. ; entered Academy schools, 
1778 ; R.A., 1814. [v. 20] 

BIG OAR, JOSEPH GILLIS (1828-1890), Irish poli- 
tician; provision merchant at Belfast, 1861-80; town 
councillor, 1871 ; chairman of Belfast water commission ; 
joined Isaac Butt's Home Rule Association, 1870; M.P. 
for co. Cavan, 1874 till death ; joined Irish Republican 
Brotherhood (the Fenians), 1876, and became member of 
supreme council, but was expelled from the body, 1877, for 
refusing to sever his connection with the parliamentary 
movement ; treasurer of land league, 1879 ; opposed Glad- 
stone's Irish policy, 1880-1 ; suspended for disorderly 
conduct, 1881 : he was one of the Irish politicians whose 
conduct was investigated during the Paniell commission, 
1887 ; he adopted, with considerable success, from 1876, a 
policy of parliamentary 'obstruction.' [Suppl. i. 196] 

BIGLAND, JOHN (1760-1832), schoolmaster and 
author; village schoolmaster; published ' Reflections on 

Resurrection and Ascension of Christ,' 1803; adopted 
literary profession and published series of popular works 
connected chiefly with geography and history, [v. 20] 

BIGLAND, RALPH (1711-17H4), Garter king-of-arms ; 
blue mantle, College of Arms, 1757 ; Somerset and regi- 
strar, 1763; Norroy king-of-arms, 1773; Clarenceux, 
1774; Garter king-of-arms, 1780; made collections for 
history of Gloucestershire. [v. 21] 

BIGNELL, HENRY (1611-1660?), divine; B.A. St. 
Mary's Hall, Oxford ; rector, 1646, of St. Peter-le-Bayly, 
Oxford, whence he was ejected for scandalous conduct. 

[v. 21] 

BIGNELL, Mas. (1695?-! 723). [See BICKXELL, M .] 

BIGOD or BYGOD, SIR FRANCIS (1508-1537), rebel ; 

knighted, c. 1629; educated at Oxford; in Cardinal 

Wolsey's service, 1627 : employed under Thomas Cromwell 

j in advancing Henry VIII's reforms in Yorkshire : hanged 

i for heading insurrection at Beverley in connection with 

Pilgrimage of Grace. [v. 21] 

BIGOD, HUGH, first EARL OP NORFOLK (d. 1176 or 
1177), second son of Roger Bigod (d. 1107); governor of 
Norwich till 1122 ; king's dapifer, 1123 ; took active part 
in rebellions against Henry I ; Earl of Norfolk on Stephen's 
accession ; held Norwich against Stephen, J 136 ; surrendered 
and was pardoned; fought under Stephen at Lincoln, 
1141 ; joined Henry of Anjou's party and held Ipswich 
against Stephen, 1153, but escaped punishment on its fall ; 
1 showed signs of hostility to Henry II, but gave in his 
I submission, 1157 ; assisted prince Henry's rebellion against 
his father, 1173 ; submitted to Henry II, 1174 ; probably 
died in Holy Land, whither he had accompanied Philip of 
Flanders on pilgrimage. [v. 22] 

BIGOD, HUGH (d. 1266), justiciar ; chief ranger of 
I Farndale forest, Yorkshire, 1255 ; chief justiciar, 1268-60 ; 
i keeper of Tower of London, 1258; governor of Dover 
! Castle, 1258-61. [v. 24] 

BIGOD, ROGER, second EARL OP NORFOLK (d. 1221), 
son of Hugh, first earl [q. v.] ; steward of royal household 
under Richard I ; ambassador to Philip of France to 
arrange crusade ; justiciar after Richard's return ; justice 
itinerant in Norfolk ; enjoyed John's favour until 1213, 
when he was imprisoned ; released and restored to favour ; 
joined barons against John, 1215. [v. 24] 

BIGOD, ROGER, fourth EARL OP NORFOLK (d. 1270), 
marshal of England; grandson of Roger Bigod, second 
earl [q. v.] ; knighted, 1233 ; head of commission of jus- 
tices itinerant in Essex and Hertfordshire, 1234; accom- 
panied unsuccessful embassy to Lyons to protest against 
papal exactions, 1245 ; earl marshal, 1246 : played pro- 
minent part in bringing forward Provisions of Oxford, 
1268 ; supported Henry III against Simon de Montfort, 
1269, but subsequently joined de Montfort's party. 

[v. 25] 

BIGOD, ROGER, fifth EARL OP NORFOLK (1245-1306), 
marshal of England : sou of Hugh Bigod (d. 1266) [q. v.] ; 
refused, with Earl of Hereford, to serve in Gascony un- 
accompanied by Edward I, 1297, and, on the king's de- 
parture to Flanders, protested in arms against taxation 
without national consent, Edward renouncing the right 
at Ghent, 1298 ; gave up marshal's rod, 1301. [v. 26] 

BIGSBY, JOHN JEREMIAH (1792-1881), geologist ; 
M.D. Edinburgh, 1814; army medical officer at Cape, 
1817 ; commissioned to report on geology of Upper Canada, 
1819 ; British secretary and medical officer of Canadian 
boundary commission, 1822 ; fellow, Geological Society, 
1823 ; F.R.S., 1869 ; practised medicine at Newark, 1827- 
1846, ami in London, 1846-81 ; published scientific and 
other writings. [v. 27] 

BIGSBY, ROBERT (1806-1873), antiquary; educated 
for legal profession, but abandoned it and turned his 
attention to study and accumulation of antiquities, ac- 
quiring several curious relics of Sir Francis Drake ; pub- 
lished historical, antiquarian, and other works, [v. 27] 

BLLFBITH (fi. 750), anchorite of Lindisfarne ; adorned 
with gold and gems the ' Durham Book,' a manuscript of 
the gospels now in Cottonian Library. [v. 28] 

BILL, ROBERT (1754-1827), inventor : educated for 
the army, but occupied himself with literary and scientific 
pursuits : originated improvements in domestic and other 
contrivances. [v. 28] 




BILL, WILLIAM (d. 1561), dean of Westminster : 
BA. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1533; fellow, 1535; 
MA 1536; D.D. and master of his college, 1547 : Linacre 
lecturer, 1547-9 : vice-chancellor, 1549 : master of Trinity 
and itineniry chaplain to the king, 1551; deprived of 
mastership by Mury, but reinstated, 1558 ; chief uluioner, 
1554 ; fellow and provost of Eton College, 1559 ; prebendary 
of Lincoln 1659 : on commission for revision of prayer- 
book, 1560 ; dean of Westminster, 1560. [v. 29] 

BILLING, ARCHIBALD (1791-1881), physician; 
AB Trinity College. Dublin, 1811; M.D., 1818; incor- 
porated M.D. Oxford? 1818 ; P.O.P., 1819, censor, College 
of Physicians, 1823, and councillor, 1852-5; physician to 
London Hospital, 1822-45 ; instituted clinical lectures in 
London, 1823; member of senate of London University. 
I.s36; F.K.S. : published medical works and a text-book 
on engraved gems, coins, and similar objects. [v. 30] 

BILLING, SIR THOMAS (d. 1481 ?), lawyer ; member 
of ('.ray's Inn; M.P. for London, 1448; recorder, 1451; 
serjeant-at-law, 1454; king's serjeant, 1458; knighted, 
r. 1 158 ; took part against the Lancastrians ; judge of 
king's bench, 1464; chief- justice of king's bench, 1469 till 
death, [v. 31] 

(fl. 1350), schoolman; educated at Merton College, Ox- 
ford ; concerned in riot occasioned by election to chan- 
cellorship of university, 1349. [v. 32] 

BILLINGS, JOSEPH (6. 1758 ?), explorer ; sailed as 
A.B. under Captain Cook on his last voyage ; lieutenant 
in Russian navy; commanded Russian exploring expedi- 
tion to north-eastern parts of Asia, 1785, and was pro- 
moted successively captain-lieutenant, and captain of 
second and first class. [v. 32] 

BILLINGS, ROBERT WILLIAM (1813-1874), archi- 
tect : employed in illustrating architectural works ; pub- 
lished on his own account ' Architectural Antiquities of 
County of Durham ' (1846), 'Baronial and Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities of Scotland' (1845-52), and other works ; re- 
stored many important old buildings in England and Scot- 
land, [v. 33] 

BILUNGSLEY, SIR HENRY (d. 1606), lord mayor 
of London and first translator of Euclid into English ; 
scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge, 1561 ; studied 
at Oxford ; apprenticed to London liaberdasher ; sheriff 
of London, 1584; lord mayor, 1596: knighted, c. 1597 : 
M.P. for London, 1604 ; published, 1570, the first transla- 
tion of Euclid into English. [v. 33] 

BLLLINGSLEY, JOHN, the elder (1625-1684), non- 
conformist divine ; educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge; fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1648; 
incorporated B.A., 1649 : minister at Chesterfield : ejected, 
1662, but continued to preach in private ; published con- 
troversial and other religious works. [v. 34] 

BLLLINGSLEY, JOHN, the younger (1657-1722), 
nonconformist divine; son of John Billingsley (1625- 
1684) [q. v.] ; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
ministered successively at Chesterfield, Sheffield, Selston, 
Kingston-upon-Hnll, and at Crutched Friars (1706): 
sided with opponents of subscription, 1719; published 
religious tracts, [v. 35] 

BILLINGSLEY, MARTIN (fl. 1618-1637), writing- 
master, probably to Prince Charles ; published ' The Pens 
Excelleucie, or the Secretarys Delight,' 1618. [v. S5] 

BILLINGSLEY, NICHOLAS (1633-1709), poet and 
divine: educated at Eton and Merton College, Oxford ; 
held living of Weobley: ejected, 1662: kept school at 
Abergavenny; received living of Blakeney in parish of 
Aw re, Gloucestershire, from which he was subsequently 
suspended ; published religions poems. [v. ;!6] 

BLLLINGTON, ELIZABETH (1768-1818X singer; 
daughter of Carl Weichsel, a native of Freiberg, Saxony, 
principal oboist at the King's Theatre ; studied music 
under her father and Schroeter : appeared at concert at 
Oxford, 1782: married James Billiugton, double bass 
player at Drury Lane, 1783 : engaged at Covent Garden, 
1786 ; received lessons from Sacchini at Paris, 1786, and 
later from Morelli, Pner, and Himmel : sang at Covent 
Garden, the concerts of ancient music, the oratorios, and 
Handel commemorations, till 1793: travelled on conti- 
nent, where, on her husband's death, she married M. 

Felissent, a Frenchman, 1799; appeared, on alternate 
uitrhts, at Covent Garden and Drury Lane, iWll ; sang at 
King's Theatre in Italian opera, 1802 till 1811, when she 
retired ; one of England's greatest singers. [v. 37] 

BLLLINGTON, THOMAS (</. 18:52). harpsichord and 
singing master ; brother-in-law of Elizabeth Billingtou 
[q. v.] ; member of Royal Society of Musicians, 1777; 
published instrumental and other musical compositions. 

[v. 39] 

BILLINGTON.WTLLI AM (1827-1884), dialect writer; 
employed in cotton mills at Blackburn : published verse 
and prose writings in Lancashire dialect. [v. 40] 

BLLNEY or BYLNEY, THOMAS (</. 1531), martyr : 
educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge; LL.B.; gained 
friendship of Matthew Parker and Latimer: licensed to 
preach throughout diocese of Ely, 1525, and delivered 
many sermons against prayers to saints and image 
worship ; arrested at instance of Wolsey and confined in 
Tower, 1527 : persuaded to recant and released, 1529 ; 
preached in Norfolk, 1531 : apprehended and subsequently 
burned at Bishopsgate. He maintained a consistent 
orthodoxy, after mediagval standards, on the power of the 
pope and of the church, the sacrifice of the mass, and the 
doctrine of transubstantiation. [v. 40] 

BLLSON, THOMAS (1547-1616), bishop of Winchester ; 
educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford ; M.A., 
1570 ; D.D., 1581 ; prebendary of Winchester, and warden 
of Winchester College, 1576 ; bishop of Worcester, 1596 
and of Winchester, 1597 ; published religious works. 

[v. 43] 

BINCKES, WILLIAM (d. 1712), dean of Lichfield: 
B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 1674; fellow of 
Peterhouse ; M.A., 1678 : prebendary of Lincoln, 1683, 
and of Lichfield, 1697; D.D., 1699; dean of Lichfleld, 
1703. [y. 44] 

(1795-1859), sporting writer ; published works on sporting 
subjects, including a revised and corrected edition of 
Delabere Elaine's 'Encyclopaedia of Rural Sports,' 1862. 

[v. 45] 

BINDLEY, JAMES (1737-1818), book collector; 

educated at Charterhouse and Peterhouse, Cambridge: 

j M.A., 1762; commissioner of stamp duties, 1765 ; senior 

1 commissioner, 1781-1818 ; F.S.A., 1765 ; formed valuable 

collection of rare books, engravings, and medals, [v. 46] 

BLNDON, FRANCIS (d. 1765), painter and architect ; 
executed portraits of Swift, Richard Baldwin [q. v.], and 
other eminent Irishmen ; retired, c. 1750. [v. 46] 

BINGHAM, GEORGE (1715-1800), divine; educated 
at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford: fellow of 
All Souls; M.A., 1739; B.D., 1748; proctor, 1746-6: 
rector of Pimperne, Dorsetshire, 1748 ; /proctor for 
diocese of Salisbury in convocations of 1761, 1768, 1774, 
I and 1780. He assisted the Rev. John Hutchins in compiling 
his 'History of Dorsetshire,' and published religious 
works. [ V . 46] 

LUCAN (1800-1888), field-marshal: educated at West- 
1 minster: ensign, 1816 : lieutenant, 1820 ; major, 1825: and 
j lieutenant-colonel, 1826-37, 17th lancers; M.P. for co. 
Mayo. 1826-30; succeeded to earldom, 1839; elected re- 
presentative peer of Ireland, 1840; lord- lieutenant of 
Mayo, 1845 ; major-general, 1851 ; commanded cavalry 
division in army in Turkey, 1854: directed charge of 
heavy brigade at Balaclava, and followed light brigade 
with two regiments of the heavy brigade to cover its 
retirement ; censured by Lord Raglan and recalled, 1855 ; 
K.O.B. and colonel of 8th hussars, 1855 : lieutenant- 
general, 1858; general, 1865; colonel of 1st life guards, 
1865 ; G.O.B., 1869 ; field-marshal, 1887. [Suppl. i. 196] 

major-general ; ensign in Corsica, 1793 : served in Cape 
and in Kaffir war, 1800 ; major, 1801 ; lieutenant-colonel 
of 2nd battalion 58rd foot in Ireland, 1805 : in Peninsula, 
1809-14 ; knighted : brigadier-general in St. Helena till 
1819 ; commanded Cork district, 1827-32. [v. 47] 

BINGHAM, JOHN (1607-1689), nonoouformistdivine; 
! educated at St. John's College, Cambridge ; head-master 
in free school, Derby: vicar of Murstou-upou-Dove, 
Derbyshire; ejected, 1662, subsequently suffering con- 
siderable persecution ; assisted Walton with his great 
polyglot bible. [v. 47] 




BINGHAM, JOSEPH (1668-1723), divine ; B.A. Uni- 
versity College, Oxford, 1688: fellow, 1689; \\v 
from university, being unjustly charged with preaching 
impious and heretical doctrines, 1696 ; collated to living 
of Havant, 1712 ; lost money in South Sea Bubble ; pub- 
lished ' Origines Ecclesiastic,' or ' Antiquities of the 
Christian Church,' 10 vols., 1708-22, and other works 
relating to ecclesiastical history and doctrine, [v. 48] 

(d. 1814), amateur painter; married, 1760, Sir Charles 
Bingham (created Earl of Lucan, 1795) ; spent many years 
in embellishment of Shakespeare's historical plays. Her 
miniatures were extravagantly praised by Horace Wai- 
pole, [v. 50] 

BINGHAM, PEREGRINE, the elder (1754-1826), 
biographer and poet ; B.C.L. New College, Oxford, 1780 ; 
rector of Berwick St. John, Wiltshire, 1817 ; published 
memoirs of his father, George Bingham [q. v.] [v. 51] 

BINGHAM, PEREGRINE, the younger (1788-1864), 
legal writer; son of Peregrine Bingham (1754-1826) 
[q. v.] : B.A. Magdalen College, Oxford, 1810 ; called to 
bar at Middle Temple, 1818; for many years legal 
reporter ; published legal works. [v. 51] 

1599), governor of Connaught ; served in Scotland under 
Somerset, 1547, at St. Quentin, 1557, in expedition against 
Out-isles of Scotland, 1558, under Don John of Austria 
against Turks, in conquest of Cyprus, 1572, in Low 
Countries, 1573, and under Dutch flag against Spaniards, 
1578; knighted and appointed governor of Counaught, 
1684 ; rigorously suppressed Connaught rebellion, 1586 ; 
temporarily recalled to take part in war in Netherlands, 
1587-8 ; repressed O'Rourke's revolt, 1590-1 ; imprisoned 
in Fleet on charge of exercising undue severity, 1596; 
returned to Ireland as marshal, 1598. [v. 62] 

BINGHAM, RICHARD, the elder (1765-1858), divine; 
educated at Winchester and New College, Oxford ; B.A., 
1787 ; D.O.L., 1801 ; prebendary of Chichester, 1807 ; im- 
prisoned at Winchester for fraud, 1813, and published 
vehement protestation of innocence ; issued, 1829, third 
edition of ' Origines Ecclesiasticae,' published by his an- 
cestor, Joseph Bingham [q. v.] [v. 53] 

BINGHAM, RICHARD, the yeunger (1798-1872), 
divine: son of Richard Bingham (1765-1858) [q. v.] ; 
M.A. Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 1827; vicar of Queen- 
borough, isle of Sheppey, 1856-70; published writings 
relating to liturgical revision, and an edition of works of 
Joseph Bingham [q. v.] [v. 54] 

BINGLEY, BARON (1676-1731). [See BENSON, 

BINGLEY, WILLIAM (1774-1823), miscellaneous 
writer ; M.A. St. Peter's College, Cambridge, 1803 ; 
minister of Fitzroy chapel. Charlotte Street, London, 
1816-23; F.L.S. ; published works on various subjects, 
including topography and natural history. [v. 65] 

BINHAM or BYNHAM, SIMON (/. 1336), chro- 
nicler ; monk of priory of Binhnin, Norfolk ; assisted in 
opposing exactions of Hugh, abbot (1308-26) of St. Al- 
baus; said to have contributed to 'Chronicle of Ris- 
hanger.' [v. 66] 

BINHAM or BYNHAM, WILLIAM (ft. 1370), prior 
of Wallingford; D.D. Oxford, where he was for a time 
intimate with Wycliffe, against whom he afterwards 
wrote 'Contra Positiones Wiclevi.' [v. 66] 


BINNEY, EDWARD WILLIAM (1812-1881), geo- 
logist ; practised as solicitor in Manchester from 1836 ; a 
founder and first honorary secretary of Manchester Geo- 
logical Society ; president, 1857-9 and 1865-7 ; member of 
London Geological Society, 1863: F.R.S., 1866; wrote 
many papers on geological subjects, of which Sigillnria 
was among the most important. [v. 66] 

BINNEY, fHOMAS (1798-1874), nonconformist 
divine; appreutiual to a Newcastle bookseller : studied at 
theological seminary at Wymondley, Hertfordshire; pastor 
of St. James's Street chapel, Newport, Isle of Wight, l.v.' i. 
aud congregation at Weigh House, London, 1829-69; 

1 acquired high reputation as preacher ; visited Australia, 
1857 ; LL.D. Aberdeen, 1852 ; on two occasions he was 
elected chairman of the Congregational Union of England 
and Wales ; wrote polemical works and verse of a religious 
character. [v. 57] 

BINNING, LORD (1697-1733). [See HAMILTON, 

BINNING, HUGH (1627-1653), Scottish divine: 
M.A. Glasgow ; professor of philosophy, 1647-51 ; licensed 
minister ; called to parish of Govan, near Glasgow, 1649 ; 
ordained, 1650 ; sided with protesteiy against resolutioners, 
and took prominent part in dispute before Cromwell at 
Glasgow, 1651 ; published religious works. [v. 59] 

BINNS, SIR HENRY (1837-1899), prime minister of 
Natal ; went to Natal, 1858 ; conducted sugar estate at 
Riet River, 1860, and floated, 1868, Umhlanga Valley 
Sugar Estate Company, of which he was general manager 
till 1892 ; nominee member of legislative council, 1879, and 
was member for Victoria county, 1883-99 ; prime minis- 
ter of Natal, 1897; colonial secretary and minister of 
agriculture, 1897, but soon resigned latter portfolio: 
advocated and (1898) brought about entrance of Natal 
into South African customs union ; K.O.M.G., 1898. 

[Suppl. i. 198] 
st and politician ; 

BINNS, JOHN (1772-1860), journalist 
engaged as plumber in London, 1794 ; member of London 
Corresponding Company; connected with schemes of 
United Irishmen ; in prison, 1798-1801 ; went to America, 
1801 ; edited successively ' Republican Argus ' and ' Demo- 
cratic Press.' [v. 60] 

BINYON, EDWARD (1830 ?-1876), landscape painter ; 
contributed to exhibitions of Royal Academy and Dudley 
Gallery, 1857-76. [v. 61] 


historian ; born at Lesina, in Gulf of Venice ; secretary to 

Venetian ambassador at Paris ; came to England, 1609 ; 

j represented, James I at Calvinist assembly, Grenoble, 

, 1615 ; knighted, 1622 ; gentleman of king's privy chamber ; 

died at Aubonne, Switzerland; published in Italian at 

1 Venice three romances and a work on the Wars of the 

! Roses, which all appeared in English translations. 
[v. 61] 
BIRCH, CHARLES BELL (1832-1893), sculptor, son 
; of Jonathan Birch [q. v.] ; studied at school of design, 
Somerset House, and at Royal academies, Berlin and 
j London ; assistant to John Henry Foley [q v.] ; won 
i premium from Art Union of London for ' Wood Nymph,' 
I 1864; exhibited at Burlington House from 1864; A.R.A., 
I 1880 ; produced bronze ' Griffin ' on Temple Bar memorial, 
} Fleet Street, 1880; his works include a statue of Lord 
i Beaconsfield at Liverpool, and statues of Queen Victoria 
at Aberdeen and Oodeypore, India. [Suppl. i. 199] 

BIRCH, JAMES (.ft. 1769-1795), heresiarch; watch- 
motion maker in London ; joined Muggletouians, c. 1759, 
but rejected part of their doctrine, 1772 ; began to claim 
I personal inspiration, 1778 ; published theological works. 

[v. 62] 

BIRCH, JOHN (1616-1691), presbyterian colonel: 
j merchant in Bristol; after surrender of Bristol to 
! royalists, levied regiment in London and served as colonel 
under Sir William Waller ; wounded at Arundel '. present 
at battle of Alresford, blockade of Oxford, and skirmish 
at Cropredy Bridge ; entrusted with care of Bath ; assisted 
in assault on Bristol, 1645, which, later, was given into his 
charge ; took Hereford and became its governor ; M.P. 
for Leomiuster ; opposed extreme measures of Orom- 
wellians ; imprisoned at Hereford, 1664-6 : took prominent 
part in Restoration; member of council of state, 1660: 
auditor of excise: M.P. for Leoininster in Convention 
parliament, Peurhyn, 1671-8, and for Weobly, 1678-91. 

[v. 02] 

BIRCH, JOHN (1745 ?-1815), surgeon ; served as sur- 
geon in army, and afterwards settled in London ; surgeon 
to St. Thomas's Hospital, 1784-1816; surgeon extraor- 
dinary to prince regent: advocated use of electricity as a 
remedial agent, and opposed introduction of vaccination ; 
published medical works. [v. 64] 

BIRCH, JONATHAN (1783-1847), translator of 
' Faust* ; in office of John Argelander, a timber merchant 
at Memel (with whom, in 1807, the three eldest sons of 
Frederick William III of 1'ruwin took refuge), 1803-12; 




returned to England, 1812 : on terms of close intimacy 
with Frederick William IV of Prussia : published several 
works, including translations of Goethe's ' Faust,' 1839-43, 
ami tin; NihHungen Lied,' 1848. [v. 65] 

BIRCH, PKTKU (1652?-1710), divine: alucated at 
(aiiibri'lu'e ami Christ Church, Oxford; M.A., 1G74 ; D.D., 
!i,s-i : -uro-ssivfly curate of St. Thomas's, Oxford, rector 
of St. Kbbr's Church and lecturer at Carfax; chaplain to 
Janifs, iluke of Onnoiiik' : chaplain to House of Commons 
ami prebendary of Westminster, 1689; rector of St. 
James's, Westminster, 1692, but was removed owing, 
probably, to his high church principles, which were offen- 
sive to the court : vicar of St. Bride's, Fleet Street, 1695 ; 
published sermons. [v. 66] 

1875), general: ensign, Bengal infantry, 1821; judge- 
a'lvocate-geueral to Bengal forces, 1841: O.B., 1849; 
secretary to Indian military department, 1852; colonel, 
1854; major-general, 1858; K.C.B., 1860; lieutenant- 
l. 1862. [v. 67] 

BIRCH, SAMUEL (1757-1841), dramatist; pastry- 
cook in Cornhill ; common councillor, 1781 ; alderman of 
Candlewick ward, 1807-40; sheriff, 1811; lord mayor, 
1814; wrote poems and musical dramas, of which the 
Adopted Child' (1795) was the most successful, [v. 67] 

BIRCH, SAMUEL (1813-1885), egyptologist ; grand- 
son of Samuel Birch [q. v.] ; educated at Merchant 
Taylors' School, where he studied Chinese; entered ser- 
vice of commissioners of public records, 1834 ; assistant 
in department of antiquities in British Museum, 1836, 
and was assistant-keeper, 1844-61 : studied egyptology, 
and quickly established importance of Champollion's 
system of decipherment of Egyptian : keeper of oriental, 
British, and mediaeval antiquities at British Museum, 
1861, and, from 1866 till death, of oriental antiquities 
alone; founded Society of Biblical Archaeology, 1870, 
and was president, 1870-85 ; LL.D. Aberdeen, 1862, and 
Cambridge, 1876 ; D.O.L. Oxford, 1876 ; honorary fellow 
of Queen's College, Oxford ; Rale lecturer at Cambridge, 
1876 ; he published translations from oriental writings 
and archaeological, egyptological, and other treatises, 
besides popular educational works on Egyptian language 
and history. [Suppl. i. 199] 

BIRCH, THOMAS (1705-1766), divine; rector of 
Ulting, Essex,. 1732, Llandewi-Velfrey, Pembroke (a 
sinecure), 1743, Siddington, near Cirencester, 1744, St. 
Michael, Wood Street, London, 1744, St. Margaret Pattens, 
London, 1746-66, and Depden, Suffolk, 1761-6 ; D.D. 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, and of Lambeth, 1753; 
F.R.S. and F.S.A., 1735; secretary of Royal Society, 
1752-65 ; bequeathed historical and biographical manu- 
scripts to the British Museum; published historical 
works and contributed to 'General Dictionary, Historical 
and Critical ' (1734-41). [v. 68] 

BIRCH, THOMAS LEDLIE (d. 1808), Irish presby- 
terian divine ; minister of Saintfield, 1776 ; went to Ame- 
rica after insurrection of 1798, with which he was con- 
nected ; published religious works. [v. 70] 

BIRCH, WILLIAM (1765-1834), enamel painter and 
engraver: practised after 1794 in Philadelphia; received 
Society of Arts medal, 1785. [v. 70] 

BIRCHENSHA, JOHN (fl, 1664-1672), musician: 
lived in family of Earl of Kildare, and afterwards taught 
the viol in London : prepared notes for a work on the 
mathematical basis of music. [v. 70] 

BIRCHUfGTON, STEPHEN (fl. 1382), historical 
writer; monk of Christ Church, Canterbury, 1382; trea- 
surer and warden of manors of the monastery ; wrote 
historical works. [v. 71] 

BIRCHLEY, WILLIAM (1613-1669). [See AUSTIN, 

BERCKBEK, SIMON (1584-1656), divine; B.A. 
Queen's College, Oxford, 1604 : B.D., 1616 ; vicar of Gilling, 
and of Forcet, near Richmond, Yorkshire, 1617 ; published 
religious works. [v. 71] 

BIRD, CHARLES SMITH (1795-1862), divine: 
articled as conveyancing solicitor, Liverpool, 1812; 
scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1818 : fellow, 1 820 : 
took pupils, among whom was Lord Macaulay ; vicar of 

Gainsborough, and prebendary of Lincoln, 1843 ; chan- 
cellor of Lincoln Cathedral, 1859 ; F.L.S., 1828 ; published 
poems and theological works. [v. 71] 

BIRD, EDWARD (1772-1819), painter ; conducted a 
drawing school at Bristol ; first exhibited at Royal Aca- 
demy, 1809 ; awarded premium by British Institution for 
' Death of Eli ' ; R.A., 1816 ; court painter to Queen Char- 
lotte. 'The Field of Chevy Chace' is considered his 
greatest work. [v. 72] 

BIRD, FRANCIS (1667-1731), sculptor; studied at 
Brussels and Rome, and under Gibbons and Cibber, to 
whose practice he succeeded ; employed in decorations of 
St. Paul's Cathedral : his best work is the statue of Dr. 
Busby in Westminster Abbey. [v. 73] 

BIRD, GOLDING (1814-1854), physician ; studied at 
Guy's Hospital, 1832 ; licensed, without examination, to 
practise as apothecary, 1836 ; M.D. St. Andrews, 1838 ; 
M.A., 1840 ; L.C.P., London, 1840 ; F.C.P., 1845 : lecturer 
on natural philosophy at Guy's Hospital, 1836-53 ; phy- 
sician to Finsbury dispensary ; assistant physician to 
Guy's, 1843-53 ; lecturer on materia medica, College of 
Physicians, 1847: F.R.S., and member of Linuean and 
Geological societies: published 'Elements of Natural 
Philosophy,' 1839, and medical works. [v. 74] 

BIRD, JAMES (1788-1839), dramatist and poetical 
writer; apprenticed as miller but abandoned the trade 
for that of stationer, 1820 ; wrote two plays which were 
produced with some success, and some narrative poems. 

[v. 75] 

BIRD, JOHN (d. 1558), bishop ; Carmelite friar ; B.D. 
Oxford, 1510; D.D., 1513 ; provincial of his order, 1516-19, 
and 1522-5 ; suffragan to bishop of Llandaff , with title of 
bishop of Penrith, 1537 ; accompanied Wotton on embassy 
to Germany, 1539 ; bishop of Bangor, 1539, and of Chester, 
1541 ; deprived of his bishopric on account of his being 
married, 1564; suffragan to Bonner, bishop of London, 
1554 ; left religious writings in manuscript. [v. 76] 

BIRD, JOHN (1709-1776), mathematical instrument 
maker ; employed by Sisson, in London, in making mathe- 
matical instruments, 1740 ; carried on business independ- 
ently in Strand, 1745; acquired considerable fame by 
making instruments of improved accuracy for the astro- 
nomer Bradley; constructed brass mural quadrant for 
Greenwich Observatory, 1750, and for several continental 
observatories ; published treatises describing his methods 
of working. [v. 77] 

BIRD, RICHARD (d. 1609), canon of Canterbury ; 
B.D. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1669 ; fellow ; M.A., 
1572 ; D.D., 1608 ; archdeacon of Cleveland, 1589 ; canon 
of Canterbury, 1590. [v. 77] 

BIRD, ROBERT MERTTINS (1788-1853), Bengal civil 
servant; commissioner of revenue and circuit forGorakh- 
pur division, 1829 ; member of board of revenue, 1832 ; 
successfully conducted settlement of revenue of north- 
west provinces, 1833-41 ; returned to England, 1842. 

[v. 78] 

BIRD, SAMUEL (fl. 1600), divine; M.A. Queens' 
College, Cambridge, 1673 ; fellow, Corpus Christi College, 
1573-6; minister of St. Peter's, Ipswich, c. 1580-1604; 
incorporated M.A. Oxford, 1605; published religious 
works. [v. 79] 

BIRD, WILLIAM (1538 ?-1623). [See BYRD.] 

BIRDSALL, JOHN AUGUSTINE (1775-1837), Bene- 
dictine; joined Benedictines at Lamspringe, Hanover, 
1795 ; priest, 1801 ; came to England on suppression of 
abbey, 1803; established catholic mission at Cheltenham, 
1810, and at Broadway, Worcestershire, 1828 ; provincial 
of Canterbury, 1822 : re-elected, 1826 ; president-general 
of Benedictines in England, and cathedral prior of Win- 
chester, 1826 ; abbot of Westminster, 1830. [iv. 79] 

BIRINUS, SAINT (d. 650), first bishop of Dorchester ; 
Benedictine monk of Rome ; landed in Wessex, 634 : made 
many converts to Christianity ; bishop of Dorchester, 635. 


BIRKBECK, GEORGE (1776-1841), founder of me- 
chanics' institutions ; M.D. Edinburgh, 1 799 ; professor 
of natural philosophy, Andersonian University, Glasgow, 
1799 ; established, 1800, for working men at Glasgow, cheap 
courses of lectures on science, which developed into the 
' Glasgow Mechanics' Institution,' 1823 ; practised as 




physic-inn in London ; founder and first president of Birk- 
beck Mechanics' Institution, London, 1824 ; founder and 
councillor of University College, London, 1827. [v. 80] 

(1616-1679), author of 'Mercurius Aulicus'; M.A. Oriel 
College, Oxford, 1639 : probationer-fellow, All Souls' Col- 
lege, 1640; devised and mostly wrote ' Mercurius Aulicus,' 
the weekly journal of royalists at Oxford, 1642-5 ; in exile 
with Prince Charles, 1648; probably knighted at St. Ger- 
mains, 1649 : D.C.L., 1661 ; M.P. for Wilton ; member of 
Royal Society: one of masters of requests; published 
satirical poems. [iv. 81] 

BIRKENSHAW, JOHN (fl. 1664-1672). [See Bin- 


BIRKHEAD or BIRKET, GEORGE (d. 1614), nreh- 
priest; educated at Douay and Rome; ordained, 1577; 
joined English mission, 1580; archpriest of England, 
1608-14. [v. 83] 

BIRKHEAD, HENRY (1617 ?-1696), Latin poet; 
scholar, Trinity College, Oxford, 1636 ; studied at St. 
Omer : B.A. : fellow of All Souls', 1638-57 ; M.A., 1641 ; 
registrar of diocese of Norwich, 1660-81 ; published poems 
in Latin and left in manuscript an allegorical play ; pro- 
fessorship of poetry at Oxford founded in 1708 from funds 

BISHOP, ANN (1814-1884), soprano singer; me 

Riviere ; student of Royal Academy of Music, 1824-31 ; 

married Sir Henry Rowley Bishop [q. v.], 1831 ; took 

prominent place at Vauxhall : eloped with Bochsa, the 

! Imrp-player, 1339; travelled and sang in European towns, 

; lH:59-4;. in England, 1846-7, America, 1847, and Aus- 

1 tralia, 1855 ; died at New York. [v. 89] 

BISHOP, GEORGE (1785-1861), astronomer; pro- 

left by him. 

[v. 83] 

BERKS, THOMAS RAWSON (1810-1883), noncon- 
formist divine: second wrangler and second Smith's 
prizeman, Trinity College, Cambridge, 1834 ; fellow ; 
Ticar of Trinity Church, Cambridge, 1866-77 ; honorary 
canon of Ely, 1871 ; professor of moral philosophy, Cam- 
bridge, 1872. His works include ' The Bible and Modern 
Thought,' 1861, and ' Modern Utilitarianism,' 1874. 

BIRMINGHAM. JOHN (1816-1884), astronomer ; "re- 
vised Schjellerup's 'Catalogue of Red Stars,' 1872; dis- 
covered a deep red star in Oygnus, which became known 
by his name, 1881 : inspector under board of works. 

[v. 85] 

BERNEE, ALEXANDER (1826-1862), poet and jour- 
nalist ; baptist minister at Preston : painter at Falkirk ; 
joined staff of ' Falkirk Advertiser ' ; started * Falkirk 
Liberal,' which was unsuccessful : made his way on foot 
to Edinburgh and thence to Newcastle, and died of starva- 
tion at Morpeth. [v. 86] 

BIRNIE, SIR RICHARD (1760 ?-1832), police magis- 
trate; partner in an extensive saddler and harness- 
maker's business in Haymarket, London ; police magis- 
trate at Union Hall and subsequently at Bow Street; 
knighted, 1821. [v. 86] 

BERNIE, WILLIAM (1663-1619), Scottish divine; 
M.A. St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews, 1688; became 
shipmaster merchant; vicar of Lanark, 1597; master 
and economus of St. Leonard's hospital and almshouse, 
1603 ; dean of Cliapel Royal, 1612 : constant moderator of 
presbytery, 1606 ; member of high commission court, 
1610 and 1616. [v. 87] 

BERNSTAN (d. 933). [See BVUXRTAN.] 

BIRREL, ROBERT (/. 1567-1606), diarist; burgess 
of Edinburgh ; wrote a diary, 1532-1605, published in 
Fragments of Scottish History,' 1798. [v. 88] 

BISBYorBISBEE, NATHANIEL(1635-1695),diviiK>: 
M.A. Christ Church, Oxfonl, 1660 ; D.D., 166X : rector of 
Long Melford, 1660 : deprived as nonjuror, 1690; wrote 
against nonconformists. [v. 88] 

BI8CHOFF, JAMES (1776-1845), author of works on 
the wool trade : connected with woollen trade in Leeds, 
and subsequently carried on business as merchant and 
insurance broker in London ; publiahed works aiming at 
reform in laws relating to wool. [v. 88] 

BISCOE, JOHN (</. 1679), puritan divine; B.A. New 
Inn Hall, Oxford, 1627 ; minister of St. Thomas's, Sonth- 
wark ; ejected, 1660 ; published religious works, [v. 89] 

BISCOE, RICHARD (rf. 1748), divine: dissenting 
minister of meeting-house in Old Jewry, 1716 : conformed 
and became rector of St. Martin Outwich, London, 1727 ; 
chaplain to George II ; Boyle lecturer, 17:16-3 ; published 
lectures, 1742. [v. 89] 

prietor of a wine-making business in London ; admitted 
to Royal Astronomical Society, 1830; secretary, 1833-9; 
treasurer, 1840-57; president, 1867 and 1858; F.R.S., 
1848 ; fellow of Society of Arts ; on council of University 
College, London ; erected, 1836, an observatory near his 
residence at SouthVilla, Regent's Park, where Rev. William 
Dawes and Jolm Russell Hind conducted many important 
1 investigations. [v. 90] 

BISHOP, Sm HENRY ROWLEY (1786-1856), musi- 
cal composer; his first opera, 'The Circassian Bride,' 
I produced at Drury Lane, 1809 ; composer and director at 
I Covent Garden, 1810; produced 'Knight of Snowdoun' 
(founded on Scott's ' Lady of the Lake '), 1811, which was 
followed, in rapid succession, by other pieces, including 
' Midsummer Night's Dream,' 1816, ' Comedy of Errors,' 
1819, ' Antiquary,' 1820, ' Twelfth Night,' 1820, ' Henry IV 
Part II,' 1821, ' Two Gentlemen of Verona,' 1821, and ' As 
you like it,' 1824 ; original member of Philharmonic So- 
ciety, 1813; musical director of King's Theatre, Hay- 
market, 1816-17 ; sole manager, 1820, of the 'oratorios' 
given during Lent ; engaged, 1825, at Drury Lane, where 
he produced ' Aladdin ' as counter-attraction to Weber's 
' Oberon ' at Oovent Garden, 1826 ; wrote music for 
' Faustus ' in collaboration with Oooke and Horn, 1835, 
'Hamlet,' 1830, 'Kenilworth' and 'Waverley,' 1832, and 
' Love's Labour's Lost,' 1839, and ' Fortunate Isles ' to cele- 
brate Queen Victoria's marriage, 1840 : musical director 
at Vauxhall Gardens, 1830-3 ; Mus. Bac. Oxford, 1839 ; 
professor of harmony, Royal Academy of Music ; Reid 
Professor at Edinburgh, 1841-3 ; conducted Antient Con- 
certs, 1840-8 ; knighted, 1842 : professor of music, Ox- 
ford, 1848; Mus. Doc., 1853. His fame rests almost en- 
tirely on his glees. [v. 91] 

BISHOP, JOHN (1665-1737), musical composer; 
teacher of choristers at King's College, Cambridge, 1688 : 
organist of Winchester College, 1695 ; lay- vicar, 1696, and 
organist and master of choristers, 1729, Winchester 
Cathedral ; published psalm-tunes and anthems and left 
compositions in manuscript. [v. 94] 

BISHOP, JOHN (1797-1873), surgeon : studied at St. 
George's Hospital ; obtained diploma of Royal College of 
Surgeons, 1824 ; senior surgeon, Islington dispensary, and 
surgeon Northern and St. Paucras dispensaries ; F.R.S., 
e. 1844 ; wrote surgical works. [v. 95] 

BISHOP, SAMUEL (1731-1795), poet: educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School and St. John's College, Oxford ; 
fellow, 1753; M.A., 1768; head-master of Merchant 
Taylors' School, 1783 ; rector of Ditton, Kent, and St. 
Martin Outwich, London ; published essays and poems. 

[v. 95] 

BISHOP, WILLIAM (1654-1624), catholic divine; 
educated at Oxford and at English college, Rhcims : or- 
dained priest, 1583 : joined English mission ; imprisoned 
in Marshalsea, 1583-4; studied at Paris; returned to 
English mission, 1591 ; D.D. Paris ; sent to Rome to 
remonstrate against maladministration of George Black- 
well [q. v.], archpriest ; confined in English college ; 
imprisoned for refusing oath of allegiance to James I, 
1611 ; on release went to Arras College, Paris ; vicar- 
apostolic and bishop of Chalcedon, 1623 ; came to Eng- 
land, 1623 ; published theological works. [v. 96] 

BISLEY, GEORGE (rf. 1691). [See BKRRLKY.] 

BISSAIT or BISSET, BALDRED (/. 1303), divine; 
rector of Kinghorn : commissioner to pope in dispute be- 
tween Boniface VIII, Edward I, and Scottish government. 
His ' Progressus contra flgrnenta regis Angliae ' contains 
earliest mention of Scottish coronation stone. [v. 97] 

BISSE, PHILIP (1667-1721), bishop of Hereford ; 
ednont^l at Winchester and New College, Oxford: M.A., 
1693 : D.D., 1705 : F.R.S., 1706 : bishop of St. Davi.1V, 1710, 
und Hereford, 1713: published sermons. [v. 98J 




BISSE, THOMAS (d. 1731), divine : younger brother 
of Philip BUse [q. v.] ; M.A. Corpus Christi College, Ox- 
ford, 1698 ; D.D., 1712 : preaclier at Rolls chapel, 1715 ; 
chancellor of Hereford, 1716; prebendary of Hereford, 
1731 ; published religious works. [v. 98] 

BISSET, CHARLES (1717-1791), physician and 
military engineer; studied medicine at Edinburgh ; second 
nrgeon of military hospital, Jamaica, 174(1; served in 
Admiral Vernon's fleet; returned to England, 1745; eu- 
Hign in 42nd Highlander?, 1746 ; prepared reports of pro- 
trri'ss of sifgL- of Bereen-Op-Zoom ; engineer-extraordinary 
in engineer brigade: practised medicine at Skelton, 
Yorkshire: published works on fortificatiou and on medi- 
c:il subjects. [v. 99] 

BISSET, JAMES (1762 ?-1832), artist, publisher, and 
vi T~t- writer; established museum and curiosity shop at 
Birmingham: coined medals and practised as miniature 
and fancy painter ; opened museum, news-room, and pic- 
tun- gallery at Leamington, 1812. His publications 
include 'Poetic Survey round Birmingham' (1800) and 
volumes of verse. [v. loO] 

BISSET, JAMES (1795-1872), scholar; educated at 
Marischal College and University, Aberdeen ; D.D., 1851 : 
assumed control of private school kept by his father, and 
developed remarkable teaching ability, 1812 ; minister at 
Bourtrie, Aberdeeushire, 1826 ; moderator of general 
assembly of church of Scotland, 1862. [v. 100] 

BISSET, SIR JOHN (1777-1854), commissary-general ; 
commissary-general in Spain, 1811 ; knight commander 
of Quelphic order, 1830 ; K.O.B., 1850 ; published a work 
on commissariat duties. [v. 101] 

professor of canon law; studied at St. Andrews, Paris, 
and Bologna ; LL.D., and subsequently professor of canon 
law, Bologna ; wrote two works in Latin. [v. 101] 

BISSET, ROBERT (1769-1805), historian; LL.D.; 
master of an academy in Sloane Street, Chelsea. His 
works include a life of Burke (1798) and a 'History of 
George III ' (1804). [v. 101] 

BISSET, WILLIAM (d. 1747), divine ; educated at 
Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge; B.A., 
1690 : rector of Whiston, 1697 ; elder brother of St. 
Catherine's Collegiate Church, 1699; published, 1710, 
reply to Dr. SachevereU's sermon of 6 Nov. 1709, occasion- 
ing pamphlet war to which he largely contributed ; chap- 
lain to Queen Caroline. [v. 102] 

BISSET, WILLIAM (1758-1834), Irish bishop ; edu- 
cated at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford ; B.A., 
1779 ; M.A., 1782 ; D.D. ; rector of Dunbin, co. Louth, 
1784; prebendary of Armagh, 1791-1807; archdeacon of 
Ross, 1804; chancellor of Armagh, 1817; bishop of 
Raphoe, 1822. [v. 102] 

BIX, ANGEL (d. 1695), Franciscan friar ; chaplain 
to Spanish ambassador in London in James II's reign ; 
published sermons. [v. 103] 

BIZAEI, PIETRO (1530 ?-1586 ?X Italian historian 
and poet ; adopted reformed faith and came to England ; 
fellow, St. John's College, Cambridge, 1549 ; prebendary 
of Salisbury, 1567; published historical, poetical, and 
other works in Italian and Latin, and left manuscripts, 
which include a ' Universal History.' [v. 103] 

BLAATJW, WILLIAM HENRY (1793-1870), anti- 
quary; educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford; 
M.A., 1815 ; F.S.A., 1850 : treasurer of Camden Society ; 
published, 1844, history of barons' war of Henry Ill's 
reign. [v. 105] 

Scottish archbishop: prebendary of Glasgow and rector 
of Cardross : bishop of Aberdeen, 1480, and of Glasgow, 
before 1484; archbishop of Glasgow, 1492: frequently 
employed in public transactions with English : died in 
Holy Land on pilgrimage to Jerusalem. [v. 106] 

BLACATER, ADAM (fl. 1319), born in Scotland; 
professor of philosophy successively in Poland and at 
Bologna and rector of a college in Paris University. 

[v. 105] 

BLACHFORD, BARON (1811-1889). [See ROGERS, 

BLACK, ADAM (1784-1874), politician and publisher ; 

i carried on bookselling business at Edinburgh, at first 
alone, and subsequently in partnership with his m-phi-w 
Charles; twice lord-provost of and, 1856-65, liberal .M.I'. 
for Edinburgh. His firm acquired copyrights of 'Encyclo- 

| paxlia Britaunica,' 1H27, imd Scott's novels, 1851. [v. 105] 

BLACK, ALEXANDER (1789-1864), Scottish theo- 
i logian; studied medicine at Aberdeen ; ordained minister 

of Tarves, 1818 ; professor of divinity, Marischal O'ollegf, 
, 1832-43; accompanied expedition to the East in conmv- 
I tion with proposed formation of mission to Jews, 1839 ; 

joined Free church, 1843 ; D.D. [v. 106] 

BLACK, JAMES (1788?-1867), physician; L.C.S. 
Edinburgh, 1808 ; served in navy ; practised successively 
at Manchester, 1839-48, Bolton, 1848-56, and Edinburgh : 
M.D. Glasgow, 1820 ; L.R.C.S.,1823 ; F.R.C.P., 1860 : pub- 
lished medical works and papers on geological subjects. 

[v. 106] 

BLACK, JOHN (1783-1855), journalist ; employed as 
; clerk at Dunse: in accountant's office at Edinburgh, 
i where he studied at the university ; contributed to 'Uni- 
versal Magazine* ; went to London, 1810 ; translator of 
i foreign correspondence and reporter to 'Morning Chro- 
| nicle ' ; became editor, 1817, and maintained the journal's 
j position as the most uncompromising of opposition papers 
till 1843, when a decline of energy in its management 
occasioned a request for his resignation ; retired to Snod- 
land. near Maidstone ; published translations from Leo- 
! pold von Buch, Schlegel, and others. [v. 107] 

BLACK, JOSEPH (1728-1799), chemist; studied 
medicine at Glasgow and at Edinburgh, where he gra- 
! dnated M.D. with an important thesis, ' De humore acido 
! a cibis orto, et Magnesia alba,' which laid the foundations 
of quantitative analysis and pneumatic chemistry, 1754 ; 
professor of medicine, Glasgow, 1756-66; practised as 
physician ; made investigations into the question of 
' latent heat,' which formed the basis of modern thermal 
science, and gave the first impulse to Watt's improve- 
ments in the steam engine, 1756-62 ; experimented with 
object of testing validity of thermometrical indications, 
and originated theory of 'specific heat,' 1760; professor 
of medicine and chemistry, Edinburgh, 1766-97. He was 
first physician to George III for Scotland and a member 
of Royal Society, Edinburgh, and Royal College of Phy- 
sicians, [v. 109] 

BLACK, PATRICK (1813-1879), physician; edu- 
cated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford: M.D., 1836; 
physician to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 1860; lecturer 
on medicine ; F.C.P. ; published medical treatises. 

[v. 112] 

BLACK, ROBERT (1752-1817), Irish presbyterian 
divine ; educated at Glasgow ; ordained minister of 
Dromore, 1777 ; captain of Irish volunteers, 1782 : joint- 
minister at Derry, 1784 ; synod agent for refjium tlonum, 
1788-1817 ; D.D. ; strongly advocated catholic emancipa- 
tion and parliamentary reform, and was the friend and 
correspondent of Castlereagh : committed suicide from 
disappointment at lack of success of his opposition to 
establishment of Belfast Academical Institution (opened 
1814). [v. 112] 

BLACK, WILLIAM (1749-1829), physician: M.D. 
Leydeu, 1772 ; L.C.P., 1787 ; practised in London : one of 
the first Englishmen who published (1783) statistics of 
diseases and mortality. [v. 113] 

BLACK, WILLIAM (1841-1898), novelist: studied 
art at Glasgow : became contributor to ' Glasgow Citizen ' : 
came to London, 1864, and was connected, 1865, with 
' Morning Star,' for which paper he was war correspon- 
dent during Franco-Prussian war, 1866 : subsequently 
sub-editor of 'Daily News.' His novels include 'A 
Daughter of Heth,' 1871, ' The Strange Adventures of a 
Phaeton,' 1872, and ' A Princess of Thule,' 1874. 

[Suppl. i. 202] 

BLACK, WILLIAM HENRY (1808-1872), antiquary ; 
assistant keeper in Public Record Office. He was a 
prolific writer on antiquarian subjects. [v. 114] 

BLACKADDER, ADAM (fl. 1674-1696), covenanter, 
son of John Blackadder the elder [q. v.] : apprenticed 
as merchant at Stirling: repeatedly imprisoned for 
Calvinistic principles ; retired to Sweden, and subsequently 
settled in Edinburgh ; wrote narrative of his father's 
sufferings. [v. 114] 




BLACKADDER, JOHN, the elder (1615-1686), Scot- 
tish divine; M.A. Glasgow, 1650; called to parish of 
Troqueer, 1652 ; ordained, 1653 : ejected by episcopal 
party and imprisoned at Edinburgh, 1662 ; preached in 
conventicles and was outlawed, 1674; fled to Rotterdam, 
1678: returned to Edinburgh, 1679; arrested, 1681, and 
imprisoned on Bass Rock, where he died. [v. 115] 

BLACKADDER, JOHN, the younger (1664-1729), 
lieutenant-colonel; son of John Blackadder (1615-1686) 
[q. v.] ; educated at Edinburgh ; served in Cameronian 
regiment against highlanders at Dunkeld, under Prince of 
Orange in Flanders, and in Marlborough's campaigns ; 
promoted to command of regiment, 1709 ; sold commis- 
sion ; fought at Stirling, 1715 ; deputy governor of Stirling 
f:i-tle, 1717. [v. 115] 

BLACKADDER, WILLIAM (1647-1704), physician ; 
brother of John Blackadder (1664-1729) [q. v.] ; educated 
at Edinburgh; M.D. Leyden, 1680; accompanied Earl of 
Argyle in expedition to Scotland, 1685 : apprehended and 
imprisoned ; on liberation retired to Holland ; conducted 
secret negotiations for Prince of Orange in Edinburgh, 
1688 ; physician to William III. [v. 116] 

BLACKADER, OUTHBERT(rf. 1485), Scottish border 
chieftain ; fought for Lancastrians in Wars of the Roses ; 
killed at Bosworth. [v. 116] 


BLACKALL, JOHN (1771-1860), physician ; M.A. 
Balliol College, Oxford, 1796; M.D., 1801; studied at 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital: physician to Devon and 
Exeter Hospital, 1797 ; resigned, 1801 : reappointed, 1807 ; 
physician to St. Thomas's lunatic asylum, 1812; pub- 
lished 'Observations on Nature and Cure of Dropsies,' 
1813: F.O.P.,1815. [v. 117] 

1716), bishop of Exeter; educated at St. Catharine Hall, 
Cambridge ; rector of St. Mary, Aldermary, London, 1694 ; 
chaplain to William III; Boyle lecturer, 1700 ; bishop of 
Exeter, 1708 ; renowned as a preacher ; published sermons 
and controversial pamphlets. [v. 117] 

BLACKALL, SAMUEL (rf. 1792), divine; grandson 
of Offspring Blackall [q. v.] ; M.A. Emmanuel College, 
Cambridge, 1763 : B.D., 1770 ; fellow and tutor : rector of 
Loughborough, 1786-92 ; published sermons and contro- 
versial pamphlets. [v. 118] 

BLACKBOURNE, JOHN (1683-1741), nonjuror ; 
M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1705; consecrated by 
' King James III ' bishop of nonjurors, 1726 ; member of 
the section of nonjurors known as ' nonusagers.' His 
publications include an edition of Bacon's works (1730). 

[v. 119] 

1896), judge ; educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge ; M.A., 1838 ; honorary LL.D. Edinburgh, 1870 ; 
called to bar at Inner Temple, 1838 ; honorary bencher, 
1877 ; joined northern circuit ; appointed justice of 
queen's bench, and invested with cob*, 1859 ; knighted, 
1860 ; justice of high court, 1875 : raised to peerage, 1876 ; 
privy councillor, 1876 ; retired, 1886 : served on several 
royal commissions ; published legal writings. 

[Suppl. i. 203] 

BLACKBURN, WILLIAM (1750-1790), surveyor and 
architect ; studied at Royal Academy : obtained highest 
premium in competition for penitentiary houses, 1782, 
and subsequently executed designs for prisons and other 
structures throughout the country. [v. 120] 

BLACKBURNE, ANNA(rf. 1794), botanist ; friend and 
correspondent of Linnaeus. [v. 121] 

BLACKBTTRNE, FRANCIS (1706-1787), divine; 
educated at St. Catharine Hall, Cambridge ; rector of Rich- 
mond, Yorkshire, 1739-87 : prebendary of York ; pub- 
lished ' The Confessional,' 1766, controversial works, and 
memoirs of Thomas Hollis [q. v.] [v. 121] 

BLAOKBURNE, FRANCIS (1782-1867), Irish 
lawyer : educated at Trinity College, Dublin ; studied at 
King's Inn, Dublin, and Lincoln's Inn, London ; called to 
bar, 1805 ; joined home circuit ; administered Insurrec- 
tion Act on its renewal, 1822, in Limerick: Serjeant, 
1826: attorney-general for Ireland, 1830-4 and 1841; 
master of rolls in Ireland. 1H42: chtef-iustice of queen's 
bench, 1846 ; lord chancellor of Ireland, 1862, and resigned 

the same year ; commissioner of national education, 1852 ; 
lord justice of appeal in Ireland. 1856 ; reappoiuted lord 
chancellor, but resigned, 1866 ; vice-chancellor of Dublin 
University. [v. 122] 

BLACKBURNE, JOHN (1690-1786), botanist: main- 
tained extensive garden at Orford. [v. 123] 

BLACKBURNE, LANCELOT (1668-1 743), archbishop 
of York; educated at Westminster and Christ Church, 
Oxford ; ordained, 1681 ; M.A M 1683 ; prebendary of 
Exeter, 1691, and sub-dean, 1695 ; rector of Calstock, 
Cornwall, 1696 : resigned sub-deanery, 1702 ; reinstated, 
1704; dean of Exeter, 1705; bishop of Exeter, 1717-24 ; 
archbishop of York, 1724-43. [v. 123] 

BLACKBURNE, RICHARD (6. 1652), physician ; 
B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1669; M.D. Leyden, 
1676 ; F.R.O.P., 1687 : censor, College of Physicians, 1688 ; 
probably wrote 'Tbomse Hobbes Angli Malmesburiensis 
Philosophi Vita,' sometimes attributed to Hobbes himself, 
and certainly wrote a supplement to it. [v. 124] 

BLACKBURNE, SIR WILLIAM (1764-1839), major- 
general ; infantry cadet in Madras army, 1782 ; Mahratta 
interpreter at Tanjore, 1787 ; captain, 1801 ; resident at 
Tanjore, 1801-23 ; major-general ; knighted, 1838. 

[v. 125] 

BLACKER, GEORGE (1791-1871), antiquary; M.A. 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1868 : vicar of Maynooth, 1840 ; 
prebendary in St. Patrick's Cathedral ; published (pri- 
vately) antiquarian works. [v. 126] 

BLACKER, VALENTINE (1778 ?-1823), lieutenant- 
colonel : obtained commission in Madras cavalry, 1798 ; 
cornet, 1799 ; aide-de-camp to Colonel Stevenson in 
Wainad, 1800; quartermaster-general, 1810; served in 
Deccan, 1817; lieutenant-colonel; surveyor-general of 
India : C.B., 1818 ; published history of Mahratta war. 

[v. 125] 

BLACKERBY, RICHARD (1574-1648), puritan; 
M.A. Trinity College, Cambridge; minister at Feltwell, 
Norfolk ; taught classics and theology to private pupils at 
Ashdon, Essex ; minister at Great Thurlow. [v. 126] 

BLACKET, JOSEPH (1786-1810), poet : apprenticed 

I to his brother, a shoemaker, in London, 1797 ; suffered 

I much from poverty, but gained patrons and achieved 

! some reputation as a poet. A volume of his poetry was 

published in 1809, and his ' Remains,' containing poems 

and dramatic sketches, in 1811. [v. 126] 

BLACKBALL, GILBERT (/. 1667), Scottish catholic : 
entered Scots College, Rome, 1626 ; ordained ; returned 
to Scotland, 1630 ; fled from Jesuit opposition to Paris : 
missionary in Scotland, 1637-43 ; wrote autobiography in 
Paris, c. 1666. [v. 127] 

BLACKBALL, OFFSPRING (1664-1716). [See 

BLACKTE, JOHN STUART (1809-1895), Scottish 

professor and man of letters ; educated at Marischal Col- 

i lege, Aberdeen, Edinburgh University, Gottingeu, and 

I Berlin : studied for Scottish bar ; advocate, 1834 ; ap- 

| pointed first regius professor of humanity (Latin) at 

Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1839, and installed, 1841 ; 

j instituted ' Hellenic Society,' Aberdeen, 1850 ; professor of 

Greek at Edinburgh, 1862-82 ; founded and endowed 

Celtic chair at Edinburgh, 1882. His publications include 

' Faust . . . translated into English Verse,' 1834 ; ' Lyrical 

Dramas of . Ksrliylus . . . translated into English Verse,' 

1850, ' Lays and Legends of Ancient Greece,' 1857, and 

many other works in verse and prose. [Suppl. i. 204] 

BLACKLOCK, THOMAS (1721-1791), poet ; born of 
humble parents; lost his sight when six mouths old; 
began to write poetry when twelve years old, and was 
noticed by Dr. Stevenson, a physician of Edinburgh, 
where he studied at the university ; made the acquaint- 
ance of David Hume, who exerted himself in his behalf ; 
minister at Kirkcudbright, e. 1762-4 ; took private pupils 
in Edinburgh ; D.D. Marischal College, Aberdeen, 1767 ; 
published poems, religious works, and translations. 

[v. 127] 

landscape painter ; apprenticed as bookseller at Carlisle ; 
adopted art as profession, and exhibited at Royal Aca- 
demy and other exhibitions, 1836-56. [v. 129] 




BLACKLOE, THOMAS (1593-1676). [See WHITE, 

BLACKMAN, JOHN (fl. 1436-1448). [See BLAK- 


BLACKMORE, CHEWNING (1663-1737), minNtT : 
son of William Uluckmore [q. v.] ; minister at Worcester, 
1688-1737. [v. 131] 

BLACKMORE, SIB RICHARD (d. 1729), physician 
and writer: educated at Westminster and St. Edmund 
Hull, Oxford : M.A., 1676 ; M.D. Padua ; F.R.O.P., 1687 ; 
crnsor, College of Physicians, 1716; elect, 1716-22 ; phy- 
sician in ordinary to William III, and knighted, 1697 ; 
physiriau to Queen Anne. He produced religious and 
mulinil treaties and some indifferent poems, including 

( n -at ion,' 1712, which was warmly praised by Dr. John- 

[v. 129] 

novelist and barrister: educated at Blundell's school, 
Tivfrtou, and Exeter College, Oxford; M.A., 1852; en- 
gaged as private tutor ; called to bar at Middle Temple, 
1H52 ; practised as conveyancer ; classical master at Wel- 
lesley House school, Twickenham Common, 1853 ; pub- 
lished 'Poems by Melanter,' 1853, and, later, 'Epullia,' 
and other volumes of verse, including 'The Farm and 
Fruit of Old,' 1862 ; established himself, c. 1858, at Gomer 
House, Teddiugton, where he remained till death ; pro- 
duced 'Olura Vaughan,' 1864, ' Cradock Nowell,' 1866, 
' Lorua Doone,' 1869, and twelve other novels. 

[Suppl. i. 207] 

BLACKMORE, THOMAS (1740 V-1780 V), mezzotint 
engraver ; practised in London, 1769-71. HiB works in- 
clude plates after pictures by Reynolds and Vandyck. 

[v. 131] 

BLACKMORE, WILLIAM (d. 1684), nonconformist 
divine ; M.A. Lincoln College, Oxford ; rector of Peutloe, 
Essex, 1645 ; presbyter, 1647 : rector of St. Peter's, Corn- 
hill, 1666 ; arrested on charge of complicity in Christopher 
Love's plot, but released, 1651; seceded with noncon- 
formists, 1662. [v. 131] 

BLACKNER, JOHN (1770-1816), historian of Not- 
tingham ; apprenticed as stocking-maker in Nottingham ; 
edited successively the 'Statesman' (a London radical 
daily paper), 1812, and ' Nottingham Review ' ; published 

History of Nottingham ' (1815). [v. 132] 

BLACKRLE, ALEXANDER (d. 1772), apothecary; 
published work exposing secret of Dr. Chittick's cure for 
gravel, 1766. [v. 132] 

BLACKSTONE, JOHN (d. 1753), botanist : apothe- 
cary in London : published botanical works. [v. 132] 

one of the earliest episcopal clergymen in Massachusetts ; 
lived successively on peninsula of Shawmut (where Bos- 
ton now stands), in colony of Roger Williams, 1631, and 
at Blaxtou river, near Providence. [v. 132] 

BLACKSTONE, SIR WILLIAM (1723-1780), judge ; 
educated at Charterhouse School and Pembroke College, 
Oxford; entered Middle Temple, 1741; fellow of All 
Souls,' 1744 ; B.C.L., 1745 ; called to bar ; recorder of 
Wallingford; first professor of English law, Oxford, 
1758-66; published 'Considerations on Copyholders,' 
1758. and his edition of the Great Charter, 1759 ; M.P. for 
Hindoo, Wiltshire, and principal of New Inn Hall, 1761-6 ; 
solicitor-general to the queen, 1763 ; published lectures as 
' Commentaries on the Laws of England,' 4 vols., 1765-9, 
which met with a considerable amount of more or less 
hostile criticism, but still remains the best general history 
of English law ; M.P. for Westbury, Wiltshire, 1768 ; gave 
it as his opinion that Wilkes was disqualified from sitting 
in parliament, and was answered by Grenville's quoting 
from the ' Commentaries ' the causes of disqualification, 
none of which applied to Wilkes: retired from parlia- 
ment ; appointed justice of common pleas, 1770, but ex- 
changed into court of king's bench ; returned to common 
pleas in same year. The ' Commentaries ' have passed 
through numerous editions, and have been translated into 
French, German, Italian, and Russian. [v. 133] 

BLACZWALL, ANTHONY (1674-1730), classical 
scholar: M.A. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 1698; 
headmaster of Derby school and lecturer of All Saints, 
Derby ; headmaster of Market Bosworth grammar school, 

1722-6 and 1729-HO, where Dr. Johnson was perhaps his 
assistant for a few months r rector of Clapham, 1726-9. 
His most important work is the 'Sacred Classics D* 
fended,' 1725. [v. 140] 

BLACKWALL, JOHN (1790-1881), zoologist; en- 
gaged in importation of Irish linen at Manchester ; re- 
tired to Llanrwst, North Wales, 1833: contributed to 
scientific publications ; published ' History of Spiders of 
Great Britain and Ireland,' 1861-4. [v. 142] 

BLACKWELL, ALEXANDER (d. 1747), adventurer ; 
probably brother of Dr. Thomas Blackwell [q. v.] ; prac- 
tised as printer in London, 1730 : became bankrupt ; 
studied medicine and agriculture ; inspector of Duke of 
Chandos's improvements at Cannons ; physician in or- 
dinary to king of Sweden : suspected of quackery ; ar- 
rested for his connection with a political intrigue, the true 
nature and object of which remain a mystery ; condemned 
without public trial and executed ; published works on 
agriculture. [v. 142] 

BLACKWELL, ELIZABETH (ft. 1737), botanical 
delineator ; wife of Alexander Blackwell [q. v.] ; relieved 
her husband when in embarrassed circumstances by pub- 
lishing 'A Curious Herbal,' 1737, containing illustrations 
of medicinal plants, which she executed, engraved, and 
coloured. [v. 144] 

BLACKWELL, GEORGE (1545 ?-1613), archpriest; 
B.A. Trinity College, Oxford, 1562; perpetual fellow, 
1566 ; M.A., 1567 ; left fellowship and retired to Gloucester 
Hall : entered English College at Douay, 1574 ; ordained 
priest, 1575 ; B.D., 1575 ; joined English mission, 1576 ; 
imprisoned 1578, and, after release, lived in continual fear 
of arrest ; appointed archpriest over secular clergy, 1598 ; 
incurred great unpopularity by his stern fulfilment of his 
duties ; deprived of office, 1608, for subscribing to an oath 
which was imposed on catholics in 1606, to test their civil 
allegiance, and which was twice condemned by the pope ; 
published theological works. [v. 144] 

BLACKWELL, JOHN (1797-1840), Welsh poet; shoe- 
maker at Mold, Flintshire ; educated by friends' liberality : 
B.A. Jesus College, Oxford, 1828 : presented to living of 
Manor Dei vy, Pembrokeshire ; edited a Welsh illustrated 
magazine, Y Cylchgrawn.' His poems and essays were 
published in 1851. [v. 146] 

BLACKWELL, THOMAS, the elder (1660 ?-1728), 
Scottish divine; presbyteriau minister at Paisley, Ren- 
frewshire, 1694, and Aberdeen, 1700 ; professor of divinity, 
Marischal College, 1710-28, principal, 1717-28; published 
theological writings. [v. 147] 

BLACKWELL, THOMAS, the younger (1701-1757), 
classical scholar ; sou of Thomas Blackwell (1660 7-1728) 
[q. v.] ; studied at Marischal College, Aberdeen ; M.A., 
1718; professor of Greek, 1723-57; principal, 1748-57; 
LL.D., 1752. His works include ' An Enquiry into Life 
and Writings of Homer,' 1735, and 'Memoirs of the 
Court of Augustus,' 1753-5, a third and incomplete 
volume being published posthumously, 1764. [v. 147] 

BLACKWOOD, ADAM (1539-1613), Scottish writer: 
educated at university of Paris; studied civil law at 
Toulouse : taught philosophy at Paris ; published ' De 
Vinculo,' 1575, and another work condemning heretics as 
rebels against divinely constituted authority : counsellor 
or judge of parliament of Poictiers ; entered into contro- 
versy with George Buchanan ; published, in French, ac- 
{ count of sufferings of Mary Queen of Scots, 1587. 

[v. 149] 

major; educated at Edinburgh Academy and at Addis- 
combe : second lieutenant, Bengal infantry, 1857 ; cap- 
tain, 1867 ; commanded artillery in Looshai expedition, 
1872; major, 1875 ; served in second Afghan campaign; 
killed at Maiwand. [v. 150] 

BLACKWOOD, HELEN SELINA (1807-1867). [See 

BLACKWOOD, HENRY (rf. 1614), physician : M.D. 
Paris ; M.C.P. Paris, and subsequently dean of the faculty; 
left philosophical and medical manuscripts. [v. 150] 

BLACKWOOD, Sm HENRY (1770-1832), vice-ad- 
miral ; entered navy as volunteer, 1781 ; lieutenant, 1790 ; 
studied in Paris, 1792 ; captain, 1795 ; attached to North 
Sea fleet, 1796-8 ; on Newfoundland station, 1798-9 ; in 




Channel, 1799 : rendered distinguished service at blockade 
of Malta, 1800; commanded inshore squadron at Tra- 
falgar, 1805 ; took part in ceremonies at Nelson's funeral ; 
commanded inshore squadron at blockade of Toulon, 
1810 ; baronet and rear-admiral, 1814 ; K.C.B., 1819 ; com- 
mander-iii-chief in East Indies, 1819-22 ; vice-admiral, 
1821 ; commauder-iu-chief at Nore, 1827-30. [v. 150] 

BLACKWOOD, JOHN (1818-1879), publisher ; son of 
William Blackwood [q. v.] ; educated at Edinburgh Uni- 
versity ; entered London publishing firm, 1839 ; superin- 
tendent of London branch of Blackwood's Edinburgh 
firm, 1840-5 ; editor of 'Blackwood's Magazine ' on death 
of eldest brother, 1845 ; became, by death of another 
brother, head of publishing business, 1852; published 
nearly all George Eliot's works. [v. 152] 

BLAGRAVE, THOMAS (rf. 1688), musician ; gentle- 
man of the chapel, 1661 ; clerk of the cheque, 1662 ; member 
of Charles Il's private baud ; author of some songs pub- 
lished in contemporary collections. [v. 158] 

BLAGROVE, HENRY GAMBLE (1811-1872), musi- 
cian ; studied with Spaguoletti, 1821, and at Royal Academy 
of Music under Dr. Crotch and F. Cramer ; solo- violinist 
in royal private band, 1830-7 ; studied with Spohr at 
Cassel, 1832-4; played with success on continent; con- 
nected with state band, 1837-72 ; published violin exer- 
cises and studies. [v. 158] 

BLAGUE or BLAGE, THOMAS (rf. 1611), divine; 
B.A. Queens' College, Cambridge ; non-resident rector of 
Braxted Magua, Essex, 1570 ; held livings of St. Vedast, 
Foster Lane, London, 1571, and Ewelme, Oxfordshire, 
1580-96; D.D. Oxford; dean of Rochester, 1591; non- 
resident rector of Bangor, 1604 ; author of ' A Schoole of 
wise Conceytes,' 1572. [v. 159] 

BLAIKIE, WILLIAM GARDEN (1820-1899), Scottish 
divine; educated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, and 
Edinburgh ; licensed by Aberdeen presbytery, 1841 ; 
minister of Drumblade, 1842 ; joined free church of Scot- 
land, 1843; minister of Pilrig, 1844-68; edited 'Free 
Church Magazine,' 1849-53, ' North British Review, 1860- 
1863, 'Sunday Magazine,' 1873-4, and 'Catholic Presbyte- 
rian,' 1879-83; professor of apologetics and pastoral 

BLACKWOOD, WILLIAM (1776-1834), publisher; 
apprenticed as bookseller at Edinburgh ; manager of pub- 
lishing business, Glasgow; employed by bookseller in 
London : began business independently in Edinburgh, 
1804 ; principal founder of ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia,' 
1810 ; combined, as Edinburgh agent, with John Murray, 
in publication of Scott's 'Tales of my Landlord'; esta- 
blished, 1817, 'Edinburgh Monthly Magazine,' which 
became ' Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine.' His publica- 
tions include ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia,' 1810 (completed 
1830), and ' New Statistical Account of Scotland.' 

BLADEN, MARTIN (1680-1746), soldier and politi- i theology, New College, Edinburgh, 1868-97 ; Cunningham 
cian ; educated at Westminster ; served in Low Countries lecturer, 1888 ; moderator to general assembly, 1892 ; 

r [q. v.] ; 

and Spam ; aide-de-camp to Henri de Ruvigny 
lieutenant-colonel ; M.P. for Stockbridge, 1715-34, , 

Essex, 1734-41, and Portsmouth, 1741-6 ; comptroller of 
the mint, 1714; commissioner of trade and plantations, 
1717-46 ; a steady supporter of Sir Robert Walpole. 

BLADES, WILLIAM (1824-1890), printer and biblio- 
grapher; apprenticed to his father's printing firm of 
Blades & East, London, 1840, and subsequently became 
partner ; wrote ' Life of Caxton ' (2 volumes, 1861-3), for 
which he carefully collated many works from Caxton's 
press: liveryman of Scriveners' Company; published 
works chiefly relating to early history of printing, and 
edited facsimiles and other reprints. [Suppl. i. 210] 

BLAGDEN, Sm CHARLES (1748-1820), physician; 
M.D. Edinburgh, 1768 ; medical officer in army till 1814 ; 
F.R.S., 1772, and secretary, 1784 ; contributed to ' Philoso- 
phical Transactions.' [v. 155] 

BLAGDON, FRANCIS WILLIAM (1778-1819), journal- 
ist and author ; engaged successively as newspaper seller, 

amanuensis, and probably teacher of Spanish and Italian ; 
nndertook various literary works, including series of 
' Modern Discoveries,' 1802-3, and ' Flowers of Literature 

honorary D.D. Edinburgh, 1864, and LL.D. Aberdeen, 
1872 ; published religious, biographical, and other works. 

[Suppl. i. 212] 

BLAIR, HUGH (1718-1800), divine ; M.A. Edinburgh, 
1739 ; licensed preacher, 1741 ; ordained minister of 
Colessie, Fife, 1742 ; minister to Lady Tester's church, 
Edinburgh, 1754, und to High church, 1758-1800 ; pro- 
fessor of rhetoric, 1760 ; regius professor of rhetoric and 
belles-lettres, 1762. Published 'Critical Dissertation on 
Poems of Ossian,' 1763, and Sermons, 5 vols. 1777-1801. 
He belonged to the distinguished literary circle that in- 
cluded Hume, A. Carlyle, Adam Ferguson, Adam Smith, 
and Robertson. [v. 160] 

BLAIR, JAMES (1656-1743), Scottish episcopalian 
divine; held a benefice in revived episcopal church In 
Scotland till c. 1679 ; sent as missionary to Virginia, 1685 ; 
commissary under Sir Francis Nicholson when lieutenant- 
governor, 1689; obtained charter, 1692, for a college in 
Virginia, of which he became president, 1729 ; president 
of council of Virginia ; published commentary on Sermon 
on the Mount. 

[v. 161] 

BLAIR, SIR JAMES HUNTER (1741-1787), lord-pro- 
__ vost of Edinburgh ; one of head partners in Ooutts's bank- 

(with Rev. F. Prevost), 1803-9 : assistant editor of ' Morn- ing bo "^: ! Sfl $Sft : ."2?!5 l 7 ^*?,**, ?? fe ' 8 

ing Post,' c. 1806 : came into conflict with William Cob- \ of Bla . ir J 7 , 77 ; M ' R for Edinburgh, 1781 and 1784 . 
bett [q. v.], 1809. His works include ' Authentic Memoirs 
of George Morlaud,' 1806, and 'Letters of Princess of 

Wales,' 1813. 

[Suppl. i. 211] 

BLAGGE or BLAGE, ROBERT (</. 1522 ?), judge ; ap- 
t pointed for life king's remembrancer in exchequer, 1502 ; 
f third baron of exchequer, 1611 ; repeatedly justice of the 
peace for Kent and Middlesex ; joint-surveyor of crown 
hinds, 1515 ; one of general purveyors of king's revenue, 
1515; successively commissioner of sewers in several 
counties, 1615-17. [v. 156] 

BLAGRAVE, DANIEL (1603-1668), regicide; uephe* 
of John Blagrave [q. v.] ; educated for the bar ; M.P. for 
Reading, 1640 ; recorder of Reading, 1645-56 and 1658 ; 
signed diaries I's death warrant; sat in Convention 
parliament, 1668; settled at Aachen, 1660, and there 
died. [v. 156] 

BLAGRAVE, JOHN (<l. 1611), mathematician; edu- 
cated at St. John's College, Oxford < published works 
describing instruments of his own invention, and other 
mathematical treatises. [v. 157] 

lord-provost, 1784. Bums wrote an elegy on his death. 

[v. 162] 

BLAIR, JOHN (fl. 1300), chaplain to Sir William 
Wallace ; educated at Dundee and university of Paris ; 
joined Benedictines at Dunfermliue ; chaplain to Sir Wil- 
liam Wallace when governor of Scotland ; wrote life of 
Wallace. [v. 162] 

BLAIR, JOHN (d. 1782), chronologist : educated at 
Edinburgh ; schoolmaster near London ; published ' Chro- 
nology of World from Creation to 1753,' 1754; F.R.S., 
1756 ; chaplain to Princess-dowager of Wales ; prebendary 
of Westminster, 1761 ; rector of St. * ' 

Westminster, 1776. 

John the Evangelist, 
[v. 162] 

BLAIR, PATRICK, M.D. (/. 1728), physician : prac- 
tised as doctor successively at Dundee, London, and Boston, 
Lincolnshire : published medical and botanical works. 

[v. 163] 

BLAIR, ROBERT (1593-1666), divine; M.A.Glasgow; 
professor at Glasgow University, c. 1616-22 licensed 
presbyterian preacher, 1616 ; minister of Bangor, Ireland, 
, 1623 ; suspended, 1631, and deposed for nonconformity, 
1632; restored, again ejected and excommunicated, 1634; 
BLAGRAVE, JOSEPH (1610-1682), astrologer; lived minister at Burutisland, 1638, and at St. Andrews, 1639 ; 

at Swallowfield, near Reading. His works include : 
' Ephemerides, with Rules for Husbandry,' 1668, 1659, 1660, 
and 1665; 'Astrological Practice of Physick,' 1671, and 
'Introduction to Astrology,' published posthumously, 
1682. [V.167] 

moderator of general assembly, 1646 : chaplain in ordinary 
to king ; joined party of ' resolutioners,' 1650 : resigned as 
covenanter, 1661, and continued to preach at hazard of 
his life ; left political and theological manuscripts. 

[v. 163] 




BLAIR, ROBERT (1699-1746), poetical writer; edu- 
cated at Edinburgh and in Holland; ordained ministerof 
Athelstaneford, East Lothian, 1731 : published, 1743, the 
'Grave,' a poem in blank verse, which enjoyed instant 
success. Blair forms, as a poet, a connecting link between 
Otway and ('rabbi-, [v. 164] 

BLAIR, ROBERT, of Avoutouu (1741-1811), judge; 
eon of Robert Blair (1699-1746) ; educated at Edinburgh : 
advocate depute and solicitor-u'eneral for Scotland, 1789- 
1806 ; dean of Faculty of Advocates, 1801 ; president of 
College of Justice, 1808. [v. 166] 

BLAIR, ROBERT (cl. 1828), inventor of the ' aplanatic ' 
telescope; appointed to chair of practical astronomy 
em-ted for his benefit, Edinburgh, 17H5; invented fluid 
lenses of media, consisting of metallic solutions, with 
t of removing the ' secondary spectrum '; fellow of 
Royal Society of Edinburgh (1786), in whose 'Transac- 
tions ' appeared, 1794, an abridgment of his ' Experiments 
on Betaingibility of Light.' [v. 166] 

BLAIR, WILLIAM (1741-1782), captain, royal navy ; 
commander, 1777 ; captain, 1778 ; fought at Doggerbank, 
1781 ; killed in battle off Dominica. [v. 167] 

BLAIR, WILLIAM (1766-1822), surgeon; surgeon to 
Lock Hospital, the Asylum, Fiusbury and Bloomsbury 
dispensaries, female penitentiary, Peutonville, and New 
Rupture Society; M.R.C.S.; edited 'London Medical 
Review ami Magazine' ; published works on surgical and 
miscellaneous subjects, including stenography and cipher 
writing. [v. 168] 

BLAK or BLACK, JOHN (rf. 1563), Dominican friar 
of Aberdeen ; stoned to death by protestants ; wrote reli- 
gious treatises. [v. 169] 

BLAKE, CHARLES (1664-1730), divine and poet; 
educated at Merchant Taylors' School and St. John's Col- 
lege, Oxford ; M.A., 1688 : D.D., 1696 ; successively pre- 
bendary of Chester and (1716) of York; archdeacon of 
York, 1720 ; published Latin verses. [v. 169] 

BLAKE, Sin FRANCIS (1708-1780), mathematician ; 
assisted government in Durham during rebellion, 1745 ; 
baronet, 1774 ; F.R.S., 1746. [v. 169] 

BLAKE, SIR FRANCIS (1738 ?-1818), political writer ; 
son of Sir Francis Blake (1708-1780) [q.v.] ; educated at 
Westminster and Trinity Hall, Cambridge ; LL.B., 1763 ; 
published political tracts. [v. 169] 

BLAKE, JAMES (1649-1728), Jesuit, known as JAMKS 
CROSS ; professed father of Society of Jesus, 1675 ; pro- 
vincial in England, 1701. [v. 170] 

BLAKE, JOHN BRADBY (1745-1773), naturalist; 
supercargo in East India Company, Canton ; collected 
Chinese plants and seeds, which were successfully propa- 
gated in Great Britain and the colonies. [v. 170] 

BLAKE, MALACHI (1687-1760), dissenting minister ; 
presbyterian minister of Blandford ; published, 1735, ac- 
count of fire at Blandford (1731). [v. 170] 

BLAKE, ROBERT (1599-1657), admiral and general 
at sea ; entered St. Alban Hall, Oxford, 1615 ; removed to 
Wadham College ; graduated ; engaged in business of 
merchant; M.P. for Bridgwater, 1640 and 1645; took 
part in defence of Bristol against royalists, 1643 ; lieu- 
tenant-colonel of Popham's regiment ; held Lyme against 
royalists, 1643-4 : took, and held, Taunton, 1644-5 ; 
governor of Taunton, 1645 ; appointed admiral and gene- 
ral at sea, 1649 ; unsuccessfully blockaded Prince Rupert 
at Kinsale, 1649, and pursued him to Portugal, 1660 ; 
blockaded mouth of Tagus, 1650, and subsequently fol- 
lowed Rupert to Mediterranean and destroyed many of 
his ships ; commanded squadron in Irish Sea, and reduced 
Scilly Islands, which were held by royalist privateers, 
1G51 ; assisted in reduction of Jersey, 1661 ; member of 
council of state, 1651-2; with Rear-admiral Bourne, de- 
feated Dutch under Tromp in Downs. 1652 ; defeated De 
Witt and De Ruyter off mouth of Thames, and, later, was 
defeated by Tromp off Dungeness, 1652 ; in company 
with Deane, Monck, and Penii, fought indecisive battle 
with Tromp off Portsmouth, 1653, the advantage being 
slightly with the English ; took part in battle of 3 June, 
1 653 ; engaged in admiralty business at London, and exe- 
cutive duties at Portsmouth ; destroyed Turkish pirate 
fleet at Porto Farina, 1655 ; destroyed Spanish West Indian 

fleet at Santa Cru/,, 1657; died of fever while return- 
ing to England. His body was buried in Westminster 
Abbey, but removed after Restoration. [v. 170] 

BLAKE, THOMAS (1597?-1657), puritan; M.A. 
Christ Church, Oxford; took holy orders; joined cove- 
nanters, 1648 ; pastor successively at Shrewsbury and Tarn- 
worth ; assistant to Crom well's commissioners for ejecting 
ministers ; published works on puritan theology. 

[v. 179] 

BLAKE, WILLIAM (1773-1821), dissenting minister ; 
educated at Northampton under Horsey; presbyterian 
minister at Crewkerue, 1798-1821; published religious 
works. [v. 180] 

BLAKE, WILLIAM (1757-1827), poet and painter; 
apprenticed to James Basire, engraver to Society of Anti- 
quaries, 1771-8 ; executed plates for Gough's ' Sepulchral 
Monuments ' ; student at Royal Academy, 1778 ; engraved 
plates for Harrison's ' Novelists' Magazine ' ; kept, in 
partnership, priutseller's shop in Broad Street, 1784-7; 
engraved and published ' Songs of Innocence,' 1789, and 
'Songs of Experience,' 1794; employed by Johnson, the 
bookseller, on engravings for Mary Wollstonecraft's 
works, 1791; illustrated Young's 'Night Thoughts'; 
(Edwards's edition), 1793-1800 ; made designs for Blair's 
'Grave,' which were subsequently engraved by Schiavo- 
; netti; executed series of 'Spiritual Portraits,' c. 1818: 
executed and engraved ' Inventions to Book of Job,' his 
finest work, from 1820, and produced designs for ' Divina 
Commedia,' of which only seven were published, 1827; 
exhibited at Royal Academy, 1780-1808, his 'Prophetic 
Books' (1793-1804), and most of his other works, en- 
graved and coloured by hand. His favourite tenet, which 
he translated into art, was that ' all things exist in the 
human imagination alone.' [v. 180] 

BLAKELEY, WILLIAM (1830-1897), actor; accom- 
panied Sotherii on tour; appeared first in London at 
Prince of Wales's Theatre, 1867 ; at Olympic, 1871 ; with 
| Sothern in America, 1880 ; at Criterion, with which his 
name is chiefly associated, 1881. Among his best parts 
I was Hardcastle in ' She stoops to conquer.' 

[Suppl. i. 213] 

BLAKELY, FLETCHER (1783-1862), Irish remon- 
j straiit minister; graduated at Glasgow; presbyterian 
j minister of Moneyrea, co. Down, 1809-57 ; adopted uni- 
! tariau principles; joined remonstrant secession from 
j synod of Ulster, 1829 ; joint-editor of ' Bible Christian,' 
1830-3 ; published tracts and sermons. [v. 184] 

BLAKELY, JOHNSTON (1781-1814), commander in 

United States navy : born in Dublin ; entered United 

! States navy, 1800 ; lieutenant, 1812 ; commanded sloop in 

I Channel, and captured English brig, 1814; lost in the 

Atlantic. [v. 185] 

BLAKENEY, Siu EDWARD (1778-1868), fleld-mar- 
l shal ; commanded 7th foot in Peninsular campaign, 1811- 
I 1814 ; in Belgium and at Paris, 1815 ; colonel, 7th foot, 
! 1832-54 ; cominander-m-chief in Ireland, 1838-55 ; colo- 
nel of 1st foot, 1854-68; governor of Chelsea Hospital, 
1856 ; general, 1854 ; field-marshal, 1862. [v. 186] 

BLAKENEY, RICHARD PAUL (1820-1884), divine ; 
B.A. Dublin, 1842; LL.D.; rural dean of Bridliugtou, 
! 1876 ; canon of York, 1882 ; D.D. Edinburgh, 1868 ; pub- 
j lished controversial works. [v. 186] 

1761), defender of Minorca ; volunteered with army in 
Flanders ; ensign, 1702 ; adjutant in Marlborough's cam- 
paigns ; colonel, 1737 ; brigadier-general in expedition to 
Cartagena, 1741 ; major-general, and lieutenant-governor 
of Stirling Castle, 1744 ; defended Stirling against high- 
landers, 1746 ; lieutenant-general and lieutenant-governor 
of Minorca, 1747 ; gallantly defended Minorca against 
French, but, from want of reinforcements, was compelled 
to surrender. 1756 ; made K.B., colonel of Eimiskillen 
regiment, and a peer of Ireland. [v. 186] 

dean of Lincoln ; educated at St. Paul's School and Corpus 
Christi and Trinity College, Cambridge, when he became 
a friend of Tennyson ; M.A., 1834 : B.D., 1849 ; fellow of 
Trinity, 1831 ; tutor, 1839-45 ; vicar of Ware, 1845-72 ; 
canon of Canterbury, 1863 ; proctor in convocation for 
his chapter ; dean of Lincoln, 1872 ; wrote extensively for 
the ' Times.' His chief work was an edition of Herodotus, 
1852-4. [y. 187] 




topographer ; educated at Westminster and Oriel College, 
Oxford ; M.A., 1795 ; called to bar at Lincoln's Inn, 1789 ; 
joined Oxford circuit: ordained, 1793: minister, 1794, 
and, subsequently, official of Royal Peculiar of St. Mary's, 
Shrewsbury; published history of Shrewsbury, l.s'25. 

[v. 189] 

BLAKE Y, NICHOLAS (Jl. 1753), Irish engraver; 
lived chiefly in Paris : associated with Fruucis Hayman, 
R.A., in producing st of English historical prints. 

[v. 189] 

BLAKEY, ROBERT (1795-1878), miscellaneous 
writer; of humble parentage; received private tuition; 
contributed to ' Newcastle Magazine ' and other periodi- 
cals ; published philosophical works, 1831 and 1833 ; pro- 
duced, 1838, ' Newcastle Liberator,' and, 1840, ' Northern 
Liberator and Champion ' newspapers ; studied philo- 
sophy in France and Belgium ; published ' History of 
Philosophy of Mind,' 1848 ; professor of logic and meta- 
physics, Queen's College, Belfast, 1848. His works include 
books on angling. [v. 189] 

BLAKISTON, JOHN (1603-1649), regicide; mercer in 
Newcastle ; excommunicated for puritanical principles ; 
MJ> for Newcastle, 1641 ; one of Charles I's judges, 
signing his death-warrant. [v. 190] 

BLAKISTON, JOHN (1785-1867), major; served at 
Assaye, at capture of Bourbon, Mauritius, and Java, and 
in Peninsular war ; published reminiscences. 

[Suppl. i. 214] 

BLAKISTON, THOMAS WRIGHT (1832-1891), ex- 
plorer and ornithologist ; son of preceding ; educated at 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich ; commissioned in 
royal artillery, 1861 ; served in Crimea ; member of 
scientific expedition under John Palliser [q. v.] for ex- 
ploration of British North America between Canada and 
Rocky Mountains, 1857 : served in Chinese war, 1859, and 
organised exploration of middle and upper course of Yang- 
tsze-Kiang, 1861 : resigned commission, 1862 ; settled as 
merchant in Hakodate, Japan, and engaged in ornitho- 
logical and other investigations, on which he published 
various writings ; died at San Diego, California ; published 
' Five Months on the Yang-tsze,' 1862. [Suppl. i. 214] 

(>I. 1436-1448), biographer ; fellow of Merton College, 
Oxford, 1436, and, later, was fellow of Eton ; said to have 
been B.D. and monk of Charterhouse ; wrote, in Latin, a 
memoir of Henry VI, published, 1732, by Thomas Hearne 
[q.v.] [Suppl. L 215] 

BLAMIRE, SUSANNA (1747-1794), poetess; the 
*Muse of Cumberland'; was associated with Catherine 
Gilpin. Some of her poems, which depict with admirable 
truth the Cumbrian folk, appeared in magazines, but no 
collection of them was published until 1842. She wrote 
several songs of high merit in Scottish dialect, including 
4 The Traveller's Return ' and ' What ails this heart o' 
mine V ' [v. 191] 

BLAMIRE, WILLIAM (1790-1862), tithe commis- 
sioner ; nephew of Susanna Blamire [q. v.] ; educated at 
Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford ; B.A., 1811 ; 
farmer at Thackwood Nook, Cumberland ; high sheriff of 
Cumberland, 1828 ; whig M.P. for Carlisle, 1831 ; chief 
commissioner, 1836-51, for carry big into effect Tithe 
Commutation Bill of 1834 ; commissioner for carrying out 
Copyhold Enfranchisement Act, 1841 ; enclosure commis- 
sioner, [v. 192] 

1889), miscellaneous writer; son of William Blanchard 
[q.v.], whom he accompanied to New York, 1831 : edited 
Chambers's 'London Journal,' 1841, and 'New London 
Magazine,' 1845. He produced pantomimei for Drury 
Lane for thirty-seven years, besides many other dramatic 
pieces, and contributed extensively to newspapers and 
periodicals. [SuppL i. 216] 

BLANOHARD, SAMUEL LAMAN (1804-1845), au- 
thor ; clerk to a proctor in Doctors' Commons ; made 
acquaintance of Douglas Jerrold ; joined travelling troop 
of actors ; contributed to ' Monthly Magazine ' : secretary 
to Zoological Society, 1827-30; published 'Lyric Offer- 
ings ' ; acting editor of ' Monthly Magazine ' ; edited 
4 True Sun,' 1832-6, ' Constitutional,' 1836, awl ' Courier,' 
1837-9 (all liberal papers), and ' Court Journal,' 1837 ; 
connected with 'Examiner,' 1841-5; edited 'George 
Cruikeuank's Omnibus,' 1843 ; published L. E. Landou's 

i ' Life and Literary Remains,' 1841. Three volumes of 
his essays appeared in 1846. [v. 194] 

BLANCHARD, WILLIAM (1769-1835), comedian: 
in office of his uncle, William Blanchard, proprietor of 
I 'York Chroniole,' 1782; joined Welsh's travelling com- 
pany of actors, 1785 ; became manager of several provin- 
I cial theatres; played, 1800, Bob Acres at Coven t Garden, 
i where he remained almost continuously till death. His 
i characters include Sir Hugh Evans, Fluellen, Meiienius, 
and Polonius. [v. 195] 

BLANCHARD, WILLIAM ISAAC (d. 1796), steno- 
grapher; practised as shorthand-writer in Westminster 
Hall, 1767-96; published two original systems of steno- 
graphy, [v. 196] 

BLAND, ELIZABETH (fl. 1681-1712), hebraist ; rnfe 
Fisher; married, 1681 : wrote in Hebrew a phylactery for 
Thoresby's ' Museeum Thoresbianum.' [v. 196] 

BLAND, HUMPHREY (16867-1763), general and 
military writer ; obtained commission, 1704 ; served as 
lieutenant and captain in Marlborough's campaigns ; at 
battle of Almanara, 1710 ; successively lieutenant-colonel 
and colonel of dragoons, and colonel of foot: quarter- 
master-general at headquarters, 1742 ; served in Flanders ; 
l major - general in Culloden campaign ; governor of 
Gibraltar, 1749, and of Edinburgh, 1752-63 ; commauder-iu- 
1 chief of forces in Scotland, 1753 ; published ' Treatise on 
i Discipline,' 1727. [v. 196] 

BLAND, JOHN (d. 1666), Marian martyr; educated 
at Eton and Cambridge : M.A. : schoolmaster ; rector of 
Adisham.Kent ; opposed celebration of mass, 1653 ; burned 
at Canterbury. [v. 197] 

BLAND, JOHN (1702-1750), writing-master; edu- 
cated' at Westminster; clerk in custom-house, 1717; 
writing-master at academy in Little Tower Street, and 
subsequently establ ished himself independently ; published 
' Essay on Writing,' 1730. [v. 198] 

BLAND, JOHN (d. 1788), dramatist ; author of drama, 
'Song of Solomon,' 1750. [v. 198] 

BLAND, MARIA THERESA (1769-1838), vocalist; 
daughter of Italian Jews named Romanziui ; first sang at 
Drury Lane, 1786 ; married the actor Bland, 1790 ; at- 
tached to Drury Lane almost continuously from 1789 to 
1824, but sang also at Haymarket and Vauxhall ; de- 
veloped melancholia after 1824. [v. 198] 

BLAND, MILES (1786-1868), mathematician ; B.A., 

second wrangler, and Smith's prizeman, St. John's College, 

Cambridge, 1808; fellow, 1808; public mathematical 

examiner, 1817-18 : prebendary of Wells and D.D., 1826 ; 

; F.R.S. ; F.S.A. ; published mathematical works, [v 199] 

BLAND, NATHANIEL (1803-1865), Persian scholar ; 
educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford ; B.A., 1825 ; 
contributed valuable papers to Royal Asiatic Society's 
' Journal,' 1843-53 ; committed suicide. [Suppl. i. 216] 

BLAND, ROBERT, the elder (1730-1816), physician ; 
M.D. St. Andrews, 1778 ; L.C.P., 1786 ; published works 
on midwifery. [v. 199] 

BLAND, ROBERT, the younger (1779 ?-1825), divine ; 
son of Robert Bland (1730-1816) [q. v.] ; educated at 
Harrow and Pembroke College, Cambridge : B.A., 1802 ; 
assistant master, Harrow; minister to English church, 
Amsterdam : held two English curacies ; published works 
relating to Greek classics. [v. 199] 

BLAND, TOBIAS (1563 ?-1604), divine; B.A. Pem- 
broke Hall, Cambridge, 1581 ; expelled from Corpus Christ! 
College for libelling the master ; M.A., 1584 ; B.D., 1591 ; 
sub-almoner to Elizabeth, 1694 ; canon of Peterborough, 
1602. [v. 200] 

BLAND, WILLIAM (1789-1868), Australian states- 
man ; son of .Robert Bland the elder [q. v.] ; passed naval 
surgeon, fifth rate, 1809 ; exiled to Sydney for duelling, 
1814 ; pardoned ; practised surgery : imprisoned twelve 
months for libel ; passed naval surgeon, 1826 ; member of 
i elective legislature for Sydney, 1843. [v. 200] 

BLANDFORD, W ALTER (1619-1676), bishop ; fellow, 

i Wadham College, . Oxford, 1644; warden, 1669; pro- 

! Tinlary of Gloucester ; chaplain in ordinary to the king ; 

i vice-chancellor of the university, 1663 : bishop of Oxford, 

1665 ; dean of Chapel Royal ; bishop of Worcester, 1671. 





uiithor ; id:ieated nt Winchester and New College, Oxford ; 
H. \., ISM ; ' fellow ' of Middle Tcm;il'' ; served with Eng- 
lish army in Low Countries, 15X0: published works re- 
luting to jwlitical and civil custom-, [v. 201] 

BLANDY, MAKY (./. 17.1'.'), murderer : at tin- in- 
stance of her lover, William Henry, son of liftli Lord 
Oraustoun, poisoned her lather, who objected to her en- 
gagement ; \\a< eonvicted and hanged ut Oxfonl. 

[v. 202] 

BLANE, Sii<;iLBi;i;T<17l'.i isiii), p],.\-.i.-hn : M.I). 

o\v, 177S; private physician to Admiral Uixlney. 

whom lie aecompaninl to West Indies, 1779; physician 

to licet, 177-.I w :; : .-nine to KiiLrland with Iloduey, 1781, but 

n turned. 1782: L.O.P., 1781; did much to improve 

ry condition of navy; published work oil means 

for preserving health of seamen, 1780 ; physician at St. 

iaa'8 Hospital on return to England, 1783, till 1795: 

physician extraordinary, and later physician in ordinary 

nice of Wales, 1785: commissioner for sick and 

wounded seamen, 1795-1H02 ; assisted in framing rules 

lorming basis of Quarantine Act, 1799 : sent to report on 

condition of army in Walcheren expedition, and arranged 

for transport of sick and wounded ; created baronet, 1812 : 

physician in ordinary to George IV ; F.R.S. : published 

dixc nations on medical subjects. [v. 202] 

BLANEFORDE, HENRY (./f. 1330), chronicler ; 
monk of St. Albans ; wrote chronicle for years 1323-4 
(Cotton MSS. Claudius^D. vi. ) [v. 204] 

BLANFORD, HENRY FRANCIS (1834-1893), meteoro- 
logist and treologist ; studied at Royal School of Mines ; 
appointed to geological survey of India, 1855 ; professor 
at Presidency College, Calcutta, 1862-72 ; meteorological 
reporter to government of Bengal, 1872, and later to 
government of India: retired and returned to England, 
1888 : published scientific writings. [Suppl. i. 217] 

BLANKET!, JOHN (d. i80l), admiral : volunteer and 
midshipman at reduction of LouLsbourg, 1758, and Quebec, 
1759 ; lieutenant, 1761; commander, 1779; served in East 
Indies ; captain, 1780 ; in Mediterranean, 1783 ; com- 
manded convoy to China, 1790 ; commodore of squadron 
sent to Cape of Good Hope, serving at reduction of that 
settlement ; served in Egyptian operations ; rear-admiral, 

1799. [v. 205] 

first BARON, d. 1437 ; STEWART, ALEXAXDKR, fifth BARON, 
d. 1704.] 

1812), politician : son of a French emigrant ; under Lord 
Harcourt as secretary of legation in France, 1771-2, 
and chief secretary in Ireland, 1772-7 ; M.P. successively 
for several Irish and English constituencies: privy 
councillor, 1774 ; baronet, 1784 ; raised to Irish peerage, 

1800. [v. 205] 

BLATHWAYT, WILLIAM ( 1649 ?-l 717), politician; 
secretary to Sir William Temple at the Hague, 1668 ; en- 
gaged in public business successively at Rome, Stockholm, 
and Copenhagen; secretary-at-war, 1683-1704; clerk of 
privy council, 1689 ; secretary of state with William III 
in Flanders ; commissioner of trade. 1696-1706 ; M.P. for 
Newtown, Isle of Wight, 1685-8, and Bath, 1693-1710. 

[v. 206] 

I'.'. \V\KV (1770-1834), lieutenant-general ; ensign, 1789; 
captain, 1792 ; major in 89th regiment, part of which he 
rii-'-l in Ireland, 1794; served under Duke of York in 
nand'Ts. 1794-5; lieutenant-colonel of 89th regiment in 
Ireland, 1798; assisted in reduction of Malta; major- 
u'rneral in Peninsula, 1810; captured at Malaga; im- 
prisoned in France. 1810-14; lieutenant-general, 1819; 
published account of his captivity, 1814. [T. 206] 

BLAYNEY. BKN.J A M I X (1728-1801 ), Hebrew scholar; 
M.A. Worcester College, Oxford, 1753; fellow, and after- 
wards vice-principal, Hertford College ; -B.D., 1768 ; pre- 
pared for Clarendon Press edition of authorised version of 
bible. 1769 ; regius professor of Hebrew, canon of Christ 
riraivh, und D.D , 1787 ; published dissertations on and 
translations of Old Testament Scriptures. [v. 208] 

BLEDRI, surnamed DDOETH, or the Wise (d. 
1022?), perhaps bishop of Llandaff between 995 and 
1005. [v. 208] 

ARTHUR HKNHY ( 1H27V-1877), oriental- 
ist ; successively employed in I'.ritish Museum and inland 
transport corps at Sinope during ( 'rimean war : published 
works on oriental languages and a translation of the 
' A vesta.' [v. 209] 

(1K27-IH75). philologist: horn at Berlin ; educated at 
Bonn and Berlin : set out with W. I'.. Blaikie [q. v.] in 
expedition up N'iger, 18M: interpreter to Sir George Grey 
at Capetown, 1H57. and subsequently librarian to Grey's 
library ; published works on South African languages. 

[v. 209] 

BLEGBOROUOH, RALPH (1769-1827), physician; 
I educated :it Kdinburgh and Guy's and St. Thomas's hos- 
pitals ; M.D. Aberdeen, 1804; L.C.P., 1805; devoted him- 
self exclusively to midwifery. [v. 210] 

BLENCOW or BLINCOW, JOHN (fl. 1640), divine ; 
fellow, St. John's College, Oxford, 1627 ; B.C.L., 1633 ; 
probably expelled from fellowship, 1648. [v. 210] 

BLENCOWE, SIR JOHN (1642-172(5), judge; called 

to bar at Inner Temple, 1673 ; master of the bench, 1687 ; 

I serjeiint-at-law, 1G89 ; M.P. for Brackley, Northamptou- 

, shire, 1690-5 ; baron of exchequer, 1696 ; probably re- 

moved to king's bench, 1G97, and to common pleas, 1714 ; 

knighted, 1714 ; retired, 1722. [v. 210] 

BLENCOWE, WILLIAM (1683-1712), decipherer; 
; son of Sir John Bleucowe [q. v.] ; B.A. Magdalen College, 
j Oxford, 1701; fellow of All Souls, 1702; M.A., 1704; de- 
j cipherer to government, 1703 ; shot himself during tem- 
| porary insanity. [v. 211] 

BLENERHASSET, THOMAS (1550 V-1625 V), poet; 
educated at Cambridge ; entered army ; captain at 
Guernsey Castle ; one of ' undertakers ' for plantation of 
Ulster, 1610. His publications include an expansion 
(1678) of the 'Mirrour for Magistrates' and a work on 
j 'Plantation in Ulster.' [v. 211] 

BLENKIN80P, JOHN (1783-1831), one of pioneers 

' of the locomotive : engaged hi Middletou collieries, near 

! Leeds ; obtained, 1811, patent for double cylinder loco- 

1 motive worked by means of racked rail and toothed wheel, 

'< which was successfully tested, 1812. Locomotives made 

i upon the Blenkinsop pattern were employed regularly 

j from 1812. [Suppl. i. 217] 

BLENKIRON, WILLIAM (1807 ?-1871), breeder of 
racehorses ; farmer in Yorkshire ; manufacturer of stocks 
and collars, 1845 ; kept racehorses at Dai-ton, and subse- 
quently at Middle Park, Kent, Waltham Cross, and 
Esher, his stud becoming the most celebrated in Europe. 

[v. 212] 

lawyer ; educated at Westminster and Dublin ; B.A., and 
LL.B., 1790 ; travelled on continent, adopted republican 
principles, and settled, 1798, near Parkersburg on the 
Ohio; became implicated in schemes of Aaron Burr; 
arrested, but released, 1807 ; lawyer in Montreal, 1819 ; 
retired to Guernsey. [v. 213] 

(1789-1849), authoress; n6e Power; married, 1804, captain 
Maurice Farmer (d. 1817), from whom she separated almost 
immediately ; married, 1818, Charles John Gardiner, first- 
earl of Blessington ; travelled on continent with her hus- 
band and Alfred, count d'Orsay, 1822 : made acquaintance 
of Byron; settled in Paris, 1828; removed to London, 
1831 ; published her first novel, ' Cassidy,' 1833 ; edited 
'Book of Beauty 'from 1834, and 'The Keepsake,' 1841- 
1849; contributed to 'Daily News' on its foundation, 
1846 ; became bankrupt, 1849, and fled to Paris to Count 
d'Orsay, who had lived with her for some years ; died in 
Paris. Her first book, 'The Magic Lantern,' was pub- 
lished anonymously, 1822, and between 1833 and 1847 she 
produced numerous works of fiction and personal re- 
miniscence. 'Country Quarters,' a novel, appeared 
posthumously in 1850. [v. 213] 

BLETHYN, WILLIAM (d, 1590), divine : educa,ted at- 
Oxford ; bishop of Llandaff, 15*5. [v. 216] 

BLEW, WILLIAM JOHN (1808-1894), liturgiologist : 
M.A. Wadham College, Oxford, 1832 ; curate of Nut- 
hurst, 1832-40, and of St. Anne's, Soho, 1840-2 ; incum- 
bent of St. John's, Milton-next-Gravesend, 1842-60 ; pub- 
lished edition of Aberdeen Breviary,' 1864, translations 
from Greek, and other works. [Suppl. i. 218] 





BLEWITT. .IiN.\S (rf. 1805), organist, in i-ity of 
London : published a ' Treatise on the Organ,' and musical 
compositions. [v. 215] 

BLEWITT, JONATHAN (1780?-1853), composer: 
son of Jonas Blewitt [q. v.] ; organist successively in 
London, Haverhill, Brecon, Sheffield, :iud at St. Andrew's, 
Dublin ; in London, 1826; produced numerous pantomime 
compositions ; at different times musical director at 
Theatre Royal, Dublin, Sadler's Wells, and Vauxhull. 

[v. 216] 

BLEWITT, OCTAVIAN (1810-1884). secretary, Royal 
Literary Fund ; studied medicine at infirmary of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, London : secretary of Royal 
Literary Fund, 1839-84 ; knight of the order of Leopold, 
1872 ; published topographical and other works. 

[v. 216] 

BLICKE, SIR CHARLES (1745-1815), surgeon; sur- 
geon of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 1787; governor of 
College of Surgeons, 1801 : knighted, 1803 ; edited ' Essay 
on Yellow Fever of Jamaica,' 1772, anonymous, [v. 217] 

BLIGH or BLIOHE, EDWARD (1685-1775), lieu- 
tenant-general ; Irish M.P. for Athboy, co. Meath, 1715 ; 
captain, 1717; lieutenant-colonel, 6th horse; colonel of 
20th foot, 1740; brigadier-general, 1745; major-general, 
1747; colonel, 6th horse, 1747; lieutenant-general, 1754 ; 
commanded unsuccessful expedition against French to 
create diversion in favour of Ferdinand of Brunswick, 
1758 ; retired, 1759. [v. 217] 

BLIGH, RICHARD (1780-1838 ?), chancery barrister ; 
educated at Westminster and Trinity College, Cambridge ; 
M.A., 1806 ; published legal works. [v. 218] 

BLIGH. SIR RICHARD RODNEY (1737-1821), ad- 
miral ; entered navy, 1751 ; commander under Rodney 
in West Indies, 1762 ; captured by French, 1793 ; rear- 
admiral, 1794: released, 1795; second in command in 
Jamaica, 1796-9; vice-admiral, 1799; commander-in- 
chief at Leith, 1803-4 ; admiral, 1804 ; G.C.B., 1820. 

[v. 218] 
liral ; entered 

BLIGH, WILLIAM (1 754-1817), vice-adm 
navy and accompanied Cook as sailing-master in second 
voyage round world, 1772-4, and discovered bread-fruit at 
Otaheite; lieutenant; commanded vessel sailing to Ota- 
heite to obtain bread-fruit plants, 1787; cast adrift in 
open boat by his mutinous crew ; landed at Timor, 1789 ; 
reached England, 1790 ; poet-captain ; sailed to Society 
Islands, 1791; received Society of Arts' medal, 1794; 
F.R.S., 1801 ; captain-general and governor of New South 
Wales, 1805 ; forcibly deposed, 1808, and imprisoned till 
1810 ; returned to England, 1811 ; rear-admiral, 1811, and 
vice-admiral of blue, 1814. [v. 219] 

BLIGHT, WILLIAM (1785-1862), rear-admiral; 
lieutenant, 1803 ; at Trafalgar, 1805 ; agent for trans- 
ports, Palermo, 1812-14 ; commander, 1821 ; post-captain, 
1830 ; retired as rear-admiral, 1855. [v. 220] 

BLIND, MATHILDE (1841-1896), poetess; born at 
Mannheim ; daughter of a banker named Cohen ; adopted 
name of Blind ; came to London, c. 1849 ; published 
'Poeme by Claude Lake,' 1867, 'The Prophecy of St. 
Oran,' 1881, 'The Heather on Fire,' 1886, 'Ascent of 
Man,' 1888, 'Dramas in Miniature,' 1891, 'Songs and 
Sonnets,' 1893, and ' Birds of Passage,' 1895. She trans- 
lated Strauss's 'Old Faith and New,' 1873-4, and 'Journal 
of Marie Bashkirteeff,' 1890. [Suppl. L 219] 

BLISS, NATHANIEL (1700-1764), astronomer; M.A. 
Pembroke College, Oxford, 1723; rector of St. Ebbe's, 
Oxford, 1736 ; Savilian professor of geometry and F.R.R., 
1 742 ; assisted Bradley at Royal Observatory : astronomer- 
royal, 1762-4. Observations made under his supervision 
were published in 1806. [v. 220] 

BLISS, PHILIP (1787-1857), antiquary ; educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School and St. John's College, Oxford ; 
fellow, 1809 ; D.C.L., 1820 ; ordained priest, 1818 ; under- 
librarian of Bodleian, 1822-8 : university registrar, 1824- 
1853 ; keeper of archives, 1826-67 ; registrar of university 
court, 1831 : principal of St. Mary Hali, 1848-67 ; deputy 
professor of civil law : compiled and edited many anti- 
quarian works, including editions of Wood's * Athene 
Oxonienses,' 1813-20, and ' Reliquiae Hearnianae,' 1867. 

[v. 221] 

BLITH, WALTER (fi. 1649), agricultural writer: 
published, 1649, ' The English Improver, or a new Survey 

of Husbandry,' reissued, 1652, as 'The English Improver 
Improved.' He was probably a captain in parliamentary 
army. [Suppl. i. 220] 

1591), organut and gentleman of the chapel under Kliza- 
beth ; left musical compositions in manuscript. Dr. John 
Bull [q. v.] was perhaps his pupil. [v. 222] 

BLLZARD, THOMAS (1772-1838), surgeon; nephew 
of Sir William Blizard [q. v.] ; surgeon to London Hos- 
pital ; published surgical writings. [v. 222] 

BLIZARD, SIR WILLIAM (1743-1836), surgeon; 
studied at London and St. Bartholomew's hospitals ; 
surgeon, 1780, to London Hospital, where, with Dr. Mac- 
laurin, he founded medical school, 1785 ; F.R.S., 1787 ; twice 
president of College of Surgeons; published medical 
writings. [v. 223] 

orientalist ; born at Dresden ; studied oriental languages 
at Leipzig and Paris ; came to England and enlisted in 
British army, 1858 ; vrent as private soldier to India, ob- 
tained employment in office at Fort William, received 
discharge, and entered service of Peninsular and Oriental 
Company as interpreter; assistant professor of Arabic 
and Persian, in Calcutta Madrasa, 1860-2; M.A. and 
LL.D. Calcutta, 1861 ; professor of mathematics, Doveton 
College, 1862-5 ; returned to the Madrasa, 1865, and ulti- 
mately became principal ; published oriental works, in- 
cluding translation of first volume of ' Ain-i-Akbari ' of 
Abiil-FazL [Suppl. i. 220] 

BLOET, BLUET, or BLOETT, ROBERT (<l. 1123), 
Norman divine; chancellor successively to William the 
Conqueror and William II ; consecrated bishop of Lincoln, 
1094 ; justiciary under Henry I ; besieged Tickhill, Robert 
of Belesme's castle, for the king, 1102. [v. 223] 

BLOI8, PETER DK (/. 1190). [See PKTKR.] 

divine ; M.A. Merton College, Oxford, 1726 ; fellow ; held 
livings in Middlesex and Kent; published life of his 
grandfather, Edmund Dickinson, M.D. [v. 224] 

BLOKE, RICHARD (<f. 1705), publisher and com- 
piler ; issued many splendid works by the aid of subscrip- 
tions adroitly levied. His publications include editions 
of Guillim's 'Display of Heraldrie,' 1660 and 1679 : 'Geo- 
graphical Description of ... the World,' 1670 ; and ' Bri- 
tannia,' 1673. [v. 225] 

BLOMEriELD, FRANCIS (1705-1752), topographer; 
B.A. Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, 1727 ; rector 
of Hargham, 1729-30; held living of Fersfield, 1730; set 
up private press, 1736, and began to issue in numbers his 
4 History of Norfolk,' 1739 ; died leaving the third volume 
unfinished. The published volumes, chiefly based on 
Le Neve's collections, contained accounts of Thetford 
and Norwich. His work was continued by the Rev. Charles 
Parkin, and ultimately finished by a hack writer, the 
whole being republished, 1805-10. [v. 226] 

JENTNS (1800-1893), naturalist; educated at Eton and 
St. John's College, Cambridge ; B.A., 1822 ; curate, 1823, 
and vicar, 1828-49, of Swaffham Bulbeck, Cambridge- 
shire ; published ' Manual of British Vertebrate Animals,' 
1836; removed successively to South Stoke, near Bath, 
1860, Swainswick, 1852, and Bath, 1860 ; founder, 1885, 
and first president of Bath Natural History and Anti- 
quarian Field Club ; presented to the town of Bath the 
' Jenyns Library ' ; member of Linnean Society and of 
I Cambridge Philosophical Society, 1822 ; original member 
1 of Zoological (1826), Entomological (1834), and Ray (1844) 
societies ; adopted name of Blomefield, 1871 ; published* 
writings relating to natural history and an autobiography 
(privately printed, 1889). [Suppl. i. 221] 

BLOMEFIELD, MILES (1625-1574 ?), alchemist: 
licensed physician by Cambridge University; practised 
at Bury St. Edmunds ; published works on alchemy. 

[v. 228] 

BLOMEFIELD, SIR THOMAS (1744-1822), major- 
I general ; joined navy, but entered as cadet military 
academy, Woolwich, 1758 : lieutenant fire-worker, c, 1759 ; 
commanded bomb- ketch at bombardment of Havre ; joined 
Hawke's fleet at Quiberon ; personal aide-de-camp succes- 
sively to General Conway and Lord Townshend, master- 




general of ordnance, 1771 : brigade-major to Brigadier 
Phillips in Aim-riran war; wounded at Saratoga; 
captain insprctor of artillery, and superintendent of 
Royal Kniss Foundry, 17W) : entrusted with reorganisa- 
tion of onlnance department, 1783; lieutenant-colonel, 
1793 ; colonel, 1800 ; major-general, 1803 ; colonel-com- 
mandant of battalion, 1HU6; commanded artillery in 
Copenhagen expedition, 1807 ; created baronet, [v. 228] 

architect ; son of Charles James Blomfleld [q. v.] ; edu- 
(itf.1 ;it Kiitfby and Trinity College, Cambridge ; M.A., 
ticlol to I'hilip Charles Hardwick (1822-1892), 
son of 1'hilip I lard wick [q. v.] ; opened office in Adelphi 
Trrm.v 1S56: president of Architectural Association, 
l-l , F.H.I.B.A., 1867, and vice-president, 1886; architect 
to Bank of England, 1883 ; associated with Arthur 
Edmund Street, sou of George Edmund Street [q. v.], in 
i-nvtion of Law Courts in London, 1881; A.R.A., 1888; 
i, 1889. His works include Sion College Library on 
Thames Embankment, Queen's School at Eton College, the 
scheme for Church House, Dean's Yard, Westminster, and 
many churches in England and abroad. He made im- 
portant restorations in the cathedrals of Salisbury, 
Canterbury, Lincoln, and Ohichester. [Suppl. i. 223] 

BLOMFIELD, CHARLES JAMES (1786-1867), bishop 
of London; B.A. Trinity College, Cambridge, 1808; 
fellow ; presented to St. Botolph, Bishopsgate ; bishop of 
Chester, 1H24 ; translated to see of London, 1828 ; insti- 
tuted, 1836, for building and endowing churches in 
metropolis a fund which, 1854, was merged in London 
Diocesan Church Building Society ; in the Tractarian 
movement (c. 1842) upheld definitely the views of 
neither party while agreeing on some points with both ; 
edited five plays of ^scbylus, with notes and glossaries, 
three Greek lyric poets for Gaisford's 'Poetae Minores 
Graeci ' (1823), and contributed on classical subjects to 
magazines. [v. 229] 

classical scholar; brother of Charles James Blomfield 
[q. v.] ; B.A. Caius College, Cambridge, 1811 : first 
chancellor's classical medallist; classical lecturer and 
fellow, Emmanuel College, till death. His chief work, a 
translation of Matthias's 'Greek Grammar,' appeared 
posthumously, edited by his brother. [v. 230] 

BLOMFIELD, EZEKIEL (1778-1818), nonconformist 
divine ; minister at Wymondham ; founded Norfolk and 
Norwich Auxiliary British and Foreign Bible Society; 
partner of Brightley, printer, of Bungay; published 
various compilations. [v. 231] 

[See LE BLON.] 

BLONDEL, JAMES AUGUSTUS (d. 1734), physician : 
born in Paris ; M.D. Leyden, 1692 ; practised in London ; 
L.O.P., 1711 ; published medical writings. [v. 232] 

BLOOD, HOLCROFT (16607-1707), general; son of 
Thomas Blood [q. v.] : served at sea in Dutch war, 1672, 
and in Irish campaigns after 1688 ; rendered signal 
service as engineer, Namur, 1696, and Hochstadt, c. 1703 ; 
subsequently promoted brigadier-generaL [v. 232] 

BLOOD, THOMAS (1618 ?-1680), adventurer: ob- 
tained estates in Ireland which were forfeited at Restora- 
tion ; headed unsuccessful attempt to take Dublin Castle 
from royalists, 1663 ; escaped arrest, and subsequently 
fled to Holland; returned to England, associated with 
Fifth-monarchy men, and later with covenanters till 
1666; attempted, perhaps at Buckingham's instigation, 
to assassinate Duke of Ormonde, who, however, escaped, 
1670 ; formed an elaborate plan, 1671, to steal the crown 
jewels, and actually with an accomplice made off with 
the crown and globe, but was arrested ; obtained admis- 
sion to Charles IPs presence, gained his favour, and 
received back his Irish estates ; committed by court of 
king's bench for slander of Buckingham, 1680, but re- 
ceived bail. [v. 232] 

FIELD (1768-1846), lieutenant-general ; second lieutenant, 
royal artillery, 1781; chief equerry to Prince of Wales, 
c. 1806; major-general, 1814; knighted, 1816; keeper of 
privy purse and receiver of duchy of Lancaster, 1817 ; 
minister plenipotentiary at Stockholm, 1824: raised to 
Iwsh peerage, 1825 ; commanded garrison at Woolwich. 

[v. 235] 

BAKON BI.OOMFIELD (1802-1879), diplomatist: son of 
Benjamin Bloomfleld [q. v.] ; joined diplomatic service, 
1818; envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary 
at St. Petersburg, 1844, and Berlin, 1851 ; envoy extra- 
ordinary and plenipotentiary to emperor of Austria, 
1860-71 ; created peer of United Kingdom, 1871. [v. 235] 

BLOOMFIELD, ROBERT (1766-1823), poet ; worked 
as shoemaker under his brother George, in London; 
endured extreme poverty ; wrote his ' Farmer's Boy,' 
c. 1798 (published 1800) ; under-sealer in seal office, 1802 ; 
manufactured JEolian harps; embarked unsuccessfully 
in book-trade ; visited Wales and wrote ' Banks of the 
Wye,' 1811. A collected edition of his works appeared in 
1821. [v. 236] 

BLOOR, JOSEPH (d. 1846), assistant at Robert 
Bloor's Old Derby China Works. [v. 237] 

BLOOR, ROBERT (rf. 1846), ceramist, brother of 
Joseph Bloor [q. v.] ; worked in and, <r. 1811, bought Old 
Derby China Works. [v. 237] 

BLORE, EDWARD (1787-1879), architect and artist; 
sou of Thomas Blore [q. v.] ; employed on illustrations 
for his father's ' History of Rutland,' Britton's ' English 
Cathedrals,' and Surtees's ' Antiquities of Durham ' ; built 
Sir Walter Scott's house at Abbotsford, c. 1816 ; managed 
production of Scott's 'Provincial Antiquities of Scot- 
land' ; architect to William IV and Quern Victoria, and 
to Westminster Abbey ; F.R.S. ; F.S.A. ; hon. D.C.L. 
Oxford, 1834 ; published ' Monumental Remains of Emi- 
nent Persons,' 1824. [v. 37] 

BLORE, ROBERT (d. 1866 ?), manufacturer of porce- 
lain ' biscuit ' figures in Bridge Gate, Derby ; apprenticed 
at Old Derby China Works. [v. 238] 

BLORE, THOMAS (1764-1818), topographer; solicitor 
at Derby, and, later, at Hopton ; entered Middle Temple, 
1795; published topographical writings and left manu- 
script collections for history of Hertfordshire, [v. 238] 

1545), son of William Blount, fourth baron [q. v.] ; page 
to Queen Catherine : served with Henry VIII in France, 
1544 ; patron of learning. [v. 239] 

eighth BARON MOUNTJOY (1563-1606), grandson of 
Charles Blount, fifth baron [q. v.] ; M.A. Oxford, 1589 : 
entered Inner Temple ; came to court, c. 1583 : M.P. for 
Beeralston, 1584, 1586, and 1593 ; knighted, 1586 ; served 
in Netherlands, in pursuit of Armada, and in Brittany, 
1586-93 ; captain of town and island of Portsmouth, 
1594 ; lieutenant of land forces in Essex's expedition to 
Azores, 1597; K.G., 1597; implicated in Essex's con- 
spiracy, but escaped punishment ; lord deputy of Ireland, 
1601 ; put down Tyrone's rebellion ; reinstated deputy by 
James I: styled lord-lieutenant, 1603; suppressed dis- 
affection resulting from military occupation ; returned 
to England, and was created Earl of Devonshire, 1603 ; 
master of ordnance, 1603 ; keeper of Portsmouth Castle, 
1604; commissioner to discharge office of earl marshal, 
1605 ; married, 1605, Lord Rich's divorced wife, Essex's 
sister, Penelope, with whom he had contracted a liaison in 
early life. [v. 240] 

BLOUNT, CHARLES (1654-1693), deist : son of Sir 
Henry Blount [q. v.] ; author of freethinking books 
which have caused him to be considered as a link between 
Herbert of Cherbury and Toland. These include ' Anima 
Mundi'; an attack on priestcraft entitled 'Great is 
Diana of the Ephesians,' 1680: and a translation with 
notes of ' The Two First Books of Apollonius Tyaneus,' 
1680. He published also political papers of whig ten- 
dency, and a 'Vindication of Liberties of the Press.' 

[v. 243] 

BLOTINT, SIR CHRISTOPHER (1565 ?-1601), soldier : 
probably younger brother of Charles, earl of Devonshire 
[q. v.] ; gentleman of horse to Elizabeth ; served in 
Netherlands ; knighted, 1588 ; married, c. 1689, widow of 
first Earl of Essex (d. 1576) ; colonel of land force, and, 
later, camp master in Essex's expedition to Cadiz, 1696 ; 
joined attempt on Azores, 1R97 ; M.P. for Staffordshire, 
1597 ; marshal of Essex's nrmy in Ireland, 1599 ; assisted 
in Essex's conspiracy against government, and was exe- 
cuted on Tower Hill. [v. 245] 





BLOUNT or BLUNT. EDWARD (ft. 1588-1632), 
stationer; freeman of Stationers' Company, 1588; pub- 
lished Florio's ' Italian and English Dictionary,' 1596, and 
translation of 'Montaigne's i ;." M;irlo\\v's 

'Hero and Leander,' 1598, Sbelton's 'Don Quixote,' 1620, 
the first folio of Shakespeare's * Works,' with Isaac 
Jaggard and others, 1623, and Lyly's ' Sixe Court Comedies,' 

.. besides ' Are Aulica,' 1607, and other translations by 
himself. [v. 246] 

BLOUNT, SIR HENRY (1602-1682), traveller; B.A. 
Trinity College, Oxford, 1618; entered Gray's Inn; 
travelled on continent and in Egypt ; published ' Voyage 
to the Levant,' 1636 ; knighted, 1640 ; sided with royalists 
in civil war. [v. 247] 

BLOTJKT, SIR JAMES (d. 1493), lieutenant of Hammes, 
1476 ; son of Walter Blouut, first baron Montjoy (d. 1474) 
[q.v.] ; knighted, 1485. [v. 258] 

BLOUNT, SIR JOHN (ft. 1413), governor of Calais : 
sou of Sir Walter Blount [q. v.] ; K.G., 1413 ; at siege of 
Rouen, 1418. [v. 258] 

1485), second son of Walter Blount, first baron [q.v.]; 
captain of Guisnes and Hammes, 1477. [v. 258] 

BLOUNT, MARTHA (1690-1762), friend of Pope; 
educated at Hammersmith and in Paris ; made acquaint- 
ance of Pope as early as 1705 : Pope dedicated to her his 
'Epistle on Women,' 1735, and at his death bequeathed 
her considerable property. [v. 248] 

OP NEWPORT (1597 7-1666), natural son of Charles Blount, 
earl of Devonshire [q. v.], by Penelope, lady Rich ; created 
Baron Mountjoy, in Irish peerage, 1618, and in English 
peerage. 1627 ; served in Low Countries, 1622 ; created 
Earl of Newport, Isle of Wight, 1628 ; rear-admiral of 
fleet in Rochelle expedition, 1628 ; accompanied Charles I 
to Scotland, 1639; joined opposition in the Lords to 
Charles I in Long parliament ; constable of Tower, 1641 ; 
fought with king's forces in Yorkshire, 1642 ; lieutenant- 
general under Duke of Newcastle ; quarrelled with New- 
castle and was imprisoned in Pomfret Castle, and subse- 
quently committed to custody of gentleman usher of 
House of Lords, 1643 ; released, 1644 ; fought for king at 
Newbury, 1644 ; taken prisoner at Dartmouth, 1646 ; 
released on bail; committed to Tower on suspicion of 
treason, 1655 ; pensioned as gentleman of bedchamber, 
1662. [v. 249] 

BLOUNT, RIOHARD(1565-1638X Jesuit; educated at 
Oxford, English College, Douay (temporarily removed to 
Rhfcims), and Rome ; ordained priest, 1589 ; went to Spain 
and came thence to England, 1591, in disguise ; entered 
Society of Jesus in England, 1696 ; professed of four vows, 
1608 ; superior of English missions, 1617 ; provincial, 
1623 ; lived in hiding in London. [v. 262] 

BLOUNT, SIR THOMAS (d. 1400), supporter of Ri- 
chard II ; deputy king's 'naperer,' 1377; joined barons' 
insurrection against Henry IV, 1399 ; captured and exe- 
cuted near Oxford. [v. 263] 

BLOUNT, SIR THOMAS (ft. 1422), treasurer of Calais 
in Henry VI's reign ; son of Sir Walter Blount [q. v.] ; 
founded chantry at Newark, 1422. [v. 258] 

BLOUNT or BLUNT, THOMAS (ft. 1668), parlia- 
mentarian colonel; on committee of Kent, 1643; im- 
prisoned, 1660 ; member of Royal Society, 1666 ; noted for 
several ingenious inventions. [v. 253] 

BLOUNT, THOMAS (1613-1679), miscellaneous 
writer ; entered Inner Temple ; compelled, being Roman 
catholic, to flee from bis home during agitation due to 
popish plot, 1678; published historical, legal, and other 
works, including ' Academic of Eloquence,' 1654, 'Glosso- 
graphia,' 1686, 'A Law Dictionary,' 1670, 'Fragmenta 
An tiquitatis, Ancient Tenures of Land,' 1679, and 'Bos- 
cobel,' 1660, a history of Charles II's escape after battle of 
Worcester. He left in manuscript a ' History of Hereford,' 
now lost. [v. 264] 

BLOUNT, SIR THOMAS POPE (1649-1697), politi- 
cian ; son of Sir Henry Blount [q. v.] ; created baronet, 
1679 ; M.P. for St. Albans ; knight of shire for Hertford : 
commissioner of accounts in House of Commons; pub- 
lished 'Censura celebriorum Authorum,' 1690, 'A Natural 
History,' 1693, ' Remarks on Poetry,' 1694, and 'Essays on 
several Subjects,' 1G'J2. [v. 256] 

BLOUNT, SIR WALTER (d. 1403), soldier; accom- 
panied Black Prince to Spain, 1367 ; probably went with 
John of Gaunt to Castile, 1386 ; one of Gaunt's executors, 
1399; M.P. for Derbyshire, 1399; killed at buttle of 
Shrewsbury. He figures as Blunt in Shakespeare's 
' 1 Henry IV.' [v. 257] 

MOUNTJOY (d. 1474), lord high treasurer of England ; 
grandson of Sir Walter Blount [q. v.] ; fought for Yorkists 
at Towton, 1461 ; knighted ; governor of Calais ; high 
treasurer of England, and raised to peerage, 1465 ; K.G. 

[v. 258] 

BLOUNT, WILLIAM (d. 1471), son of Walter Blount 
(d. 1474) [q. v.] ; killed fighting for Edward IV at Barnet. 

[v. 258] 

(d. 1534), statesman and patron of learning : grandson of 
Walter Blount (d. 1474) [q. v.] ; privy councillor ; studinl 
in Paris, c. 1496, under Erasmus, whom he brought to 1 
England, 1498 ; became intimate with Prince Henry, 
afterwards Henry VIII ; served against Perkin Warbeck, 
1497 : lieutenant of marches of Calais, 1509 ; bailiff of 
Tournai, 1514-17 ; attended Henry VIII at Field of Cloth 
of Gold, 1520, and at meeting with Charles V at Dover, 
1522 ; master of mint ; K.G. Among the scholars whom 
he befriended were Erasmus, Leland, Richard Whytfonie, i 
Battus, and Richard Sampson. [v. 269] 

BLOW, JAMES (d. 1759), printer ; apprenticed to J 
Patrick Neill [q. v.], at Glasgow, and was subsequently his 3 
assistant in Belfast ; printed works for the presbyterians, 
'Church Catechism in Irish and English,' 1722, and 
some editions of the bible, after c. 1726. [v. 260] 

BLOW, JOHN (1648-1708), composer ; one of children \ 
of Chapel Royal, 1660 ; organist of Westminster Abbey, j 
1669-80; master of the children of Chapel Royal, 1674; 
organist of Chapel Royal, 1676 ; composer in ordinary to 
James II, 1685 ; almoner and master of choristers at St. 
Paul's Cathedral, 1687-93 ; composer to Chapel Royal, 
1699; buried in Westminster Abbey. His compositions j 
include anthems for ' Divine Services and Anthems,' 1663, 
the ' Club Anthem ' ' I will always give thanks,' 1663, duet 
to Herrick's ' Goe, per jur'd man,' ' Venus and Adonis ' (a ] 
masque never printed), and a collection of part-songs. 

[v. 261] 

BLOWEE, SAMUEL (d. 1701), nonconformist divine ; . 
ejected from fellowship at Magdalen and, 1662, from 
Woodstock, Oxfordshire; subsequently founded Castle 
Hill meeting-house, Northampton. [v. 263] 

BLOXAM, ANDREW (1801-1878)), divine ; educated 
at Rugby and Worcester College, Oxford, fellow; made 
collection of natural-history specimens on voyage to 
Sandwich Islands, 1824 ; wrote works relating to natural 
history. [v. 264] 

BLOXAM. JOHN ROUSE (1807-1891), historian of 
Magdalen College ; educated at Rugby and Worcester 
and Magdalen Colleges, Oxford : M.A., 1836 ; D.D., 1847 ; 
fellow of Magdalen College, 1836-63 ; pro-proctor of uni- 
versity, 1841 ; held various offices at his college till 1862 : 
he was in full sympathy with the Tractarians ; vicar of 
Upper Seeding, Sussex, 1862-91 : published and left in 
manuscript valuable collections relating to the history of 
Magdalen College. [Suppl. i. 224] 

antiquary ; brother of John Rouse Bloxam [q. v.] ; edu- 
cated at Rugby, where he was articled as solicitor ; clerk 
to magistrates for Rugby division, 1832-72 ; F.S.A., 1863 ; 
published, 1829, 'Principles of Gothic Architecture' 
(issued in an enlarged form, 1882), and other architec- 
tural and antiquarian works. [Suppl. i. 226] 

BLOXHAM, JOHN (d. 1334 V), Carmelite of Chester ; 
educated at Oxford ; provincial of his order in England ; 
wrote religious works. [v. 264] 

BLOXHAM, JOHN (d. 1387), warden of Merton Col- 
lege, Oxford; bachelor of theology, Oxford; seventh 
warden of Merton, 1376. [v. 264] 

BLUND or BLUNT, JOHN LE (d. 1248), divine : edu- 
cated at Oxford and Paris ; canon of Chichester ; chan- 
cellor of York ; nominated archbishop of Canterbury by 
Peter des Roches and elected, 1232, but the pope refused 
assent and the election was annulled. [v. 264] 




BLUNBELL, HFAKV (17-1 1810), art collector 
made at Ince-Blundell Hull, Lam-ashire, valuable collec 
ti'.ii of pictures, statuary, ami other works of art; pub- 
lished works relating to his collection. [v. 265] 

BLUNDELL. JAMES (1790-1877), physician; M.D. 
Edinburgh, 1813 : lectured on midwifery at Guy's Hos- 
pital; L.t.l'., 1S1H; F.C.P., 1838; published medical 
works. [v. 366] 

BLUNDELL, PETER (1520-1601), merchant; of 
humble origin : accumulated great wealth as merchant 
ainl inanufai'tiirer in kersey trade; endowed Blundell's 
;ol 1004), Tiverton.and left considerable sums 
for charitable purposes. [v. 266] 

BLUNDELL, WILLIAM (1620-1698), topographer; 
<-:ipt;iin of dragoons in royalist army, 1642; wounded at 
LanrusttT. He left a topographical manuscript relating 
to Isle of Man (published 1876-7), and other writings. 

[v. 267] 

('/. li'3'J), warrior and statesman; succeeded as earl of 
Cli-'-ter, 1180: married Constance, widow of Geoffrey, son 
(-1 Henry 11,1187 ; joined, in Richard's interest, in siege of 
Nottingham, 1194: accompanied Richard to Normandy; 
quarrelled with Constance and imprisoned her in castle of 
St. Jean Beverou, 1196 ; married Clemence, sister of 
Geoffrey, c. 1200; accompanied John abroad, 1199; led 
armies engaged in Welsh wars, 1210 seq. ; accompanied 
John to Poitou, 1214; took John's and, later, Henry Ill's 
ivrainst barons, 1215 ; with Fulk de Breaute stormed 
and plundered Worcester, 1216; laid siege unsuccessfully to 
.Moimtsorrel, Leicestershire, and shared in royalist victory 
at Lincoln, 1217 ; received earldom of Lincoln ; went to 
Holy Land, 1218 ; joined in siege of Damietta, 1219 ; de- 
serted royal party and plotted ineffectually with Aumale 
and De Breaute to surprise the Tower and obtain dis- 
missal of Hubert de Burgh, but ultimately submitted ; 
took part with Henry in siege of Nantes, 1230, and was 
left in Brittany with Aumale and William Marshall in 
charge of the army ; returned to England, 1231. [v. 267] 

(d. 1236), bishop of Norwich; nephew of Hubert de 
Burgh ; clerk in exchequer ; bishop of Norwich, 1226. 

[v. 272] 

BLUNDEVILLE, THOMAS (fl. 1561), writer on 
horsemanship ; inherited and lived on estate at Newton 
Flotmaii ; published ' The fower chiefyst offices belonging 
to Horsemanshippe, 1 1565-6, and works on horses, govern- 
ment, education of young gentlemen, logic, and astro- 
nomy, [v. 271] 

BLTJNT. [See also BLOUNT.] 

BLUNT, ARTHUR CECIL (1844-1896). [See CECIL, 

BLUNT, HENRY (1794-1843), divine; educated at 
Merchant Taylors' School and Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge : B.A., 1817 ; fellow ; vicar of Clare, Suffolk, 1820 : 
incumbent, 1830. and rector, 1832, Trinity Church, Sloane 
stm;t: rector of Streatham, 1835-43; published religious 
works, including lectures on the life of Christ, [v. 272] 

BLUNT, JOHN LE (d. 1248). [See BLUND.] 

BLUNT, JOHN HENRY (1823-1884), divine ; engaged 
in business as manufacturing chemist ; entered University 
College, Durham, 1850 ; M.A., 1855 ; vicar of Kenuing- 
ton, near Oxford, 1868 ; held crown living of Beverston, 
Gloucestershire, 1873-84 ; D.D., 1882 ; published works of 
theology and ecclesiastical history. [v. 273] 

BLUNT, JOHN JAMES (1794-1855), divine ; B.A. and 
fellow, St. John's College, Cambridge, 1816 ; M.A., 1819 ; 
B.D., 1826 ; appointed a Wort's travelling bachelor, 1818 ; 
travelled in Italy and Sicily, and published results of ob- 
servations ; preached (and afterwards published) Hulsean 
Lectures, 1831 and 1832 ; rector of Great Oakley, Essex, 
1834-9 ; Lady Margaret professor of divinity, 1839 ; author 
of sermons, lectures, and other theological works, some of 
which were published posthumously. [v. 274] 

BLYKE, RICHARD (d. 1775), antiquary; P.R.S.; 
F.S.A. ; deputy-auditor of office of imprest: clerk of 
journals, 1764 : left manuscript collections for topographi- 
cal history of Herefordshire. [v. 276] 

BLYSSE, JOHN (d. 1630), physician; B.A. Oxford, 
1507 ; M.C.P., 1525 ; left 'astronomical tables' at Merton 
College, Oxford, now lost. [v. 276] 

BLYTH, SIR ARTHUR (1823-1891), premier of South 
Australia: born and educated at I'.irmin^ham : v.x-iit to 
South Australia, 1H39; engagedin business as ironmonger 
in Adelaide; member of Adelaide chamber of commerce: 
member for Yatala district in legislative council, 1855 : 
member for Gumeracha in first elected council, 1857, and 
1870; commissioner of works, 1857 and 1868-60; trea- 
surer, 1860-1, 1862, and 1866 ; commissioner of lands and 
immigration, 1864-5 and 1870-1; chief secretary and 
premier, 1866-7 ; premier and treasurer, 1871-2 ; premier, 
1873-5; member for North Adelaide, 1875; treasurer, 
1876: agent-general for the colony in England, 1x77; 
K.C.M.G., 1877 ; C.B., 1886. [Suppl. L 226] 

BLYTH, EDWARD (1810-1873), zoologist: druggist 
at Tooting ; curator of museum of Asiatic Society of Ben- 
gal, Calcutta, 1841 ; returned to England with pension, 
1862 ; published catalogues of the museum and other 
zoological works. [v. 276] 

BLYTHE, GEOFFREY (d. 1530), bishop of Lichfleld 
and Coventry ; educated at Eton and King's College, 
Cambridge; prebendary of York, and archdeacon of 
Cleveland, 1493 ; treasurer of church of Sarum, 1494 ; 
prebendary of St. Paul's, c. 1496: dean of York, 1496; 
master of King's Hall, 1499-1528 ; prebendary and arch- 
deacon of Sarum, 1499 ; bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 
1503; LL.D.; lord-president of Wales, 1512-1524. 

[v. 277] 

BLYTHE, GEOFFREY (d. 1542), divine ; M.A. King's 
College, Cambridge, 1523 ; LL.D., 1529; master of King's 
Hall, Cambridge, 1528. [v. 278] 

BLYTHE, JOHN (d. 1499), bishop of Salisbury: 
warden of King's Hall, Cambridge, 1488 ; master of rolls, 
1492 ; bishop of Salisbury, 1494 ; chancellor of Cambridge 
University, 1493-6. [v. 278] 

BLYTHE, JOHN DEAN (1842-1869), miscellaneous 
writer ; successively factory band, newspaper reporter at 
Ashtou-under-Lyne, and assistant in a Manchester firm ; 
left miscellaneous writings, selections from which were 
published posthumously. [v. 278] 

BOADEN, JAMES (1762-1839), journalist; editor of 
'Oracle' newspaper, 1789: studied at Middle Temple; 
wrote several successful plays and published an exposure 
(1796) of the Ireland Shakespearean forgeries, a work 
(1837) on Shakespeare's 'Sonnets,' identifying Mr. W. H. 
with William Herbert (afterwards Earl of Pembroke), and 
biographies of actors and actresses. [v. 278] 

BOADEN, JOHN (d. 1839), portrait painter ; son of 
James Boaden [q. v.] ; exhibited at Royal Academy, 1810- 
1833. [v. 279] 

BOADICEA (d. 62), wife of Prasutagus, king (d. e. 60), 
of Iceni of Norfolk and Suffolk, who revolted ineffec- 
tually against Ostorius, c. 60 : headed revolt of Iceni and 
Trinobautes, destroyed Camulodunum and Londiniurn, 
and, being at length defeated by Suetonius Paullinus, took 
poison. [v. 279] 

BOA6, JOHN (1775-1863), compiler of the ' Imperial 
Lexicon ' ; educated at Glasgow ; joined congregationalista 
and acted for many years as evangelist; pastor and 
schoolmaster at Blackburn, Linlithgowshire ; published 
' Imperial Lexicon ' (c. 1847-8), which held its own until 
publication of Ogilvie's ' Dictionary.' [v. 280] 


MAN, ANDREW (1550 ?-1639), divine; M.A. St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 1575: D.D., 1594: Lady Margaret 
fellow, 1573 ; Greek lecturer, 1580 ; junior bursar, 1582 ; 
held livings at Allchurch, Warwickshire, 1586-1639. 

[v. 281] 

BOASE, CHARLES WILLIAM (1828-1895), historian ; 
B.A. Exeter College, Oxford, 1860; fellow, 1860; M.A., 
1853 ; ordained deacon, 1855 ; tutor, 1855-84 ; lecturer in 
Hebrew, 1859-69, and in modern history, 1855-94; uni- 
versity reader in modern history, 1884-94; honorary 
secretary of Oxford Historical Society, 1884 ; published 
listorical works relating to Oxford and other writings, 
ncluding a translation (with Dr. GK W. Kitchin) of 
Ranke's ' History of England. [SuppL L 227] 




BOASE, QBORGE CLEMENT (1829-1897), biblio- 
grapher. . rot her of Charles William Boaae [q. v.] : en- 
gaged in banking and insurance offices successively in 
.nice and London; in Australia, lx. r >4-64; manager 
of provision business of Whitehead & Co. 1866-74 : retired 
and occupied himself with literary pursuits; published 
bibliographical and antiquarian writings. [SuppL i. 228] 

BOASE, HENRY (1763-1827), banker and author; 
chief clerk in Messrs. Hansom. Morland, and Hammers- 
Ixjndon banking house, 1792, and managing partner, 
r. 1799 : became partner in Penzance Union Bank ; fellow 
of Royal Society of Literature, 1821 ; published works on 
finance, [v. 281] 

BOASE, HENRY SAMUEL (1799-1883), geologist, 
son of Henry Boase [q. v.] ; studied chemistry at Dublin ; 
M.D. Edinburgh, 1821 ; physician at Penzance : removed 
to London ; F.R.S., 1837 ; managing partner to Turnbull 
Brothers, bleachers, of Claverhouse Bleachfleld ; published 
scientific works. [v.282] 

BOAST, JOHN (1643 ?-1694). [See BOSTK.] 

(1600?-1653?X hebraist; M.D. Leyden; studied Hebrew 
rabbinical writings ; practised medicine at Dublin ; phy- 
sician-general of English forces in Ireland; removed 
to Paris ; published * Animadversiones sacra; ad textum 
Hebraicum Veteris Testament!,' 1644, also medical and 
other works. [v. 283] 

(1604-1660), physician; brother of Arnold Boate [q. v.] ; 
born at Gorcum, Holland ; M.D. Leyden, 1628 ; settled in 
London ; physician to the king ; produced, in conjunction 
with his brother, a treatise depreciatory of the Aristotelian 
philosophy, 1641; L.C.P., 1646; doctor to hospital at 
Dublin, 1649; wrote 'Ireland's Naturall History,' which 
was published posthumously in 1662 by Samuel Hartlib, 
Milton's friend. [v. 284] 

BOBART or BOBERT, JACOB, the elder (1699-1680), 
botanist ; born at Brunswick ; superintendent, 1632, of 
Oxford Physic Garden, of which he published a catalogue. 

[v. 285] 
, botanist ; 

BOBART, JACOB, the younger (1641-1719), 
sou of Jacob Bobart (1699-1680) [q. v.] ; succeeded his 
father as superintendent of Oxford Physic Garden ; bota- 
nical professor, Oxford, 1683-c. 1719 ; brought out the 
third part of M orison's ' Historia Plantarum,' 1699, and 
left manuscripts relating to botanical subjects, [v. 286] 

BOBBIN, TIM (1708-1786). [See COLLIER, JOHN.] 

BOCFELD, ADAM (fi. 1360), Franciscan; wrote 
commentaries on Aristotle. [v. 286] 

1660), anabaptist martyr; sometimes called JOAN OF 
r ; friend of Anne Askew [q. v.] ; asserted, 1648, 
that Christ did not ' take flesh of the virgin ' ; examined 
by Oranmer, imprisoned, and subsequently burned at 
Smithfield. . [v. 286] 

baron ; entered Hanoverian cavalry, e. 1781 ; captain, 
1800 ; came to England ; raised, and was made colonel of 
1st dragoons, king's German legion, 1804 ; major-general, 
1810; served in Peninsula; wrecked in transport on 
Tulbeat rocks. [v. 287] 

BOOKING, EDWARD (d. 1634), Benedictine ; leading 
supporter of Elizabeth Barton [q. v.] ; D.D. Canterbury Col- 
lege, Oxford, 1618; warden; entered Benedictine priory 
of Christ Church, Canterbury, c. 1626 ; sent to report on 
Elizabeth Barton's alleged revelations, and induced her 
to feign her manifestations ; hanged as one of her sup- 
porters. [v. 287] 

BOOKING, RALPH (./. 1270), Dominican; private 
confessor to Richard Wych, bishop of Chichester, whose 
life he wrote. [T. 288] 

BOOKMAN, R. (fl. 1760), portrait painter and mezzo- 
tint engraver in Amsterdam and later in England ; pro- 
duced engravings after Yandyck and others. [v. 288] 

BOCLAND, GEOFFREY DE (fl. 1196-1224), justice; 
justiciar, 1196-7, 1201-4, and 1218; justice itinerant in 
Herefordshire, 1220 ; dean of St. Martin's-le-Grand ; con- 
cerned in baron*' revolt, 1216 ; died before 1231. 

[v. 289] 

(d, 1119?), sheriff of Berkshire before 1100, and subse- 
quently sheriff of Middlesex and other counties, [v. 289] 

BODDINGTON, HENRY JOHN (1811-1865), artist; 
son of Edward Williams ; took his wife's name, Boddington, 
to prevent confusion with relations who were artists ; from 
1837 exhibited scenes of country life at Royal Academy 
and Society of British Artists. [v. 29(1] 

BODE, JOHN ERNEST (1816-1874), divine ; educated 
at Eton, Charterhouse, and Christ Church, Oxford ; M.A., 
1840 ; censor, 1844 ; examiner in classics, 1846-8 ; Bampton 
lecturer,! 855; rector of Westwell, 1847, and of Castle Camps, 
1860 ; published poetical and other works. [v. 290] 

BODEN, JOSEPH (d. 1811), lieutenant-colonel ; lieu- 
tenant in Bombay native infantry, 1781; major, 1802; 
lieutenant-colonel, 1806 ; judge-advocate ; member of 
military board, Bombay ; left money to found Boden pro- 
fessorship of Sanscrit, Oxford. [v. 291] 

BODENHAM, JOHN (/. 1600), reputed editor of 
Elizabethan miscellanies : planned publication of the 
Elizabethan miscellanies; 'Wits Commonwealth,' 1597, 
' Wits Theater,' 1598, ' Belvedere, or the Garden of the 
Muses,' 1600, and 'Englands Helicon,' 1600. [v. 291] 

1891), benefactress of Girton College ; daughter of Ben- 
jamin Smith [q. v.] ; studied water-colour drawing under 
William Henry Hunt [q. v.] ; married Dr.Eugene Bodichon, 
1857 ; proposed plan of and endowed Girton College. 

[Suppl. i. 229] 

BODKIN, SIR WILLIAM HENRY (1791-1874), legal 
writer ; hon. secretary of Society for Suppression of Men- 
dicity, 1821 ; called to bar at Gray's Innt 1826 ; joined 
home circuit ; recorder of Dover, 1832 ; M.P. for Rochester, 
1841-7; assistant judge of Middlesex sessions, 1859; 
knighted, 1867 ; counsel to treasury ; wrote work relating 
to poor laws. [v. 292] 

BODLEY, SIR JOSIAS (1650 ?-1618), military en- 
gineer; educated at Merton College, Oxford; served in 
Netherlands ; captain in Leinster against Tyrone, 1598 ; 
governor of Newry; trenchmaster at sieges of Kinsale, 
1601, Waterford, 1603, and other garrisons; superin- 
tendent of Irish castles, 1607 ; assisted in survey of Ulster 
plantations, 1609 ; appointed for life director-general of 
fortifications in Ireland, 1612 ; left manuscripts relating 
to his life and duties in Ireland. [v. 293] 

BODLEY, LAURENCE (d. 1615), canon of Exeter: 
elder brother of Sir Josias Bodley [q. v.] ; M.A. Christ 
Church, Oxford, 1668 ; D.D. ; canon of Exeter before 1588. 

[v. 294] 

BODLEY, SIR THOMAS (1545-1613), diplomatist and 
scholar; eldest brother of Josias and Laurence Bodley 
[q.v.]; educated at Geneva, whither his parents had fled 
from protestant persecution, and at Magdalen College, 
Oxford ; M.A., 1566 ; lecturer in natural philosophy ; 
university proctor, and deputy public orator, 1569 ; usher 
to the queen ; engaged in missions to Denmark, 1585, and 
to Henry III of France, 1688 ; queen's permanent resident 
in United Provinces, 1589-96 ; began, 1598, formation of 
Bodleian Library, Oxford, which was opened 1603 and 
endowed by Bodley in 1611 ; knighted, 1604. A portrait 
of him is in the Bodleian Library. [v. 294] 

BOECE or BOETHIUS, HECTOR (1465? - 1536), 
historian ; educated at Dundee and Paris, in which uni- 
versity he was regent or professor, c. 1492-8, Erasmus 
being one of his contemporaries ; assisted William Elphin- 
stone, bishop of Aberdeen, in founding (1505) university 
of Aberdeen ; first principal ; published lives of bishops of 
Mortlach and Aberdeen, 1622, and history of Scotland to 
accession of James III, 1527 (both printed ui Paris) : the 
history was translated into Scottish prose by John 
Bellenden, 1630-3 (printed 1536), and into English for 
Holinshed's chronicles by William Harrison, 1677 ; chap- 
lain of St. Andrew's altar in church of St. Nicholas, 
Aberdeen : vicar of Tullynessle, 1528. [v. 297] 

BOEHM, ANTHONY WILLIAM (1673-1722), divine; 
born at Pyrmont, Germany ; came to London, 1701 ; 
opened school, 1702 ; assistant chaplain to Prince George, 
and subsequently to George I ; published and left in 
manuscript many works and translations in German and 

[v. 300] 




(1834-1890). sculptor : born at Vienna ; studied sculpture 
in London, Italy, Paris, and Vienna; exhibited at Royal 
Academy from 1802, and soon obtained extensive practice 
as portrait sculptor; R.A., 1*80; lecturer on sculpture 
at Royal Academy ; sculptor in ordinary to Queen 
Victoria ; created baronet, 1889. [Suppl. i. 229] 

BOGAN, ZAOHARY (1625-1659), author; M.A. 
Corpus Ohristi College, Oxford, 1650 ; fellow, 1647 ; tutor ; 
published religious and learned works, [v. 301] 

BOGDANI or BOGDANE, JAMES (d. 1720), painter 
of still-life and birds ; born in Hungary ; patronised in 
liiiL'liind by Queen Amu-. [v. 301] 

BOGLE, GEORGE (1746-1781), diplomatist; edu- 
cated at Edinburgh University ; entered service of East 
India Company, 1769; assistant secretary to revenue 
ln>;tnl, 1772; envoy to and subsequently personal friend 
of Lama of Tibet, 1774-5 ; superintended renewal of leases 
. >i oiapauy's provinces, 1776; commissioner of lawsuits ; 
collector of Ruiigpur, 1779 ; left manuscript journal. 

[v. 302] 

BOGUE, DAVID (1750-1825), divine; educated at 
Edinburgh : licensed as preacher ; usher in academies at 
Edmonton, Hampstead, and Oamberwell ; congregational 
minister at Gosport ; tutor in institution for training 
for ministry, Gosport, 1780 ; a founder of the London 
Missionary Society, British and Foreign Bible Society, 
and Religious Tract Society ; published religious works, 
including ' History of Dissenters,' 1809. [v. 302] 

BOGTJE, RICHARD (1783-1813), captain royal artil- 
lery ; second lieutenant royal artillery, 1798 ; second 
captain, 1806 ; killed at Leipzig. [v. 303] 

BOHEMTTS, MAURITIUS (/. 1647-1662), noncon- 
formist divine ; born at Colberg ; rector of Halluton, 
Leicestershire ; ejected, 1662 ; published religious works. 

[v. 303] 

BOHLEK, JOHN (1797-1872), botanist ; became col- 
lector of medicinal plants for doctors, and subsequently 
published botanical writings. [v. 304] 

BOHN, HENRY GEORGE (1796-1884), bookseller 
and publisher ; entered his father's business of bookbinder 
and second-hand bookseller ; began business indepen- 
dently, 1831 ; published ' guinea catalogue ' of old books, 
1841 ; took up the ' remainder ' trade ; published 
' Standard Library,' 1846, ' Scientific ' and ' Antiquarian,' 
1847, 'Classical,' 1848, 'Illustrated,' 1849, ' Shilling Series,' 
1850, 'Ecclesiastical,' 1851, 'Philological,' 1852, 'British 
Classics,' 1853, the series numbering in all over 600 
volumes ; he made some translations for his ' Classical 
Library,' and produced works and compilations, including 
reprint of Lowndes's ' Bibliographer's Manual.' [v. 304] 

bookseller ; educated at Winchester and Gbttingen ; 
opened bookselling business in London, 1834 ; republished 
Dugdale's ' Monasticon ' and compiled catalogues. 

[v. 306] 

BOHTTN, EDMUND (1645-1699), chief-justice of 
Carolina ; fellow-commoner Queens' College, Cambridge, 
1663 ; on commission of peace ; licenser of publica- 
tions, 1692 ; imprisoned, 1693, for sanctioning publication 
of tract by Charles Blount [q. v.] defending doctrine of 
conquest by William III ; chief- justice of Carolina, 1698 ; 
published tracts, compilations, and translations, [v.306] 

1220), created earl, 1199 ; grandson of Humphrey III de 
Bohun [q. v.] ; constable of England ; joined barons 
against John, 1215 ; died on pilgrimage to Holy Land. 

[v. 307] 

BO HTTN, HUMPHREY III DE (d. 1187), baron ; sewer 
to Stephen, 1140; taken prisoner at Winchester while 
fighting for Matilda, 1141 ; attended council at Clarendon, 
1164 ; took Henry II's side in rebellion of Prince Henry, 
1173. [v. 307] 

FORD and first EARL OF ESSEX (d. 1274), constable of 
England ; joined Richard of Cornwall against the king, 
1227 : marshal of the household, 1236 ; sheriff of Kent, 
1239-41 ; took part in Henry's French expedition, 1242 ; 
joined federation of barons, 1258 ; justice itinerant, 1260 ; 
served with king against de Montfort, 1263 ; taken prisoner 
at Lewes, 1264. [v. 308] 

K<mi and second EARL OF ESSEX (</. 1298), constable of 
England; served witli Welsh army of occupation, 1286 ; 
joined Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk [q. v.], in opposing 
Edward I's reforms ; refused to serve in Gascouy. and was 
deprived of office of constable, 1297. [v. 309] 

HBKKVORD and third MAIU. .,! Kssi:x (1276-1322), con- 
stable of England ; sent to oppose Robert Bruce, 1308 ; 
among barons who besu*.'(l Gaveston at Scarborough, 
1312 ; taken prisoner at Bannockburn, l:U4, and exchanged 
for Bruce's wife, then captive in Kn^hmd : quelled rising 
in Wales, 1315 ; served in expedition against Scotland, 
1318-19 ; took lead in denouncing the Despensers ; de- 
feated by king and slain at Borough bridge, Yorkshire, 
1322. [ V . 309] 

(d. 1360), earl, 1337 ; son of Humphrey de Bohan VIII 
[q. v.] ; king's lieutenant and captain-general in Brittany, 
1342 and 1345-6 ; fought at Cressy ; warden of Scottish 
marches, 1350 ; in France, 1365, and Gascony, 1357-9. 

[v. 310] 

BOILEATJ, SIR JOHN PETER (1794-1869), archiw- 
logist; second lieutenant of Rifle Corps, 1813; created 
baronet, 1838 ; F.R.S., 1843<; F.S.A., 1852 ; vice-president 
Society of Antiquaries, 1858-62, and 1863-7, and of other 
scientific societies ; sheriff in Norfolk, 1844 ; published 
archaeological papers. [v. 311] 

BOIS, JOHN (1561-1644), translator of the bible; 
educated at St. John's and Magdalene Colleges, Cambridge ; 
fellow of St. John's, 1580 ; Greek lecturer at Cambridge, 
1584-95; appointed one of Cambridge translators for 
King James's bible, 1604, and member of board of revision ; 
translated portions of Apocrypha and of the section from 
Chronicles to Canticles; assisted in Sir Henry Savile's 
edition of 'St. Chrysostom ' (printed in 1610-13); pre- 
bendary of Ely, 1615 ; published treatise on Greek accents, 
1630. His critical notes on passages in Greek Testament 
appeared posthumously, 1665. [v. 311] 

BOISIL, SAINT (d. 664), superior of the monastery 
at Melrose ; gives name to St. Boswell's, Roxburghshire ; 
several religious writings are attributed to him. [v. 313] 

BOISSIEK, GEORGE RICHARD (1791-1851), eccle- 
siologist ; B.A. Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1828 ; in- 
cumbent of Oakfield, Kent; published 'Notes on Cam- 
bridgeshire Churches,' 1827. [v. 313] 

BOIT, CHARLES (d. 1726 ?), enamel painter ; born at 
Stockholm ; worked with success as enamel painter in 
London ; ran into debt and fled to Paris, where he pro- 
spered ; died in Paris. [v. 313] 

BOITARD, LOUIS PETER (/. 1750), engraver ; born 
in France ; pupil of La Farge ; executed in England por- 
traits and plates for publications. [v. 314] 

BOKHNHAM or BOKENAM, OSBERN (1393-1447 ?), 
poet ; professed member of Augustinian convent of Stoke 
Clare, Suffolk. His writings include poems in Suffolk 
dialect commemorating lives of twelve holy women and 
of the 11,000 virgins (Arundel MSS. Brit. Mus. No. 327, 
printed for Roxburghe Club, 1835). [v. 314] 

bishop; prebendary and, 1349, dean of Lichfield ; pre- 
bendary of Lincoln, 1352 ; keeper of privy seal to Ed- 
ward III ; elected bishop of Ely, but election quashed by 
pope, 1361 ; bishop of Lincoln, 1363-97, and retired to 
Christ Church monastery, Canterbury ; opponent of the 
Wycliffltes. [v. 315] 

(1806-1878), ironmaster ; born at Sulten, Mecklenburg ; 
came to England, 1827; entered partnership, 1841, as 
manufacturer of iron at Middlesbrough, to which town he 
was an extensive benefactor, and (1853) first mayor ; M.P., 
1868. [v. 316] 

BOLD, HENRY (d. 1677), divine ; educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford ; chaplain to Earl of Arlington, [v. 317] 

BOLD, HENRY (1627-1683), poetical writer : educated 
at Winchester and New College, Oxford ; probationer- 
fellow ; dislodged, 1648 ; employed in the examiner's office 
in Chancery ; published several volumes of poems in Eng- 
lish and Latin and translations from Latin. [v. 316] 




BOLD, JOHN (1679-1751). divim-: B.A. St. John's 
College, Cambridge, 1698 ; curate of Stoney Stanton, 1702- 
1761 ; wrote religious works. [v. 317] 

BOLD. SAMUEL (1649-1737). controversialist: vicar 
of Shapwick, Dorsetshire, 1674: resigned or was ejected, 
1688; rector of Steeple, Isle of Purheck (1682-1737), to 
which Tyneham was united in 1721; preached against 
:ition, and published ' Plea for Moderation towards 
Dissenters,' 1682, for which he was fined and imprisoned. 
UU works include tracts defending John Locke's philo- 
sophy, [v. 317] 

BOLDERO. Kl>Mrxi> <lfi08-1679), divine. M.A. and 
fellow of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, 1631 : ejected from 
fellowship under Commonwealth and imprisoned : D.D., 
1660 ; held rectories in Suffolk ; master of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, 1663 ; vice-chancellor of university, 1668 and 
1674. [v. 318] 

BOLEYN, ANNE (1507-1536). [See ANNK.] 

son of Sir Thomas Boleyu, earl of Wiltshire [q. v.] and 
brother of Anne Boleyn ; chief steward of honour of Beau- 
lieu, 1529 ; governor of Bethlehem Hospital, 1529 ; knighted 
and created Viscount Rochford, r. 1530 ; warden of Cinque 
ports, 1534 ; arraigned for incest and high treason, and 
executed, 17 May, two days before his sister. [v. 319] 

BOLEYN, GEORGE (rf. 1603), divine: perhaps son of 
George Boleyn, viscount Rochford [q. v.] ; sizar. Trinity 
Hall, Cambridge, 1544 ; M.A., 1560 ; prebendary of York, 
1560; prebendary of Ohichester: canon of Canterbury, 
1566; D.D.,and dean of Lichfleld, 1576 ; prebendary of 
Dasset Parva, 1577-9. [T. 320] 

1539), lord privy seal ; keeper of exchange at Calais and 
of foreign exchange in England, 1509 : joint-constable of 
Norwich Castle. 1512 : accompanied Sir Edward Poyu- 
ings on embassy to Low Countries ; took part in invasion 
of France, 1513 ; sheriff of Kent, 1517 ; went on embassy 
to Francis I, 1519-20, and negotiated arrangements for 
Field of Cloth of Gold ; Wolsey's agent in conferences at 
Calais, 1521 : joint-ambassador to Spain, 1522-3 ; treasurer 
of household, 1522 : created Viscount Rochford, 1525 ; 
ambassador with Sir Anthony Browne to France, 1527: 
created Earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde, 1529 : lord privy 
seal: ambassador to Charles V, 1530, and to France on 
business of Henry V Ill's divorce: father of Queen Anne 
Boleyn. [v. 321] 

BOLINGBROKE, EARL OP (1580?- 1646). [See ST. 

BOLINGBROKE, VISCOCNT (1678-1751). [See ST. 

BOLINGBROKE, HENRY (1785-1855), writer on 
Demerara, whither he made a voyage in 1798. [v. 323] 

BOLLAND, SIR WILLIAM (1772-1840), judge: 
MA. Trinity College, Cambridge, 17U7 ; called to bar at 
Middle Temple, 1801 ; practised at Old Bailey : recorder 
of Reading, 1817-29 ; baron of exchequer, 1829-39 : one 
of originators of Roxburghe Club. [v. 323] 

BOLLARD, NICHOLAS (./f. 1500VX naturalist: au- 
thor of a manuscript work on cultivation of trees. 

[v. 324] 

BOLRON, ROBERT (fl. 1674-1680), informer : suc- 
cessively jeweller's apprentice, foot-soldier, and manager of 
Sir Thomas Gascoigne's collieries, Barmbow, Yorkshire : 
became party to popish plot against James II, and in- 
formed against Gascoigne, who was tried and acquitted. 

[v. 324] 

DUKE, 16257-1699: PAULBT, CHARLES, second DUKK, 
1661-1722: PAULKT, OHAKLKS, third DUKE, 1686-1754: 
PAULBT, HARRY, sixth DUKK, 1719-1794.] 

BOLTON, DITHKSH OP (1708-1760). [See I 

BOLTON, first HABON (1746-1807). [See Onnu, 

BOLTON or BOULTON, EDMUND (1675 V-lG3:i V), 
historian and poet; free commoner, Trinity Hull, f'.un 
bridge: studied at Inner Temple; contributed to ' Eng- 
land's Helicon,' 1600 ; formulated a scheme, 1617, for a 
royal academy of letters and science, which was favour- 

ably received by James I, who died before it was carried 
out; subsequently imprisoned successively in Fleet and 
Marshalsea. Among his writings are ' The Roman His- 
tories of Lucius lulitis Florus' (translated), 1618, ' Nero 
Oiesar,' 1624, and a life of Henry II. [v. 325] 

BOLTON, SIR FRANCIS JOHN (1831-1887), soldier 
and electrician: enlisted in royal artillery: ensign in 
Gold Coast artillery corps, 1857 ; served at Crobboe 
Heights, 1858; captain, 12th foot, 1860; engaged, with 
Captain (afterwards Rear-admiral) Philip Howard Oolomb 
[q. v.], in developing system of visual signalling : in- 
vented oxy-calcium light for night signalling ; brevet- 
major, 1868 : assisted in founding Society of Telegraph 
Engineers and Electricians, 1871 : lieutenant-colonel, is? 7 
honorary colonel, 1881 : designed and controlled coloured 
fountains and electric lights for exhibitions at South Ken- 
sington, 1883-6 ; knighted, 1884. [Suppl. i. 230] 

BOLTON, SIR GEORGE (rf. 1807 ?), preceptor to royal 
| princesses ; knighted ; wrote on firearms. [v. 327] 

BOLTON, JAMES (fl. 1775-1795), naturalist; of 
' humble birth : published works on natural history. 

[v. 327] 

BOLTON, JAMES JAY (1824-1863), evangelical 
i divine : educated in America and at Corpus Christi Col- 
1 lege, Cambridge ; B.A., 1848 ; incumbent of St. Paul's 
Episcopal Chapel, Kilburn ; published religious works. 

[v. 328] 

BOLTON, SIK RICHARD (1570?-1648), lawyer ; prac- 
tised at English bar ; recorder of Dublin, 1604 ; member of 
Society of King's Inn, Dublin, 1610-13 ; M.P. for Dublin, 
1613 ; knighted, 1618 : solicitor-general for Ireland, 1619 : 
j attorney-general to court of wards, Dublin, 1622 : chief 
! baron of Irish exchequer, 1625 ; chancellor of Ireland, 
! 1639 ; chief adviser of Strafford in his attempts to intro- 
duce arbitrary government ; impeached of high treason 
I by Irish House of Commons, but the impeachment aban- 
doned, 1641-2 ; one of principal counsellors of Ormonde in 
negotiating with Irish confederation concerning peace, 
i 1644 ; published ' Statutes of Ireland,' 1621, and other legal 
; writings. [v. 328] 

BOLTON, ROBERT (1572-1631), puritan ; educated 
i at Blackburn and Lincoln and Brasenose colleges, Ox- 
| ford : B.A., 1596; fellow of Brasenose and M.A., 1602; 
I lecturer in logic and moral and natural philosophy ; B.D., 
| 1609 ; rector of Broughton, Northamptonshire, 1610-31 ; 
published religious works. [v. 330] 

BOLTON, ROBERT (1697-1763), divine ; M.A. Wad- 
ham College, Oxford, 1718 ; LL.D. ; transferred to Hart 
Hall, 1719 ; fellow of Dulwich College, 1722-5 ; preacher 
at Rolls Chapel, London, 1729 : dean of Carlisle, 1735, and 
vicar of St. Mary's, Reading, 1738-63 ; published religious 
works. [v. 332] 

BOLTON, SAMUEL (1606-1654), divine ; educated at 
Christ's College, Cambridge : member of Westminster 
assembly of divines, 1643 ; D.D. ; master of Christ's Col- 
lege, 1645 ; vice-chancellor of Cambridge University, 1651 : 
published religious works. [v. 333] 

BOLTON, WILLIAM (d. 1532), architect; prior of 
monastery of St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield, r. 1506 : said 
to have designed Henry VII's chapel in Westminster 
Abbey. [v. 333] 

BOLTS, WILLEM or WILLIAM (1740 ?-1808), Dutch 
adventurer : merchant in Lisbon ; entered Bengal civil 
service, 1759: second in council at Benares, 1764; re- 
signed the service, being reprimanded for using the East 
India Company's authority for private trading scheme, 
1766 : deported to England, 1768 : publish"! work attack- 
ing government in Bengal : became colonel in Austrian 
service, 1778, and founded establishmente in India for an 
Austrian East India Company; died in Paris, [v. 333] 

BOMELIUS. ELISEUS or LIOIUS (<l. 1574 ?), physi- 
cian and astrologer; born at Wesel ; M.D. Cambridge; 
physician and astrologer in London : arrested for prac- 
tising without license of College of Physicians, 1567; 
'open prisoner,' 1570; settled in Russia, 1670, and, as 
magician, gained favour of Ivan IV ; arrested, e. 1674, on 
charges of intriguing with kings of Poland and Sweden 
against the tear, and subsequently died in prison : pub- 
lished astrological works. [v. 334] 




BONAR, ANDKKNV A I, KX A XDER (1810-1892), Scot- 
tish divim; ; brother of Horatius Bouar [q. v.] ; educated 
:it I'Minburgh; licensed preacher, 1835 ; ordained minister 
of Collar,-. IVrthshirr, 1S38; joined Free church, 1st:;; 
minister of Finuieston, Glasgow, 1856-92 ; published re- 
ligious writings. [Suppl. i. 282] 

BONAR, ARCHIBALD (1753-1816), divine: son of 
John Bonar the elder [q. v.] ; educated at Edinburgh ; 
minister successively at Newburn, Glasgow, nn<l Oimaood ; 
published religious works. [v. 336] 

BONAR, HORATIUS (1808-1889), Scottish divine; 
.-.liKMtfd ut Edinburgh University: engaged in mission 
work at Leith : minister of new North Church, Kelso, 
1837 ; joined Free church, 1843 ; honorary D.D. Aberdeen, 
I < :; ; minister of Chalmers Memorial Church, Edinburgh, 
1866 ; moderator of general assembly of Free church, 1883 ; 
edited several religious periodicals, and published hymns 
(in, lu.lin,' ' I heard the voice of Jesus say') and other 
religious writings. [Suppl. i. 231] 

BONAR, JAMES (1757-1821), brother of Archibald 
Bonar [q. v.] : educated at Edinburgh ; solicitor in excise 
office : treasurer of Royal Society, Edinburgh ; promoter 
of Astronomical Institution ; contributed to ' Encyclo- 
paedia lirituunica ' and ' Edinburgh Encyclopaedia.' 

[v. 335] 

BONAE, JOHN, the elder (1722-1 761), Scottish divine ; 
iilm-ated at Edinburgh University ; minister of Cockpen, 
near Dalkeith, 1746 ; called to collegiate church of Perth, 
1766 ; published sermons and other religious works. 

[v. 336] 

BONAR, JOHN, the younger (1747-1807), first solicitor 
of excise in Scotland: son of John Bonar (1722-1761) 
[q. v.] ; educated at Edinburgh ; joint-editor of ' Miscel- 
laneous Pieces of Poetry,' 1766. [v. 336] 

BONAR, JOHN JAMES (1803-1891), Scottish divine ; 
brother of Horatius Bonar [q. v.] ; educated at Edin- 
burgh ; D.D., 1883 ; licensed preacher, 1827 ; minister of 
St. Andrew's, Greenock, 1836 ; joined Free church, 1843 ; 
published religious handbooks. [Suppl. i. 232] 

BONA VENTURA, THOMASINE (d. 1510 ?), Cornish 
benefactress : Cornish peasant girl ; married successively 
three rich London merchants, the last Oeing Sir John 
Percy vail, lord mayor, 1498; worked for the improve- 
ment of social conditions in Cornwall. [v. 336] 

BOND, DANIEL (1725-1803), painter; exhibited 
landscapes at Society of Arts, 1762-3, and received 
premiums from the society, 1764 and 1765. [v. 337] 

BOND, DENNIS (d. 1658), politician: woollen 
draper at Dorchester ; bailiff, 1630 ; mayor, 1635 ; M.P., 
1640 ; one of commissioners to try Charles 1, 1649 ; member 
Of council of state, 1649-63 ; president of council, 1652 
and 1653 : member of council's committee for trade, 1655 ; 
M.P. for Weymouth and Melcombe Regis, 1654 and 
1656 ; buried in Westminster Abbey, but body exhumed, 
1661. [v. 337] 

, Sm EDWARD AUGUSTUS (1815-1898), 
principal librarian of British Museum : educated at Mer- 
chant Taylors' School ; assistant in Record Office, 1833, 
and in British Museum, 1838 ; Egerton librarian, 1850 ; 
keeper of manuscripts, 18661; principal librarian, 1878-88 ; 
substituted printed for manuscript catalogue in printed 
book department, and adopted sliding press for books ; 
founded, with Sir E. Maunde Thompson, Palaeographical 
Society, 1873 ; O.B., 1885 ; K.C.B., 1898 : honorary LL.D. 
Cambridge. He edited historical and other works. 

[Suppl. i. 232] 

BOND, GEORGE (1750-1796), lawyer; barrister of 
Middle Temple: serjeant, 1786; practised at Surrey 
sessions. [v. 338] 

BOND, HENRY JOHN HALES (1801-1883), physi- 
cian ; M.B. Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1825 ; M.D., 
1831 ; studied at London, Edinburgh, and Paris ; regius 
professor of physic, Cambridge, 1851-72. [v. 338] 

BOND, JOHN (1550-1612), physician and classical 
scholar; M.A. Oxford, 1579 ; master of free school, Taunton ; 
practised as physician; probably chief secretary to 
lord chancellor Egerton ; M.P. for Taunton, 1601 and 
1603 : published commentaries on Horace (1606X and 
left notes on Persius (published posthumously, 1614). 

[r. 339] 

BOND, .JOHN (1612-1676), puritan divine ; son of 
Dennis Bond [q. v.] ; B.A. St. Catharine's College, Cam- 
bridge, 1631 ; fellow ; M.A., 1635 ; LL.D., 1645 ; minister, 
1646, and master of the Savoy ; master of Trinity Hall, 
1646 ; vice-chancellor of Cambridge University, 1658 : 
professor of law, Ore-sham College, London, 1649 ; lost 
preferments at Restoration. [v. 340] 

BOND, .JOHN JAMKS (1819-1883), chronologist ; 
senior assistant keeper in public record office ; compiled 
chronological tables. [v. 340] 

BOND, JOHN LINNELL (1766 - 1837 X architect, 
gold medallist, Royal Academy, 1786 ; prepared design for 
Waterloo Bridge. [v. 340] 

BOND, MARTIN (1558-1643), merchant adventurer ; 
son of William Bond (d. 1576) [q. v.] ; chief captain of 
train-bands, 1588-1643 ; treasurer of St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, 1619-36. [v. 840] 

BOND, NATHANIEL (1634-1707), king's serjeant: 
son of Dennis Bond [q. v.] ; B.O.L. All Souls' College, 
Oxford, 1654 ; called to bar at Inner Temple, 1661 : 
M.P. ; recorder of Weymouth, 1683 : serjeant-at-law, 
1689 ; king's serjeant and knighted, 1693. [v. 338] 

BOND, NICHOLAS (1540-1608), president of Magda- 
len College, Oxford ; B.A. St. John's College, Cambridge, 
1564 ; fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1565-75 ; M.A. 
Oxford, 1574 ; D.D., 1580 ; canon of Westminster, 1582 ; 
chaplain of Savoy and chaplain in ordinary to qneen ; 
vice-chancellor of Oxford University, 1590-1 and 1592-3 ; 
president of Magdalen College, 1590. [v. 341] 

BOND, OLIVER (1760 ?-1798), republican; wool 
merchant in Dublin ; original member of ' Society of 
United Irishmen,' 1791 ; tried and imprisoned in New- 
gate as secretary of society for publication of resolutions 
condemning government's policy towards Ireland and 
catholics, 1793 ; directed organisation to establish inde- 
pendent Irish republic, 1798; found guilty of high 
treason ; died in prison. [v. 341] 

BOND, THOMAS (1765-1837), topographer; town 
clerk of East Looe and West Looe, Cornwall, on which 
places he published a topographical work (1823). [v. 342] 

BOND, WILLIAM (d. 1576), sheriff of London in 
1567. [v. 340] 

BOND, WILLIAM (d. 1735), dramatist; wrote 
' Tuscan Treaty ' (acted at Covent Garden, 1733), and 
other works, including contributions to 'Plain Dealer,' 
1724. [v. 342] 

BONE, HENRY (1755-1834), painter; employed in 
London as enameller; exhibited portraits in Royal 
Academy from 1780 ; enamel painter to Prince of Wales, 
1800, and to the king 1801, till death ; A.R.A., 1801 ; 
R.A., 1811. [v. 343] 

BONE, HENRY PIERCE (1779-1855), painter: son 
of Henry Bone [q. v.] ; painted classical subjects in oils, 
1806-33, and subsequently in enamels. [v. 344] 

BONE, ROBERT TREWIOK (1790-1840), painter; 
brother of Henry Pierce Bone [q. v.] ; painter of sacred, 
classic, and domestic subjects. [v. 344] 

BONER, CHARLES (1815-1870), author ; lived with 
Baron August Doernberg and, later, with Prince Thurn 
and Taxis in Germany and Ratisbon ; special correspon- 
dent of ' Daily News' in Vienna, 1865 ; published poetical 
and other works. [v. 344] 

politician ; employed under East India Company ; 
governor of Penang, Singapore, and Malacca, 1837-47 ; 
governor of Hongkong and plenipotentiary and superin- 
tendent of trade in China, 1847 ; K.C.B., 1851 ; returned 
to England and was made baronet, 1853. [v. 845] 

BONHAM, THOMAS (d. 1629 ?X physician: M.D. 
St. John's College, Cambridge, and incorporated at 
Oxford, 1611 ; his medical writings were published post- 
humously, [v. 345] 

BONHOTE, ELIZABETH (1744-1818X authoress; 
published novels, essays, and other works, 1773-1810. 

[v. 345] 

BONIFACE. PAIXT (680-755), the apostle of Ger- 
many; born at Kirton or Crediton, Devonshire; his 




original name Winfrid or Winfrith : educated in inonas- 
.it Exeter, ami at Nursling, near Winchester: or- 
dained prii-st, r. 7K': went to Frisia, 716, but being 
refus,-! hy Kadbod, the pagan chief, permission to preach, 
returned to Nursling ; went to Rome, 718, and obtaining 
a of authority from Gregory II proceeded to 
Bavaria and Thuringia ; on death of Radbod laboured 
successfully among Frisians and Hessians, 719-22 : bishop, 
723 : instituted ecclesiastical organisation in Heesia and 
Thurinsria ; archbishop, 732 : organised Bavarian church, 
appointed legate to Pope Zacharias, and entrusted 
with reformation of Frankish church, 741 ; took posses- 
sion of see of Menta, with jurisdiction over sees of 
Worms, Cologne, Utrecht, and others established by him 
in Germany, 746 : established monasteries at Fr'itxlur, 
Utrecht, Fulda, Amanaburg, and Ordorf or Ohrdruf ; 
slain with his followers by pagans at Dokkum on the 
Bordau. He left a set of ecclesiastical statutes, fifteen 
sermons, and other religious works. [v. 346] 

BONIFACE OP SAVOY (d. 1270), archbishop ; son of 
Thomas I, count of Savoy; entered Carthusian order; 
bishop of Belley, near Ohambery, 1234 : undertook ad- 
ministration of bishopric of Valence, 1241 ; related to 
Henry III by the marriage of his sister Beatrix's daughter 
Eleanor : elected archbishop of Canterbury, 1241 : came 
to England, 1244 ; reformed financial management of 
archbishopric : attended council of Lyons, 1244 ; returned 
to England, 1249 ; instituted visitation of province of 
Canterbury, which was strongly resisted; retired to 
Rome, 1250-2 ; made expedition to relieve his brother 
Thomas when imprisoned for tyranny by people of 
Turin, 1255 ; took part at first with bishops against king 
and pope, 1256, but joined papal legate in excommuni- 
cating rebellious barons (1263) at Boulogne ; returned to 
England, 1265 ; died at St. Helena, Savoy, while accom- 
panying Edward I on crusade. [v. 350] 

painter; studied water-colour painting under Louis 
Francia at Calais and at the Louvre and Institute, and 
under Baron Gros in Paris : first exhibited at Salon, 1822 ; 
made drawings for Baron Taylor's ' Voyages Pittoresques 
dans 1'ancienne France ' and other works ; began to paint 
in oil-colours, c. 1824 ; visited England (1825), where he 
first exhibited, 1826 ; painted, in England, ' Deux femmas 
au milieu d'un paysage' (engraved for the ' Anniversary,' 
1828) ; died during visit to England. [v. 352] 

BONNAR, GEORGE WILLIAM (1796-1836), wood- 
engraver : executed wood-engravings for Douce's edition 
of ' The Dance of Death,' 1833, and other works, [v. 354] 

BONNAR, WILLIAM (1800-1853), painter ; foreman 
of decorative business ; member of Royal Scottish Aca- 
demy soon after its foundation. His pictures include por- 
traits and historical, rural, and humorous pieces. 

[v. 354]